Cricothyroid muscle (innervated by superior laryngeal nerve)
--> Ophthalmologic signs of hyperthyroidism:Exophthalmos , Lid lag , Lid retraction , Periorbital swelling
--> Treatment of thyroid storm: IV fluids , Hypothermia , Acetaminophen , Propranolol , Propylthiouracil, Iodine
--> Why is the pulse pressure wide in patients with thyrotoxicosis ? Due to increased blood flow and vasodilatation.
--> What voice problem will a patient have if there is injury to external branch of superior laryngeal nerve ? Loss of high-pitched tone (cricothyroid makes the vocal cords tense so increases the pitch of voice tone.
Q. What are the types of simple goiter ?
Ans. Nodular and Diffuse
Q. What are the types of toxic goiter ?
Ans. Diffuse (primary) , Nodular (secondary) , Toxic nodule
Q. What are the types of malignant goiter ?
Ans. Follicular , medullary , papillary , anaplastic
Q. What will be the result of thyroid hormones level in Simple nodular goiter?
Q. Why are anti-thyroid drugs contraindicated in retrosternal goiter?
Ans. Because antithyroid drugs cause enlargement of the thyroid gland that may cause pressure manifestationsQ. Why is retrosternal goiter common in males ? Ans. Due to strong strap muscles and short neck than females.
Surgery notes , to be always remembered