The Gamma Knife® (GK) is a machine designed to deliver radiationEnergy in the form of waves or particles, including radio waves, X-rays and gamma rays. in a very precise manner, to treat a patient with a single dose over the course of a day rather than in a number of doses over weeks. The early prototype was first used in the late 1960s but was later developed to a model more comparable to today’s machine in the mid-1980s. As such, it is not a new invention and treatments have now stood the test of time for over 25 years. As the first radiosurgical tool available, other machines delivering single dose radiotherapyThe treatment of disease using radiation. using linear accelerators (TrueBeam, CyberKnife®) take their data for the efficacy of radiosurgery from GK experience, which may, or may not be, a valid assumption given that there are differences in the homogeneity of the dose delivered by the various machines.
Although no knives are involved during treatment, GK was called a knife by its neurosurgeon inventor, Lars Leksell, to emphasise the precision with which it is able to deliver a dose of radiation to a small (or large) target in the brain. He wanted to establish the technique as an alternative to open surgery with its attendant risks, but at the same time, to maintain the management of the tumours and bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. vessel anomalies suitable for radiosurgery within the same practice of neurosurgeons who were used to dealing with these patients. This is primarily the reason that GK units are normally staffed by neurosurgeons, in collaboration with a team including physicists and oncologists, whereas CyberKnife® and TrueBeam machines (using equipment able to deliver radiotherapy to any location in the body) are normally part of radiotherapy departments with treatments being prescribed by clinical oncologists.
There are currently five GK units in England (none in the rest of the UK or Republic of Ireland), approximately 35 in the rest of Europe, and at least 115 in the USA. More than 500,000 patients have benefitted from the technology since it was introduced.
When does radiotherapy become radiosurgery? Conventional external beam radiotherapy of the type that is delivered to most patients with malignantDescribes a tumour resulting from uncontrolled cell division that can invade other tissues and may spread to distant parts of the body. tumours, is given in small doses (fractions) over weeks. This is partly because the accuracy of delivery is not sufficient to concentrate the radiation on the tumour being treated without significant dosage to the surrounding tissues. By giving small doses the normal surrounding tissue has a chance to recover from the exposure to the radiation but because cancers are usually more sensitive to the effects of the radiation they are preferentially damaged, and show a greater response to treatment. The dose to the surrounding tissues, however, is sometimes associated with side effects of treatment. These effects are dependent on the type of tissue being irradiated, for example, irradiation of the bowelA common name for the large and/or small intestines. may lead to diarrhoeaWhen bowel evacuation happens more often than usual, or where the faeces are abnormally liquid. or nausea, irradiation of bone marrowTissue within the bones where blood cells are formed. to may lead to anaemiaA reduced level of haemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood. Anaemia causes tiredness, breathlessness and abnormally pale skin. etc.
A different concept is to deliver a large dose of radiation to a tumour in a single dose as a daycase procedure (or up to 5 doses over a week – the maximum number of doses to qualify for the term radiosurgery). With more recent advances in standard radiotherapy for example intensity modulated radiotherapy or IMRT, there is a trend towards ‘hypofractionation’ (a reduction in the number of doses) but this does not equate to radiosurgery by today’s definition. By targeting a tumour in a very accurate way and delivering radiation with great precision it is possible to give a large dose, lethal to the tumour, with little risk to the surrounding normal tissues. With GK the treatment is normally given over the course of one day and most patients are able to return to work rapidly afterwards.
Gamma Knife® is a trade name for the radiosurgery machine developed by Elekta in Sweden, a company set up by Lars Leksell in 1972 to develop his invention. It is suitable for tumours in the brain but can also treat areas in the head and neck below the skull base with a system referred to as ‘Extend’.
As stated earlier, the GK was first developed as a way to treat lesions in the brain without the need for open surgery. This remains essentially true and most treatments are given to tumours or vascular malformations within the head. Generally tumours extending through the base of the skull and into the neck below the 2nd cervicalRelating either to the cervix (the neck of the womb) or to the cervical vertebrae in the neck (cervical spine). vertebra are too low for the GK to treat. There is an adaptation available to allow treatments lower in the neck but generally LINAC based machines such as CyberKnife® are used in these situations.
