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Avian Influenza --- Aarkstore Enterprise

Posted Nov 17 2010 11:21am

The purpose of this publications report is to describe the threatening world pandemic caused by avian influenza, also known as bird flu. This report discusses the origins of the disease, the bird-to-human infection risks, the catastrophic health crisis avian flu poses, and the efforts by world governments and international health organizations to mitigate of the impact the threat to humans.

The U.S., Asia and Europe are the focus of this study. Primary attention is paid to the clinical market segment and, separately, to the medical procedures and supplies for the influenza infection control market. An analysis of the technology trends and developing areas of influenza infection science is provided, along with a review of the market for pharmaceutical agents, vaccines and hospital supplies in clinical use. Activity in research-including the factors that influence infection control-are addressed in this review. Also discussed are changes that have stimulated this disease and patterns of information processing in assessing its spread. Several subjects related to the major elements of influenza treatment such as disposable plastic supplies, needles and lancets are discussed only briefly because they are considered entirely different fields or markets.

The goal of this report is to review the potential threat of a human influenza pandemic resulting from the avian flu virus. It defines the responses that are now being undertaken worldwide by governmental authorities to contain the spreading bird flu. Specifically, this study contains:

• A comprehensive overview of the several categories of anti-influenza technology platforms that are or will be revolutionizing flu related healthcare in hospitals.
• Full descriptions of the public health measures involved in controlling the spread of avian influenza and the prevention of cross infection to humans.
• Analysis of the technological approaches undertaken by various world governments, as well as industry and end-user response to these ideas.
• Regulatory issues and legislation affecting use and marketing of influenza prevention and treatment products.
• Forecasts for each category of infection control.


Table of Contents :

1. Overview 5

1.1 Statement of Report 5

1.2 Scope of Report 5

1.3 Objectives 5

1.4 Methodology 6

1.5 Executive Summary 6



2. The Basics of Human Influenza 9

2.1 Influenza, the Disease 9

2.1.1 Symptoms 9

2.1.2 Transmission 9

2.1.3 Public Health Factors 10

2.1.4 Influenza Diagnosis 10

2.2 Influenza Viruses 11

2.2.1 Types, Subtypes and Strains 11

2.2.1.1 Influenza Type A and its Subtypes 12

2.2.1.2 Highly Pathogenic versus Lowly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Viruses 13

2.2.1.3 Human Influenza Viruses and Avian Influenza A Viruses 13

2.2.1.3.1 Influenza A H5 13

2.2.1.3.2 Influenza A H7 13

2.2.1.3.3 Influenza A H9 13

2.2.1.4 Influenza Type B 14

2.2.1.5 Influenza Type C 14

2.2.2 How Influenza Viruses Change: Drift and Shift 14

2.2.3 Seasons and Human Influenza 15

2.2.4 Risk Factors and Human Influenza 16

2.2.5 Human Influenza Complications, Comorbidities and Dangers 16

2.2.5.1 Flu complications in children and teenagers 17

2.2.6 Human Influenza Prognosis 17

2.3 Pandemic Influenza 18

2.4 How Influenza Viruses Change 18



3. The Basics of Avian Influenza 19

3.1 Avian Influenza in Birds 19

3.1.1 Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Poultry 20

3.1.2 More Information About Avian Influenza Viruses 21

3.2 Transmission of Influenza A Viruses between Animals and People 21

3.3 Avian Influenza Infection in Humans 22

3.3.1 Instances of Avian Influenza Infection in Humans 22

3.3.2 Symptoms of Avian Influenza in Humans 23

3.3.3 Antiviral Agents for Influenza 23

3.4 Avian Influenza (H5N1) 23

3.4.1 Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks 23

3.5 All Types of Avian Influenza Worldwide Outside of Asia 25

3.5.1 Canada 25

3.5.2 Netherlands 26

3.5.3 United States 26

3.5.3.1 Delaware 26

3.5.3.2 Texas 26

3.5.3.3 Maryland 26

3.5.3.4 International Response 27

3.5.3.5 Available Options 27



4. Epidemiology of Avian Influenza 28

4.1 Worldwide Avian Influenza 29

4.2 H5N1 Avian Influenza: Timeline 32

4.3 U.S. Avian Influenza 37



5. Influenza Diagnosis and Laboratory Issues 38

5.1 "Classic" Methods for Influenza Diagnosis 38

5.2 Example Lab: Yale New Haven Hospital (YNHH) 40

5.3 Conventional PCR Assay for Sub-typing Influenza Virus 41

5.3.1 Gel Analysis 41

5.4 Real Time TaqMan PCR 43

5.4.1 From PacMan to TaqMan-A Computer Game Revisited 43

5.4.2 The Advantages of Real-Time TaqMan PCR Over Conventional Quantitative PCR 45

5.5 Example Strategy for Avian Influenza 46

5.6 Laboratory Safety Issues for H5N1 Viruses 46

5.6.1 Biosafety Level 3 46

5.6.2 Biosafety Level 3-Ag 51

5.6.3 CDC Criteria for Testing 52

5.6.4 What Samples Are Needed? 52



6. Preparedness 53

6.1 Education 53

6.2 Ethical and Legal Issues 53

6.3 Worldwide 55

6.3.1 Overarching Goals, Objectives and Actions for WHO and National Authorities, by Phase 56

6.3.1.1 Interpandemic Period, Phase 1-Overarching Goal 56

6.3.1.2 Interpandemic Period, Phase 2-Overarching Goal 58

6.3.1.3 Pandemic Alert Period, Phase 3-Overarching Goal 61

6.3.1.4 Pandemic Alert Period, Phase 4-Overarching Goal 64

6.3.1.5 Pandemic Alert Period, Phase 5-Overarching Goal 67

6.3.1.6 Pandemic Period, Phase 6-Overarching Goal 70

6.3.2 Recommendations for Non-Pharmaceutical Public Health Interventions 75

6.4 U.S. 78

6.4.1 U.S. National Plan 78

6.4.2 U.S. Locally 87

6.4.2.1 Community Preparedness Leadership and Networking 87

For more information, please visit : http://www.aarkstore.com/reports/Avian-Influenza-1175.html

Contact :Sanaa

Aarkstore Enterprise

Tel : +912227453309

Mobile No: +919272852585

Email : contact@aarkstore.com

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