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Pre operative angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy increases mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting

Posted Mar 11 2010 12:00am

Dr. Savino calls our attention to this article by Miceli et al: This study evaluates the effect of pre-operative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy on early clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).  Therapy with ACEIs has been shown to reduce the rate of mortality and prevent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. However, their pre-operative use in patients undergoing CABG is still controversial.  A retrospective, observational, cohort study was undertaken of prospectively collected data on 10,023 consecutive patients undergoing isolated CABG between April 1996 and May 2008. Of these, 3,052 patients receiving pre-operative ACEI were matched to a control group by propensity score analysis.  Results:  The overall rate of mortality was 1%. Pre-operative ACEI therapy was associated with a doubling in the risk of death (1.3% vs. 0.7%; odds ratio [OR]: 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 3.42; p = 0.013). There was also a significant difference between the ACEI and control group in the risk of post-operative renal dysfunction (PRD) (7.1% vs. 5.4%; OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.67; p = 0.006), atrial fibrillation (AF) (25% vs. 20%; OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.51; p < 0.0001), and increased use of inotropic support (45.9% vs. 41.1%; OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.36; p < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, pre-operative ACEI treatment was an independent predictor of mortality (p = 0.04), PRD (p = 0.0002), use of inotropic drugs (p < 0.0001), and AF (p < 0.0001).  Conclusions: Pre-operative therapy with ACEI is associated with an increased risk of mortality, use of inotropic support, PRD, and new onset of post-operative AF. (Miceli A et al:  Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy on clinical outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:1778-84)

David S. Smith, M.D., Ph.D.

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