These are benignNot dangerous, usually applied to a tumour that is not malignant. tumours arising from the nervesBundles of fibres that carry information in the form of electrical impulses. of balance (vestibular nerves) running from the inner ear to the brainstemThe lowest part of the brain, connecting it with the spinal cord, and responsible for controlling automatic vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing and swallowing.. They are not ‘brain tumours’ as such and usually come to light as a result of hearing loss on the side of the tumour, with associated features of ‘noise’ in the ear (tinnitusA ringing, hissing, buzzing or other noise heard in the ear when there is no such noise in the environment.) and balance disturbance. They are usually slow growing and may be present for many years before diagnosisThe process of determining which condition a patient may have..
There has been a major change in surgical practice over the past 15 years. Previously, most acoustic neuromas were removed surgically soon after diagnosis, but as the natural history of these tumours has become more understood, in particular their normal slow growth rate, it has been increasingly common for them to be watched for a period before any treatment is given.
Treatment, when necessary, has also changed from surgery to GK radiosurgery with the majority of these tumours now being treated with radiosurgery. This change is due to the results of GK treatment having a very high chance of arresting tumour growth coupled with a very low risk of adverse events or damage to the patient. After traditional surgery, patients often need several months off work, have facial weakness, complete loss of hearing on the side of the operation and they run the risk of infectionInvasion by organisms that may be harmful, for example bacteria or parasites., bleeding, strokeAny sudden neurological problem caused by a bleed or a clot in a blood vessel., leakage of cerebro-spinal fluid and rarely, death. A significant number never return to work for a variety of reasons.
GK avoids many of these risks; it is a daycase treatment and requires little or no time off work. It does not, however, remove the tumour, there may be initial tumour swelling which can be mistaken for growth before shrinkage in a significant number of cases. In addition there is a small risk of transformation of a benign tumour into a cancerousMalignant, a tumour that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. tumour from the radiation exposure. This risk is difficult to quantify with current data, but is generally estimated to be between 1 in 1000 and 1 in 10,000 cases.
These are abnormal tangles of blood vessels that can occur anywhere in the body but cause particular problems when present in the brain. They are present from birth and may remain undiagnosed throughout life but have risks of bleeding and/or epilepsyA tendency to have recurrent seizures. from their presence in brain tissue. Sometimes they are found incidentally on scans of the brain performed for other unrelated problems such as ‘dizziness’ or headache.
Radiosurgery has revolutionized the treatment of AVMs, with very few now requiring surgery. The success rate of GK is high, with destruction of the malformation in the majority of suitable cases occurring within the first two years of treatment, although it may require 3–4 years to obliterate.
These are tumours arising from the meninges (covering membranes) of the brain. They are usually benign and slowly growing but are occasionally rapidly growing and malignant. They may come to light as a result of reaching a size that raises the pressure in the head (leading to headache, failing mental capacity, visualRelating to the sense of sight (vision). disturbance), or from local irritative effects (epilepsy), or from damage to delicate surrounding structures (nerve deafness, double vision, balance problems etc.). Many are now identified incidentally as a result of a scan for an unrelated problem.
There are some individuals, however, who are better treated with radiosurgery. These include patients unfit for surgery due to co-existing illness or medication that makes surgery high risk. In addition, if tumours are in a very difficult area to operate on, surrounded by delicate nerves or blood vessels, complete removal is often impossible without causing unacceptable neurologicalConcerned with the nervous system. problems. Furthermore, some tumours do recur after surgery, and if the recurrence is detected early while the tumour is still small, radiosurgery has a high chance of preventing additional growth.
A significant number of cancer patients will suffer spread to the brain (metastatic deposits). The traditional treatment for this is to offer whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) but increasingly, radiosurgery has been seen as an alternative for suitable individuals.
It has been estimated that perhaps 5% of individuals with cerebralRelating to the brain. secondaries would be suitable for radiosurgery but at present, the number offered this type of therapy in the UK is much lower. In the USA around 50% of the case load for a GK unit will be patients with cerebral secondaries, in the UK that number is closer to 15%. This difference in practice reflects the different views held by oncologists in Europe compared with the USA but also reflects funding difficulties for treatment within the NHS system, with many Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) refusing to fund this type of therapy despite the increasing evidence of efficacy in prolonging good quality of life for those treated.
