This has been a hard kata to research! There has been little information recorded about it but this is what I have been able to find out:
The word Juroku literally means '16' or '16 hands' and refers to the 16 different steps in the kata. There is no other meaning to this kata. It is a relatively modern kata developed by Kenwa Mabuni (1889 - 1952) with some help from his good friend Myiagi Sensei (1888-1953) founder of Goju Ryu karate. Mabuni Sensei is the founder of Shito-ryu karate which is the parent of Shukokai karate.
The kata has some elements from the ancient kata Wankan (Matsumora version) also known as Matsukaze It also includes an interesting technique using a double blow with the palms of the hand which is possibly extracted from the kata Jitte.
In our system of shukokai karate (SSK) the juroku kata appears on the 3rd kyu syllabus.