The cause of the debilitating gynaecological condition endometriosisA condition in which tissue that normally lines the uterus (womb) of a woman is found outside the uterus or in other parts of the body. in not known but new research carried out in the USA has discovered a link between the condition and two so-called organochlorine pesticides. The use of organic chlorinated compounds as pesticides, including DDT, has been banned for many years due to concerns about their effects on the environment and human and animal health.
Endometriosis affects up to 10 per cent of women of reproductive-age. It occurs when the tissueA group of cells with a similar structure and a specialised function. that lines the inside of the uterusThe womb, where embryo implantation occurs and the growing foetus is nourished. or wombThe uterus. grows in other areas of the body, usually in the pelvicRelating to the pelvis. region, and attaches to other structures or organs. The condition most often affects the ovariesFemale reproductive organs situated one on either side of the uterus (womb). They produce egg cells (ova) and hormones in a monthly cycle., fallopian tubesTwo tubes that transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus. and lining of the pelvic cavity and causes inflammationThe body’s response to injury., scarring and adhesionsAn abnormal connection between two surfaces of the body.. The most common symptoms include chronicA disease of long duration generally involving slow changes. pelvic pain, painful menstrual periods and infertility.
The study was carried out by scientists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre in Seattle and the University of Washington. It involved 248 women newly diagnosed with endometriosis and, for comparison, 538 women without the disease who acted as the control group. In bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. samples of both groups, elevated levels of the two pesticides, mirex and beta HCH, were found to correlate with an increased risk of endometriosis .
The principal investigator of the study was Dr Victoria Holt, a joint member of the Epidemiology Research Unit in the Public Health Sciences Division at Fred Hutchinson and Professor of Epidemiology at the University Of Washington School of Public Health.The principal investigator of the study was Victoria Holt, Ph.D., a joint member of the Epidemiology Research Unit in the Public Health Sciences Division at Fred Hutch and professor of epidemiology at the University of Washington School of Public Health.
"For many women, the symptoms of endometriosis can be chronic and debilitating, negatively affecting health-related quality of life, personal relationships and work productivity,” she said.
"Since endometriosis is an oestrogenA hormone involved in female sexual development, produced by the ovaries.-driven condition, we were interested in investigating the role of environmental chemicals that have oestrogenic properties, such as organochlorine pesticides, on the risk of the disease.”
"This research is important, as endometriosis is a serious condition that can adversely affect the quality of a woman's life, yet we still do not have a clear understanding of why endometriosis develops in some women but not in others," Holt said. "Our study provides another piece of the puzzle."
"We found it interesting that despite organochlorine pesticides being restricted in use or banned in the U.S. for the past several decades, these chemicals were detectable in the blood samples of women in our study and were associated with increased endometriosis risk," Dr Upson said. "The take-home message from our study is that persistent environmental chemicals, even those used in the past, may affect the health of the current generation of reproductive-age women with regard to a hormonally driven disease."
Previous studies have suggested that organochlorine pesticides may act as hormoneA substance produced by a gland in one part of the body and carried by the blood to the organs or tissues where it has an effect. disruptors, altering the function of the uterus and ovariestwo small organs that are part of the female reproductive system where eggs mature, as well as hormone production.
The findings of this new study are published online ahead of the print issue of Environmental Health Perspectives, a journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health in the USA.