Eating foods like broccoli and soy has been linked to lower cancer rates, and California researchers said on Sunday that they may have discovered the biological mechanism behind the
Using cells in a lab dish, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that diindolymethane (DIM), a compound resulting from digestion of cruciferous vegetables, and genistein, an isoflavone in soy, reduce the production of two proteins needed for breast and ovarian cancers to spread.
"We think these compounds might slow or prevent the metastasis of breast and ovarian cancer, which would greatly increase the effectiveness of current treatments," said Erin Hsu, a UCLA graduate student in molecular toxicology.
The UCLA team, which reported its finding at a meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, will next test the theory in mice.
The findings highlight "an entirely unique mechanism ... Preventing the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells is crucial," said Dr. Alan Kristal, associate head of the cancer prevention program at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.
Cancer cells express very high levels of a surface receptor known as CXCR4, while the organs to which the cancers spread secrete high levels of CXCL12, a ligand that binds to that particular receptor.
This attraction stimulates the invasive properties of cancer cells and acts like a homing device, drawing the cancer cells to organs like the liver or brain.
Watch the soy intake if you have had or are at high risk for breast cancer though. Soy works like a weak estrogen so many women who have had hormonally positive breast cancer have been advised to avoid it.