Many specialized terms are associated with infertility, egg donation and surrogacy, and a lot of them are either long or abbreviated and often unpronounceable. It can make understanding the lingo another one of the challenges in a process that can be overwhelming for intended parents, potential surrogates and egg donors.
To provide a guide for your journey, we compiled a list of terms we hope you’ll find helpful.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM): An internationally recognized leader for multidisciplinary information, education, advocacy and standards in the field of reproductive medicine. Members must demonstrate the high ethical principles of the medical profession, evince an interest in infertility, reproductive medicine and biology, and adhere to the objectives of the Society.
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART): A general term referring to the methods used to help achieve pregnancy through artificial or semi-artificial means.
Bio-psycho-social evaluation: A structured interview designed to elicit information about the donor’s present medical condition, family history of medical problems, mental illness and/or substance abuse. The donor is encouraged to discuss her potential adjustment to the egg donation or surrogacy process in her general and psychological status.
Donor registry: A record of individuals who are registered either as a sperm or egg donor.
Egg donation: The act of donating eggs to someone else for use in attempting pregnancy through in vitro fertilization.
Egg donor: A woman who contracts to donate eggs to an infertile couple for in vitro fertilization.
Gestational surrogacy: When an embryo with no genetic ties to the women who is carrying the child is placed into her uterus by in vitro fertilization for purposes of another individual or couple parenting the resulting child.
Intended Parent(s): The individual or individuals who will parent the child born of assisted reproductive technology.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): One of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. Its objective is to assess the major personality characteristics that affect personal and social adjustments.
Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART): An organization of professionals who are dedicated to the practice of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the United States.
Traditional surrogacy: When the woman bearing the child for a set of Intended Parents is also providing the gamete for that child.
Medical Terms Corpus Luteum: The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in females because it secretes estrogens and progesterone, which thicken the lining of the uterus.
Embryologist: a person that studies the development of an embryo.
Embryo transfer: refers to a step in the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby one or several embryos are placed into the uterus of the female with the intent to establish a pregnancy.
Estrogen: Primary female sex hormone.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone): a hormone that initiates and regulates the growth and development of the follicle that holds the egg.
Gonadotropins: natural hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. The two principle Gonadotropins are LH and FSH.
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone: the pregnancy hormone. When used as an injection, this hormone helps complete the maturation process of the embryo by preventing the disintegration of the corpus luteum of the ovary.
Implantation: the embryo attaches itself to the wall of the uterus, occurs early on in the pregnancy.
In vitro fertilization: sperm outside the female womb fertilizes an egg.
LH (luteinizing hormone): a hormone that regulates the menstrual cycle and egg production.
LH surge: the surge of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), which causes the follicle that has been holding the egg and maturing it to burst open and release the egg into the fallopian tube, beginning ovulation.
Lupron: a hormone that dramatically lowers estrogen levels by lowering production of FSH and LH, used to treat medical conditions such endometriosis and fibroid tumors.
Oocyte (egg) retrieval: the retrieval of an egg from a woman’s body in order to conduct in vitro fertilization.
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS): a condition caused by complications from fertility medication. Most cases are mild but a few can become severe.
Ovarian stimulation: a regimen of fertility medications to stimulate development of multiple follicles and eggs to increase pregnancy rates.
Progesterone: a hormone produced in the ovaries, placenta (when pregnant) and the adrenal glands. Progesterone levels will rise during the second half of the menstrual cycle, following the release of the egg.
Reproductive endocrinologist or surgeon: physicians who specialize in reproductive medicine/surgical procedures.
Secondary infertility: a woman that experiences issues of infertility after successfully carrying to term one or more child.
Selective reduction: the process of removing a fetus or fetuses in a multifetal pregnancy.
Selected Relevant Illinois Statutes Illinois Family Building Act: For individuals protected under the act, this law requires insurance policies that cover more than 25 people and provide pregnancy-related benefits to cover costs of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. It defines infertility as the inability to get pregnant after one year of unprotected sex or the inability to carry a pregnancy to term.
Illinois Gestational Surrogacy Act: This law, which took effect January 1, 2005, allows qualified intended parents of a child to have complete custody of the child immediately after birth, without a court proceeding or donor/adoption proceedings like most surrogacy cases. If the act is followed, (including the requirement that one intended parent provides the gametes for the resulting child) the law recognizes the intended parents as the child’s legal parents and allows that the birth certificate can be issued recognizing parentage through administrative proceeding and not at court proceedings.
Robin von Halle is president of Alternative Reproductive Resources (ARR – www.arr1.com ); Maryellen McLaughlin is a partner. Both can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.