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Guest Column - Dr. Mauro G. Di Pasquale Discusses Weight Loss

Posted Sep 30 2008 1:06am


Editors Note: these articles are written by Mauro G. Di Pasquale and represent his findings based on years of research. Always consult a physician before undertaking any strength training program or using any supplements.

Dr. Mauro G. Di Pasquale: Weight and Fat Loss - Effects of Calcium, Magnesium, Vitamin D
Reprinted with kind permission from Dr. Mauro G. Di Pasquale

Calcium, while generally considered a key element for maintaining bone density and strength, also has other health benefits including reducing blood pressure,[1] and more importantly for both men and women losing weight, the prevention of any adverse effects of dieting on bone mass and a preventative effect on osteoporosis.[2]

For example, calcium can also help lower your cholesterol.[3] In a recent study it was found that people with cholesterol levels in the high range of 240 to 260 reduced their total cholesterol by 6 percent when they took in an extra 1,800 milligrams of calcium a day. And the best part is that LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterolthe bad cholesterol that’s implicated in coronary artery disease, dropped by 11 percent. As well, calcium has recently been inversely associated with the incidence of colorectal adenomas.[4]

But there’s more. Calcium has also been shown to modulate the inflammatory response [5] and to increase weight loss. A recent study found that an increase in dietary calcium intake, together with a normal protein intake, increased fecal fat and energy excretion by about 350 calories per day.[6] This observation may help explain why a high-calcium diet produces weight loss, and it suggests that an interaction with dietary protein level may be important.

Several studies have shown that calcium plays a key role in body weight regulation and especially on fat metabolism (with possible effects on lipolysis, fat oxidation, lipogenesis, energy expenditure and appetite suppression) and thus is a useful supplement for those looking to decrease weight and body fat.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16]

For example, Zemel et al. (2002) ,looked at the effects of calcium supplements on obese adults who were dieting. They found that a high-calcium diet (1200-1300 mg/day) resulted in greater weight and fat loss in humans compared to a low-calcium diet (400-500 mg/day).

Another study published in November, 2004 found that a high intake of calcium may hinder weight and fat regain.[17] The study found that after putting mice on a low calorie diet and producing weight and body fat loss, that those on a low calcium diet regained their weight after 6 weeks. However, for those on a high calcium diet it was a different story. They found that the high calcium diets produced significant increases in lipolysis, decreases in fatty acid synthase expression and activity, and reduced fat regain. They also found that increasing calcium through the use of dairy products had significantly greater effects on fat regain.

The bottom line is that increasing calcium intake is a boon to those who want to not only lose weight, but to lose fat, improve body composition, and keep that fat and weight from coming back.

Magnesium, besides complementing the effects of calcium on obesity[18] and other functions, also has important effects on its own. Low levels of magnesium promote inflammation [19],[20] and impact on the body’s ability to handle stress.[21] These functions are useful in alleviating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing both insulin resistance and inappropriate cortisol secretion.

Vitamin D is important for augmenting calcium dynamics. However, it also has other important effects,[22] for example on insulin resistance,[23] inflammation[24],[25] and obesity[26][27] (for more on this see the full information piece on LipoFlush.

Although getting adequate amounts of vitamin D is crucial to health, vitamin D deficiency is relatively common.[28][29][30] As such, supplementing with vitamin D is important to realize all the benefits that it has to offer.

LipoFlush contains significant amounts of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, which also work synergistically with the over 50 other ingredients in LipoFlush with the end result being unprecedented weight and fat loss.


