Glenda Thorne, Ph.D. makes lots of recommendations for students in an online article that is excerpted here:
More Specific Strategies for Enhancing Memory and Reducing Memory Problems
All students need to understand how their memory works and identify their particular profiles of memory strengths and weaknesses (metamemory).
Information on any topic should be presented to students in a variety of formats including spatial, linguistic and sequential. For example, if students are presented with an outline, it may be given in the traditional sequential way as well as with using a strategy called "mind mapping". Mind mapping is a spatial/configurational format while the traditional way in which students are instructed is a linear/sequential format.
Students who have difficulty with short-term memory registration and/or working memory may need directions repeated to them. As they get older, they will need to write directions down to help them remember them.
When students have difficulty remembering what they have read, they should be taught to paraphrase (recode information) as they read and to take notes in the margins, underline, highlight and/or make notes on a Post-It. If they made notes on a Post-It, they can place the Post-It on paper and have a summary of what they have read.
Note taking is an activity that may help students register information in memory as well as to consolidate it. Note taking is a skill that should be taught to all students. Students with handwriting problems may have a difficult time with this task, however, and may need alternative strategies.
Students who have working memory problems may need to use a calculator to solve multiple step math problems. Also when completing a writing assignment, they should use a "staging" procedure that allows them to focus on one aspect of writing at a time. With this procedure, they would first generate ideas, then organize them, and finally attend to spelling and mechanical and grammatical rules. Students should also write the topic and any key ideas they have down and refer to these when writing their assignment.
It may be helpful for students to review material right before going to sleep at night. Research has shown that information studied this way is better remembered. Any task that is performed after reviewing and prior to sleeping interferes with consolidation of information in memory.
All students would benefit from self-testing. They should identify the important information, formulate test questions and then answer them. This is also a useful exercise to perform with a study buddy.
When students need to remember a series of steps or events, it may be helpful for them to draw diagrams or flow charts of the steps/events.
Paired associations as well as most other information is remembered better when it is rehearsed using multiple sensory modalities. For example, a student who is trying to remember basic math facts would walk a number line as they were saying the math facts.
Many students are very adept with computers and there are a number of software programs such as "Reading Blaster" and "Math Blaster" that can help a student retain basic skills.
Students who have difficulty accessing specific pieces of information should not be required to answer questions "on the spot" during class discussions. They should be given the question at an earlier time and forewarned about when they will be called on. These students should also be given extended time to take tests. They may perform better with open-ended questions and take home an open book test.
Students with memory problems may perform better when tested on relatively small amounts of material. They may also perform better when test questions require recognition memory rather than recall (e.g., multiple choice and/or matching). Projects are also a good way for some students to demonstrate their knowledge without such demands on memory.
In order to enhance the likelihood that all students will elaborate on new incoming information, teachers should activate their prior knowledge and make the new information meaningful to them.
In order to avoid interference of other tasks, tests should be given at the beginning of the class period.
Students should be taught the necessity of "overlearning" new information. Often they practice only until they are able to perform one error-free repetition of the material.
Students should be required to identify the particular memory strategies that they will use for specific situations. For example, they should be asked how they plan on remembering all of the states and their capitals in the United States.
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