Concentrates of fruit and vegetables taken as capsules may reduce levels of markers of inflammation, and potentially reduce the risk of chronic disease, suggests a new study. (Juice Plus + is a concentrate of nutrients from a variety of fruits and vegetables.)
A micronutrient-dense concentrate of a range of fruit and vegetables including cherry, apple, broccoli, cranberry, orange, pineapple, spinach, and tomato was found to reduce levels of various inflammatory biomarkers by between 16 and 35 per cent, according to findings published in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research.
Chronic inflammation, brought about by an over-expression or lack of control of the normal protective mechanism, has been linked to range of conditions linked to heart disease, osteoporosis, cognitive decline and Alzheimer's, type-2 diabetes, and arthritis.
“In this study, using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, of 117 healthy individuals, we showed that a fruit and vegetable concentrate resulted in an elevation in micronutrients (as measured by beta-carotene, vitamin C, and alpha-tocopherol) and reduced systemic inflammatory load,” wrote the researchers.
“Although the long-term implications of these findings are currently unknown, the close relationship between chronic inflammation and poor human health, suggests such a juice concentrate is a beneficial addition to the habitual diet in support of human health,” they added.
Researchers from the University of South Carolina recruited 117 people with an average age of 35 were randomly assigned to receive capsules containing placebo, or fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate with or without additional berry powders.
The researchers used the commercial products Juice Plus+ by NSA LLC, and the company also funded the study. The fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate contained acerola cherry, apple, beet, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, cranberry, kale, orange, peach, papaya, parsley, pineapple, spinach, and tomato, while the added berry powder included bilberry, blackberry, black currant, blueberry, cranberry, Concord grape, elderberry, raspberry and red currant.
After 60 days of consuming the fruit and vegetable capsules, the researchers report a reduction in levels of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) of about 35 per cent, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1-beta (MIP-1b) of about 16 per cent, and Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) levels of about 21 per cent, compared with placebo.
“These results are consistent with the hypothesis that these concentrates reduce inflammatory load in healthy people,” stated the researchers.
Source: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900579 “Systemic inflammatory load in humans is suppressed by consumption of two formulations of dried, encapsulated juice concentrate” Authors: Y. Jin, X. Cui, U.P. Singh, A.A. Chumanevich, B. Harmon, P. Cavicchia, A.B. Hofseth, V. Kotakadi, B. Stroud, S.R. Volate, T.G. Hurley, J.R. Hebert, L.J. Hofseth
The Health & Wellness Institute, PC Official Juice Plus+ Independent Distributor
Reference for this Study:
Systemic inflammatory load in humans is suppressed by consumption of two formulations of dried, encapsulated juice concentrate Yu Jin 1, Xiangli Cui 1, Udai P. Singh 2, Alexander A. Chumanevich 1, Brook Harmon 3, Philip Cavicchia 3, Anne B. Hofseth 1, Venkata Kotakadi 1, Brandy Stroud 1, Suresh R. Volate 1, Thomas G. Hurley 3, James R. Hebert 3, Lorne J. Hofseth 1 * 1Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA 2Department of Pathology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA 3Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
email: Lorne J. Hofseth ()
*Correspondence to Lorne J. Hofseth, Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, 715 Sumter Street, Room 513D, Columbia, SC 29205, USA Fax: +1-803-777-8356
Funded by: University of South Carolina Research Foundation Funding Food Science and Nutrition Research
Keywords Fruit • Human • Inflammation • Juice • Juice Plus
Chronic inflammation contributes to an increased risk for developing chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. A high inflammatory load is defined as elevated inflammation markers in blood or other tissues. We evaluated several markers of systemic inflammation from healthy adults and tested the hypothesis that two formulations of encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate with added berry powders (FVB) or without (FV) could impact markers of inflammatory load. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled approach, 117 subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo, FV, or FVB capsules. Blood was drawn at baseline and after 60 d of capsule consumption. We measured inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1-, and Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted), superoxide dismutase, and micronutrients (-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E). Results showed Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1-, and RANTES levels were significantly reduced and superoxide dismutase and micronutrient levels were significantly increased in subjects consuming both FV and FVB, relative to placebo. Data suggest a potential health benefit by consuming either formulation of the encapsulated juice concentrates through their anti-inflammatory properties.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Received: 30 November 2009; Revised: 2 February 2010; Accepted: 7 February 2010