In the arena of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, Brazil has become a beacon of hope, particularly among developing countries. Countries around the globe are now looking towards their system of universal AIDS care for guidance.
In the early 90’s it was estimated that within a decade, the number of HIV+ people in Brazil would be near 1.2 million. Instead, recent estimates suggest that only half that amount (about 660,000 people) are infected. How have they been so successful in limiting the spread of this deadly disease? With a three pronged government program focusing on prevention, treatment, and reducing the stigma associated with AIDS patients.
The first aspect of Brazil’s plan hopes to prevent the spread of HIV, particularly among the highest risk groups. After a brief stint of abstinence education failed early in the epidemic, the government looked towards other alternatives. Surprisingly, even in a country that is dominated by the Catholic Church, promoting condoms has proven very effective. The government has plans to distribute millions of condoms through local clinics, particularly to those involved in the commercial sex industry. Condom distribution is intensified during Carnival, a lively celebration before Lent where “free condoms are passed out like candy.” They have even encouraged the adult films industry to incorporate condoms into their films, and have produced prime time TV ads promoting condom usage in homosexuals. Additionally, a government funded needle exchange program hopes to slow down the spread among IV drug users.
A particularly intriguing aspect of Brazil’s treatment program has been their ability to supply anti-retroviral drugs to any AIDS patient needing them. As of September 2005, over 170,000 patients who required treatment were receiving it for free from the government. On a recent visit, the head of Uganda’s Parliamentary Committee on HIV/AIDS affirmed that “being able to provide the same standards of care to all citizens irrespective of their status in society is something to emulate.” This program, which began in 1997 as the first of its kind in the developing world, has lead Brazil to seek cheaper prices in order to keep costs down. A government sponsored company produces generic forms for many of the most widely used drugs. They have even broke patents on some of the newer drugs as costs have continued to skyrocket. Under fear that the Brazilian government will bypass the patent system, many companies have opted to cooperate and lower their prices. Even still, treatment makes up about 80% of their AIDS budget.
Contrary to many aspects of the US AIDS program, the Brazilian government has worked to gain the support of many of the most at risk groups. In 2005, Brazil rejected over $40 million from the United States because they would have had to pledge that they oppose commercial sex work; having the support of the sex industry has been integral in their fight against AIDS. Additionally, focusing on treatment instead of solely on prevention has encouraged testing and reduced stigma for those suffering with AIDS.
The model system that Brazil has implemented is envied by many countries around the world. Even the United States could learn from Brazil’s focus on condom distribution and treatment, as well as their support for constructive dialogue about the disease.