JAMA published a meta-analysis trying to answer this question. Although they include patients with acute and chronic knee pain, it's a good general review of the knee anatomy, historical clues, and exam elements.
In the ED, the knee exam is challenging because we see very acute injuries where knee pain and swelling often preclude an accurate exam. For patients with an equivocal exam, be sure to refer for orthopedic follow-up. A repeat exam should be performed once the pain and swelling subside.
This installment of the Paucis Verbis (In a Few Words) e-card series reviews the Knee Exam.
I used to be all confused and had a hard time memorizing all the different maneuvers (especially for the meniscus). It is much easier to remember after doing these knee exams routinely.
Particularly, the lateral pivot test and McMurray test can be done with several rounds of simultaneous knee flexion-extension, internal-external rotation, and valgus stressing. Looking at diagrams almost makes things more confusing.
Feel free to download this card and print on a 4'' x 6'' index card.