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2. Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM. A high dairy protein, high-calcium diet minimizes bone turnover in overweight adults during weight loss. J Nutr 2004, 134: 568-573.
3. Denke MA, Fox MM, Schulte MC. Short-term dietary calcium fortification increases fecal saturated fat content and reduces serum lipids in men. J Nutr 1993, 123: 1047-1053.
4. Hartman TJ, Albert PS, Snyder K, et al. The association of calcium and vitamin d with risk of colorectal adenomas. J Nutr. 2005 Feb,135(2):252-9.
5. Febbraio MA. Signaling pathways for IL-6 within skeletal muscle. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2003,9:34-9.
6. Jacobsen R, Lorenzen JK, Toubro S, Krog-Mikkelsen I, Astrup A. Effect of short-term high dietary calcium intake on 24-h energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and fecal fat excretion. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 Jan 18, [Epub ahead of print]
7. Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000, 85: 4635-4638.
8. Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J 2000, 14: 1132-1138.
9. Zemel MB. Effects of calcium-fortified breakfast cereal on adiposity in a transgenic mouse model of obesity. FASEB J 2001, 15: A598.
10. Shi H, Dirienzo D, Zemel MB. Effects of dietary calcium on adipocyte lipid metabolism and body weight regulation in energy-restricted aP2-agouti transgenic mice. FASEB J 2001, 15:291?293.
11. Zemel MB, Thompson W, Zemel P, Nocton AM, Morris K, Campbell P. Dietary calcium and dairy products accelerate weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2002, 75:342S
12. Heaney RP. Normalizing calcium intake: projected population effects for body weight. J Nutr 2003, 133: 268S-270S.
13. Melanson EL, Sharp TA, Schneider J, Donahoo WT, Grunwald GK, Hill JO. Relation between calcium intake and fat oxidation in adult humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003, 27:196-203
14. Papakonstantinou E, Flatt WP, Huth PJ, Harris RBS. High dietary calcium reduces body fat content, digestibility of fat, and serum vitamin D in rats. Obes Res 2003, 11: 387-394.
15. Shapses SA, Heshka S, Heymsfield SB. Effect of calcium supplementation on weight and fat loss in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb,89(2):632-7.
16. Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004 Apr,12(4):582-90.
17. Sun X, Zemel MB. Calcium and dairy products inhibit weight and fat regain during ad libitum consumption following energy restriction in Ap2-agouti transgenic mice. J Nutr. 2004 Nov,134(11):3054-60.
18. Lelovics Z. Relation between calcium and magnesium intake and obesity. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004,13(Suppl):S144.
19. Rayssiguier Y, Mazur A. R [Magnesium and inflammation:lessons from animal models.] Clin Calcium. 2005,15(2):245-248.
20. Maier JA, Malpuech-Brugere C, Zimowska W, Rayssiguier Y, Mazur A. Low magnesium promotes endothelial cell dysfunction: implications for atherosclerosis, inflammation and thrombosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 May 24,1689(1):13-21.
21. Consequences of magnesium deficiency on the enhancement of stress reactions, preventive and therapeutic implications (a review).
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22. Nagpal S, Na S, Rathnachalam R. Non-Calcemic Actions of Vitamin D Receptor Ligands. Endocr Rev. 2005 Mar 29,
23. Chiu KC, Chu A, Go VL, Saad MF. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and ? cell dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 2004,79:820?5.
24. Rutter MK, Meigs JB, Sullivan LM, D’Agostino RB Sr, Wilson PW. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation 2004,110:380?5.
25. Rutter MK, Meigs JB, Sullivan LM, D’Agostino RB Sr, Wilson PW. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation 2004,110:380?5.
26. Parikh SJ, Edelman M, Uwaifo GI, Freedman RJ, Semega-Janneh M, Reynolds J, Yanovski J 2004 The relationship between obesity and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1196?1199.
27. Arunabh S, Pollack S, Yeh J, Aloia JF 2003 Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:157?161.
28. Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med 2000,247:260?8.
29. Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med 1998,338:777?83
30. Weaver CM, Fleet JC. Vitamin D requirements: current and future. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec,80(6 Suppl):1735S-9S.

This entry was posted on Saturday, January 20th, 2007 at 11:41 am and is filed under Columns, Diet, Guest Columns/Sample Programs, Nutrition. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.
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