IVF CENTRE KOLKATA, INDIA GDIFR approach to infertility
Posted Apr 12 2013 6:29pm
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body i.e. in vitro. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves monitoring a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. The first successful birth of a "test tube baby", Louise Brown, occurred in 1978. Robert G. Edwards, the physiologist who developed the treatment, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010.
IN VITRO FERTILISATION (IVF)
IVF is the original test-tube baby technique and today the most widely practiced assisted conception procedure in the world. The aim of drug treatment in IVF unlike that of ovulation induction is to generate a large number of eggs, which are then removed from the ovary for fertilization in the laboratory. After a day or two, a small selection of the resulting embryos (upto three, but usually two) are transferred to the womb for implantation and pregnancy. Although IVF was developed to treat couples whose principal cause of infertility is tubal damage. The technique has also been found useful in those with endometriosis. Some sperm disorders (poor sperm counts or morphology) and even unexplained infertility studies indicate that the expectation of pregnancy from one cycle of treatment is around 25 percent and the chance of delivery slightly less. Chance of having a baby from IVF is about 40-50%. Most studies have shown that pregnancy rates are reduced in women after the age of 35 which is why infertility specialists encourage couples to act quickly when the female partner is already in her early thirties.
Steps in IVF:
Drug treatment to stimulate several eggs to mature.
GnRH agonists to suppress all other hormone activity (Injections / Nasal spray for usually) two week before gonadothophins and then further 10-14 days depending on response.
A new type of injection drug known as GnRH antagonist will reduce this treatment phase by more than a week.
Gonadotrophins to stimulate the growth of Follicles and causes ovulation.
Monitoring of treatment to measure the growth of Follicles individualize drug doses and prevent serious side effects.
By transvaginal ultrasound scanning (two or three times during a treatment cycle).
Sometimes by in measuring hormones in a blood sample.
Egg collection usually under local anaesthetic lasts between 10 and 20 minutes.
Guided by transvaginal ultrasound collected through the vagina (32-36 hours after final hormone injection).
Sperm sample, provided on the same day as egg collection.
Fertilisation : Egg and sperm prepared and cultured together overnight. Egg examined next day under microscope.
Embryo transfer (usually two or three days after fertilization). Transvaginal transfer of no more than three embryos (usually two).