The Beginner’s Guide to Heart Rate Monitor Training
Posted Jun 19 2012 7:00am
by Jason Fitzgerald
Do you even know the best ways to use your fancy heart rate monitor?
Every runner knows how to turn it on and watch their heart rate climb during a workout. That’s easy!
But do you know how to use a heart rate monitor to get the most out of your workouts?
Look around at any road race and you’ll see runners outfitted with all the new gear: compression socks, technical shirts, iPods, Garmins, and yes – heart rate monitors (or HRM’s).
But unfortunately, most runners don’t know how to use them as effectively as possible. But fear not! This is your crash course on heart rate monitor training: how to use that weird chest strap to run better workouts, recover like a pro, and ensure you’re getting the most from your workouts.
It’s not rocket science but there are a few simple guidelines to follow.
Good question. And before I even start on their benefits, let’s admit the truth:
After a decade, I just started using one again and I don’t use it too often
They’re expensive, sometimes hard to use, and imperfect
You don’t need one
But despite all that, heart rate monitors are incredibly helpful for one major reason: they can ensure you recover properly.
Most runners overdo their easy runs (and fail to run hard enough on their fast workout days), undercutting their recovery and going into important workouts or races with too much fatigue in their legs.
The right heart rate monitor training can help you avoid this – enabling smarter training, better recovery, and ultimately faster racing. More importantly, since you won’t be pushing yourself too hard when you should be prioritizing recovery, you’re less likely to get an overuse injury from demanding too much of your body.
It’s win-win in my book! Now let’s look at the best workouts to use with your HRM.
Not every run lends itself to heart rate monitor training. It wouldn’t make sense to wear a HRM for a 5k specific track workout.
You have to choose your workouts wisely; fortunately, three types of workouts are perfect.
Tempo Runs. This is the obvious one – almost every runner does a tempo run with some regularity (or should!) and can easily incorporate a heart rate monitor. Tempo runs are done at about 85-90% of your maximum heart rate. After determining your max HR (more on that soon), so you can program your HRM to beep whenever your HR creeps over or under the range that corresponds to 85-90% of your max.
It doesn’t help you to run faster than your target heart range during a tempo so make sure you stay within your personal limits. When you run faster, you exceed your lactate threshold (nerd alert! This is the point at which your body goes from aerobic running to anaerobic running – or without oxygen) and the workout isn’t as effective. Don’t turn tempo runs into races.
So what’s your maximum heart rate? That’s a tough question and you’ll find a lot of answers if you search online. The traditional formula of “220 minus your age” is outdated and can often yield numbers that are far off from your actual max.
A better way to determine your max HR is to wear your heart rate monitor for a very hard workout and note the highest Beats Per Minute (BPM) that it records. Make sure that your workout is tough because you need to really challenge yourself to get an accurate maximumrecording.
Here’s a workout that will work:
Warm-up with 2-3 miles of easy running
Then run a 2-3 mile tempo run to pre-fatigue your body followed by 1-2 minutes of easy running
Next, run 4 x 90″ hills at 5k pace with a jog down recovery. Run the last hill rep the hardest you can.
Your heart rate monitor should record the highest BPM during your workout. That will be your maximum heart rate.
Heart Rate Recovery Workouts. A constant question among runners is, “how much time do I take as recovery in between intervals?” It’s a great question and it depends on when you are in the training cycle.
If you want to prioritize your performance on each interval and start each one fully rested, you can use heart rate to guide the recovery time. Here’s what to do:
Wear your heart rate monitor for the entire workout
When you finish an interval, keep jogging easy (or walk) until your heart rate reaches about 65-70% of your maximum HR
Start the next interval only when your heart rate has recovered to an easy effort level
This type of workout ensures you’re not starting the next interval too soon. Your heart rate won’t lie – it tells you exactly how hard your body is working to deliver oxygen to your muscles.
Need extra recovery from that last tough interval? Just glance at your heart rate and you’ll know when to start your next repetition.
Recovery Runs. Your shortest run per week – typically the day before or after your long run or a race – isn’t meant to gain fitness. Instead these strategic runs help you maintain your weekly mileage while being a form of active recovery. So running too fast is counter-productive but unfortunately, something almost all of us do.
Prioritizing recovery is one of the best forms of heart rate monitor training and especially useful for a recovery run. Put on the chest strap and program your HRM to beep if your heart rate exceeds 70-75% of your maximum. This simple strategy reigns in your enthusiasm when you might overdo your recovery runs.
Not only are you allowing your body (heart, muscles, connective tissue) to recover, but also your brain. Most of us only think about the physical side of recovery, but the brain needs time to rest as well. Easy runs keep your motivation high and your enthusiasm refreshed for training hard on the days that matter.
My Timex Ironman Road Trainer Package
Heart rate monitors can also be used to detect the early warning signs of over training and excessive fatigue. If you’re running too much, too soon, too fast then your body will start breaking down. At first you’ll feel fatigued from runs that should be easy.
Then it becomes impossible to hit your goal times during workouts.
Soon every run is a struggle and your heart rate soars to tempo effort for easy recovery runs.
You can catch this vicious pattern before it progresses. If you don’t, you may need 2+ weeks of complete rest to get back to normal. Use your heart rate monitor to monitor your heart rate as you sleep to see what your true resting heart rate is. By doing this 2-3 times per week (especially after hard workouts or a long run), your fatigue level becomes clear.
If your heart rate is high when you sleep, you know you need to take it easy the next day or dial down the intensity in your next workout.
You’re probably asking yourself “Has Jason completely lost it? I’m not wearing that thing to bed!“ Fair point!
But hear me out: you don’t have to do it all the time and it’s a great way to accurately measure your lowest possible heart rate. Ask your partner if he or she doesn’t mind – who knows, they may find it cute (or totally weird).
If that’s not your style, use a free app like Instant Heart Rate to measure your HR with your smart phone.
Heart rate monitors are a useful tool to help you design smarter training. But with any good tool – like a Garmin GPS watch or a pair of compression sleeves – there lies the potential for abuse.
Sleeping with your HRM is borderline crazy. While I recommended it as a way to detect over training, it’s also on the edge of the slippery slope between “normal runner” and “wacko gear junkie.”
It’s a fine line to straddle but pick your battles and don’t wear your heart rate monitor for every run or workout. Running by feel is an important skill and one that takes time away from your precious chest strap to develop.
Learn how your body feels at different speeds. Monitor the sound of your foot steps, the feeling of your legs impacting the ground, the sound of your breathing, and even your heart rate.
Do you notice a difference at marathon pace and half marathon pace? What about 5k pace?
Learn those nuances and you may never need a heart rate monitor.
But if you do, I recommend simple watches that don’t cost a fortune. You can get all the benefits of heart rate training with a simple watch like the Timex Ironman Road Trainer or the Timex 30 Lap Trainer. Both offer all the features you need.