We have developed a simple method for the detection of live spirochaete stages in blood of patients where chronic borreliosis is suspected. Classic techniques involving phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy are used. The method is also quite sensitive for detecting other bacteria, protists, fungi and other organisms present in blood samples. It is also useful for monitoring the effects of various antibiotics during treatment. We also present a simple hypothesis for explaining the confusion generated through the interpretation of possible stages of Borrelia seen in human blood. We hypothesize that these various stages in the blood stream are derived from secondarily infected tissues and biofilms in the body with low oxygen concentrations. Motile stages transform rapidly into cysts or sometimes penetrate other blood cells including red blood cells (RBCs). The latter are ideal hiding places for less motile stages that take advantage of the host’s RBCs blebbing-system. Less motile, morphologically different stages may be passively ejected in the blood plasma from the blebbing RBCs, more or less coated with the host’s membrane proteins which prevents detection by immunological methods.
It makes very interesting and exciting reading.
The many references just illustrate how many other researchers have gone before using similar techniques of finding Borrelia in patients. There are some useful links to some of their papers, reports and video's such as this from M.M. Laane
Just two extracts from this important paper.
'The many difficulties in diagnosing Borrelia structures in human RBC-samples raise some rather gloomy perspectives for the much used medical practice of blood transfusion. We therefore stress that it is urgent to seriously evaluate the substantial potential for acquiring chronic borreliosis after blood transfusions , , because the usual methods for detecting Borrelia in many cases appears inadequate.'
'We think it might be of value and assist in the difficult diagnostic work of the disease and help out patients that suffer from chronic health problems without having got a proper diagnosis. We urge that extensive research might be carried out regarding the ecology, life cycle and evolutionary adaptive strategies of this species.'