GK is very unlikely to ‘cure’ any patient with cerebral secondaries but assuming that the cancer elsewhere in the body is reasonably under control and life expectancy is greater than six months, GK should be considered for patients with a relatively small volume of tumour metastatic to the brain (some PCTs stipulate that this must be under three deposits, but the total volume of tumour seems to be more important than the total number). For certain tumours such as breast cancer, results can be excellent in terms of prolongation of life, due partly to the newer chemotherapyThe use of chemical substances to treat disease, particularly cancer. agents which are able to control the cancer elsewhere in the body while GK controls the tumour in the brain. One advantage of GK over WBRT is that is can be repeated in the event of the development of new tumours over time.
This is a very severe facial pain thought to be caused by compression of the trigeminal nervenerve arising from the brainstem. (the nerve supplying feeling to the face) by an arteryA blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Apart from the pulmonary artery and umbilical artery, all arteries carry oxygenated blood. close to the brain stemThe region of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord.. Most patients with this problem find that their symptoms are controlled with medication, usually carbamazepineAn anti-convulsant and mood stabilising drug., but if side effects are too great or the medication is not tolerated for other reasons, surgical treatment can be offered. The most effective of these techniques is surgery to move the artery away from the nerve (microvascularRelating to small blood vessels. decompression, MVD) but a variety of other destructive treatments of the nerve exist; many of which involve an injection of the nerve ‘ganglion’, passing a needle through the cheek into an opening at the base of the skull where one of the main branches of the nerve exits. These treatments often leave the face numb as the price of pain relief but there is a high recurrence rate as the nerve later recovers.
GK is increasingly used to treat trigeminal neuralgiaA disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensation to the face. by targeting the trigeminal nerve and delivering a very high dose of radiation to it with great precision. It is the only radiosurgical treatment to have been assessed by the National Institute for Clinical Effectiveness (NICE) who recommended it for certain patients with neuralgia. The results are not as good as MVD but again the advantages of GK are that it can be used for patients unfit for surgery, is daycase and low risk. The effects of treatment take a few weeks to become apparent, usually with a gradual reduction of pain. The majority of patients will experience significant pain relief initially but there is a disappointing recurrence rate and after five years, perhaps only 50% of those treated still have good pain relief.
In the event of pain recurrence after an initial good result, retreatment with GK is possible, with a good chance of further pain relief but there is a greater risk of facial numbness as a result of a second dose of radiation to the nerve.
The primary treatment for most pituitaryA gland deep in the brain that produces several hormones controlling the production of other hormones throughout the body tumours remains surgery, but the adjuvant radiotherapy treatments that have traditionally been used for controlling tumour recurrence after surgery are now being challenged by radiosurgery. In some circumstances, radiosurgery may be considered as the first line treatment, mainly in patients unfit for surgery. Good reduction of abnormally high hormoneA substance produced by a gland in one part of the body and carried by the blood to the organs or tissues where it has an effect. levels (acromegalyA condition in which excess production of growth hormone from the pituitary gland in the brain after puberty causes excess growth, especially enlargement of the bones of the hands, feet and jaw/Cushing’s diseaseA hormonal disorder caused by abnormally high levels of corticosteroid hormones in the blood.) is usually seen after radiosurgery, but this commonly requires many months to become apparent and the effects of good surgery are better and quicker in this respect.
There are a hostAn animal or plant that supports a parasite. of less common skull base tumours which may be suitable for radiosurgery, including chordoma, chondrosarcoma and chemodectoma but these are complex decisions requiring input from a skull base surgery team in addition to GK clinicians.
A relatively brief review of indications cannot possibly be comprehensive. There are many rare tumours, unusual vascular lesions, and ‘functional’ problems such as epilepsy that may be suitable for GK. Where appropriate, a referral to the unit will be discussed in a multi-disciplinary team meeting. Self-referral is discouraged, however, as we prefer to treat in partnership with the doctors primarily involved in a patient’s care. Additionally a full medical history and copies of scans are necessary for the team to be able to make a rational decision about the role of GK, and these are best supplied by the referring clinicians.
Further information about The London Gamma Knife Centre at Barts can be found at the following website: www.thelondongammaknifecentre.com.