Vaccines Comprising Sand Fly Salivary Proteins for Control of Leishmania Infection
Posted May 25 2010 5:00pm
Description of Invention: This invention relates to the use of several peptides from the salivary glands of various sand fly species for the control of leishmania infection. Many of these peptides were shown to be effective in eliciting potent immune responses in animal models and are excellent candidates for the development of vaccines against the disease. A vaccine comprising one of the peptides was used to protect mice challenged with parasites and salivary gland homogenates. A DNA vaccine containing the cDNA for this same peptide also provided protection that lasted at least 3 months after immunization and produced both intense humoral and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Other experiments have shown that B cell-deficient mice immunized with the plasmid vaccine also successfully controlled leishmania infection. Current in-vivo studies continue to explore the use of these sand fly salivary peptides for use as animal vaccines.
Leishmania parasites are transmitted to their vertebrate hosts by infected sand fly bites. Sand fly saliva helps to enhance infection but immunity to the saliva protects against the infection, allowing the possibility of vaccine development. A number of major salivary proteins from sand fly species such as Lutzomyia longipalpis, Phlebotomus ariasi, and Phlebotomus perniciosus are claimed in the invention.
Leishmania infection affects as many as 12 million people worldwide, with 1.5-2 million new cases each year. Control of this disease will be a major milestone for public health efforts in endemic areas of the world. The current invention provides a potential means to achieve widespread vaccination that may lead to significantly control of the disease in areas such as South America, South Asia, and the Mediterranean where it is still a significant health problem. An effective veterinary vaccine will be of benefit to veterinary medicine and may pave the way for human vaccines against Leishmaniasis. The vaccination of animals may also have a positive impact on the epidemiology of the disease by reducing the number of animal reservoirs and the possibility of human infection.
Valenzuela JG, Garfield M, Rowton ED, Pham VM. Identification of the most abundant secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of Leishmania chagasi. J Exp Biol. 2004 Oct;207(Pt 21):3717-3729. [ PubMed: 15371479 ]
Valenzuela JG, Belkaid Y, Garfield MK, Mendez S, Kamhawi S, Rowton ED, Sacks DL, Ribeiro JM. Toward a defined anti-Leishmania vaccine targeting vector antigens: Characterization of a protective salivary protein. J Exp Med. 2001 Aug 6;194(3):331-342. [ PubMed: 11489952 ]
Belkaid Y, Valenzuela JG, Kamhawi S, Rowton E, Sacks DL, Ribeiro JM. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly bite: An adaptive response induced by the fly? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 6;97(12):6704-6709. [ PubMed: 10841567 ]
Licensing Status: Available for licensing.
Collaborative Research Opportunity: The NIAID OTD is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize "Vaccines Comprising Sand Fly Salivary Proteins for Control of Leishmania Infection." Please contact Dana Hsu at 301-451-3521 for more information.
For Additional Information Please Contact: John Stansberry Ph.D. NIH Office of Technology Transfer 6011 Executive Blvd. Suite 325, Rockville, MD 20852 United States Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 301-435-5236 Fax: 301-402-0220