Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves scarring or thickening of tissues deep in the lung without a known cause.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a disease of the lower respiratory tract that damages the air sacs (alveoli) and leads to reduced transfer of oxygen to the blood. It causes widespread scarring of the lung.
The condition is believed to result from an inflammatory response to an unknown agent -- "idiopathic" means no cause can be found. The disease occurs most often in people between 50 and 70 years old.
Shortness of breath on exertion that lasts for months or years and eventually is present at rest
Decreased tolerance for activity
Cough (usually dry)
Chest pain (occasionally)
Chronic hypoxemia (low blood oxygen level)
Cor pulmonale (failure of the right side of the heart)
Polycythemia (abnormally high levels of red blood cells
Role of Noni
Noni has been reported to have a broad range of health benefits for various diseases and complains.
Major components – Noni contains all the vitamins like Vitamin A , Vitamin B complex, vitamin C, Vitamin E. It contains aall the trace minerals. A number of major components have been identified in the Noni plant such as scopoletin, octoanoic acid, potassium, vitamin C, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones (such as nordamnacanthal, morindone, rubiadin, and rubiadin-1-methyl ether, anthraquinone glycoside), sitosterol, carotene, vitamin A, flavone glycosides, linoleic acid, Alizarin, amino acids, acubin, L-asperuloside, caproic acid, caprylic acid, ursolic acid, rutin, and a putative proxeronine.
Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and its role in inflammation –
Pain, redness, heat, and swelling, which are the markers of inflammation, follow the release of prostaglandins. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) reduce prostaglandins by blocking an enzyme which helps to produce them, called cyclooxygenase (COX). There are actually two COX enzymes in the body. They are COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is called the good COX enzyme, while COX-2 has earned the unflattering name as the bad enzyme. COX1 is easily identifiable and is important in regulating cell function. COX2, on the other hand, is generally undetectable in most tissues, but increases to high levels during acute inflammation.
The COX2 enzyme is largely responsible for causing pain and inflammation. Injury, disease, and trauma cause COX2 enzyme to produce prostaglandins, which cause pain and inflammation. In contrast to the COX-2 enzyme, COX-1 enzyme is responsible for protecting the body’s stomach lining and kidneys. COX-2 is the key player in inflammation and pain. NSAIDs decrease the body’s production of both enzymes, thereby decreasing inflammation while at the same time causing harm to the stomach and its lining. The ideal situation would be to find a substance that inhibited only COX-2, but did not significantly affect COX-1.
Noni in pain and inflammatory condition
Noni is a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Researchers at an independent research facility found that Noni was a selective inhibitor of COX-2 enzyme. In addition, the Noni did no damage to the COX1 enzyme.
Role of Scopoletin present in Noni in arthritis and inflammation
Another reason for Noni’s pain fighting qualities may stem from several of its constituents. Noni has been shown to contain Scopoletin, which has anti inflammatory effects. Scopoletin is needed in the body for smooth joint movement. It also produces anti-histamine effects.
Antioxidant property of Noni –
Free radicals may play a role of damaging the lungs tissues. Noni acts as a top antioxidant as it contain all the anti oxidant vitamins, all trcae minerals, and besides that contain 150 above phytochemicals that acts powerful antioxidants.
Endogenous antioxidants and role of Noni - Our body has evolved with endogenous defense mechanisms to protect against free radical induced cell damage. Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and Superoxide dismutases are three primary antioxidant enzymes in our body, which involved in direct elimination of free radicals or reactive oxygen species from our body. They require micronutrient such as selenium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese as cofactors for their formation and optimum catalytic and effective antioxidant activity. Noni contain all the trace minerals that help for optimum catalytic activity of those three important antioxidant enzymes for an effective antioxidant defense mechanism.
Glutathione, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, bilirubin, selenium, dihydrolipoic acid, reduced CoQ10, melatonin, uric acid etc., as a whole play a homoeostatic or protective role against ROS produced during normal cellular metabolism and after active oxidation insult. Noni contains all the above phyto chemicals and vitamins in abundant quantity. Glutathione (GSH) is the most significant component which directly quenches Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as lipid peroxides and plays major role in xenobiotic metabolism. Glutathione is a tripeptide made up of the amino acids gamma-glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. Noni contain all those glutathione making amino acids in abundant number. Thus Noni increases the body’s glutathione level. Noni stimulates more melatonin secretion from the pineal body. It also maintains ascorbate (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), in their reduced form, which also exert an antioxidant effect by quenching free radicals.
Exogenous antioxidants: Contribution from Noni
A number of other dietary antioxidants known as phytonutrients or phytochemicals that are being increasingly appreciated for their antioxidant activity. One example is flavonoids which are a group of polyphenolic compounds. They are responsible for the different brilliant colors such as blue, scarlet, and orange. Noni contain 150 above phytochemicals including all flavonoids. Flavonoids exhibit several biological effects such as antitumor, anti-ischaemic, anti-allergic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, and anti inflammatory activities. These are also known to inhibit the activities of several bad enzymes like lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, monooxygenase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, mitochondrial succino-oxidase, and protein kinases. Many of the biological activities of flavonoids are attributed to their antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging capabilities. Noni is rich with many flavonoids.