Typhoid fever is an infectious feverish disease, it is a bacterial infection usually caused by salmonella typhii though UK experts prefer the name Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhi, but the US call it Salmonella typhi.
Classic typhoid fever is a serious disease and could life-threatening, but antibiotics are effective treatment. Typhoid infection includes drowsiness, headache, fever (onset of fever is slow and rises in stepladder mode), and slow pulse as compared to the rise in temperature.
Untreated typhoid may also result in meningitis, an acute infection of the meninges of the brain. The symptoms presented in such complication are the characteristic combination of fever, headache and stiffness in neck.
Typhoid fever is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it’s therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread.
Causes Of Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria, which spreads through contaminated food, drink, or water. After the ingestion of contaminated food or drink, the Salmonella bacteria invade the small intestine and enter the bloodstream temporarily.
The bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. The bacteria then multiply in the cells of these organs and reenter the bloodstream. Patients develop symptoms, including fever, when the organism reenters the bloodstream. Bacteria invade the gallbladder, biliary system, and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel. Here, they multiply in high numbers.
The bacteria pass into the intestinal tract and can be identified for diagnosis in cultures from the stool tested in the laboratory. Stool cultures are sensitive in the early and late stages of the disease but often need to be supplemented with blood cultures to make the definite diagnosis.
Someone who has typhoid fever is most contagious during the first week of the illness. The patient should therefore be isolated during this time, if possible. As well as a person with the disease being infectious, typhoid can also be caught from a carrier. A carrier is someone who still has typhoid bacteria in their system after they have recovered from the disease.
Symptoms of typhoid fever
Generalized aches and pains,
Other symptoms may include:
Difficulty paying attention (attention deficit)
Slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling