The heart is the organ of the body that works harder. Throughout life, is responsible for pumping blood continuously filled with oxygen and vital nutrients through a network of blood to all organs and tissues of the body. It has its own blood, known as coronary arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle ( myocardium ). If blood flow to the myocardium is interrupted, an injury occurs known as heart attack, or in other words, a heart attack, known as a popular heart attack or heart attack.
Coronary artery disease
The most common cause of myocardial infarction due to coronary artery disease. To carry out the arduous task of pumping blood, the heart muscle needs a plentiful supply of oxygen-rich blood, which comes from the network of coronary arteries. Coronary artery disease is the end result of a complex process called atherosclerosis (commonly called hardening of the arteries). There are different stages in this process, and some are not fully known:
A number of environmental or physical factors are involved in triggering excessive amounts of unstable particles known as oxygen free radicals, which bind and alter other molecules in a process known as oxidation. (The particles are released as part of normal internal body processes, but certain environmental toxins, such as snuff, can produce excessive amounts).
When free radicals are released from the artery wall, react with low density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized. (Lipoproteins are spherical bodies that carry cholesterol and LDL are also known as bad cholesterol).
LDL cholesterol deposited thick layers of rust on the walls of the artery. Cholesterol accumulates. Cholesterol accumulates.
The lesions in the arteries during the process alert immune system to release white blood cells at that point (especially those called neutrophils and macrophages. This starts a process called harmful and significant inflammatory response.
Macrophages “eat” foreign bodies literally, in this case oxidized cholesterol, and become foam cells, which are attached to the muscle cells of artery walls, making them grow.
Over time the cholesterol hardens into plaque that accumulates on the walls of the arteries.
The immune system can detect other injuries, releases other factors called cytokines, which attract more white blood cells and perpetuate the whole cycle, causing persistent lesions in the arteries ..
The inner walls of affected vessels do not produce nitric oxide, a substance vital to maintain the elasticity of arteries.
Ultimately, these arteries calcified (hardened) and inelastic are narrower (a condition known as stenosis, seeabout Cipro without leaving home ). As this process continues, blood flow slows and prevents oxygen-rich blood reaches the heart.
This oxygen deprivation in vital cells is called ischemia. When it affects the coronary arteries, causes lesions in heart tissue.
The episode of myocardial infarction can occur as a result of one or two effects of atherosclerosis:
- If the artery is completely blocked and ischemia is so extensive that the heart tissue does not receive oxygen, the cells of the same die.
- If the same plaque develops fissures or tears. Platelets stick to that point to seal the plate and form a blood clot (thrombus). So a heart attack can occur if the formed blood clot completely obstructs the passage of oxygen-rich blood to the heart.