Nodular enlargement of the thyroid gland occurs in several conditions :
* Simple multinodular goitre * Toxic multinodular goitre (itself or as ultimate result of untreated simple multinodular goitre) * Solitary thryoid nodule
Solitrary thyroid nodule may be :
* Part of a multinodular goitre * Benign follicular adenoma * Solitary toxic adenoma * Papillary or follicular carcinoma * Simply a cyst * Iodine deficiency goitre
Thyroid gland can be enlarged in hyperthyroid, hypothyroid or euthyroid conditions. The hyper- or hypothyroidism can often be treated with medications, and sometimes radiotherapy.
Surgery is needed in case of :
* Cancer, as evidenced or made suspicious by female gender, age above 50, alteration of voice, hard nodule, hard lymph nodes, malignant cells found in cytological investigation (FNAC).
* Toxic goitre : protruding eyeballs, lid lag, lid retraction, conjunctival chemosis, tremor, warm moist hands, etc. These awkward symptoms must be gotten rid of.
* Compression of trachea or oesophagus by the enlarged thyroid, causing difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If left unoperated, the patient may suddenly be strangulated to death by her own thryoid gland.
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