Paraneoplastic Syndromes could be caused by rheumatologic and scleroderma
Posted Nov 16 2010 10:01pm
Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to a neoplasm. They are defined as clinical syndromes involving nonmetastatic systemic effects that accompany malignant disease.
In a broad sense, these syndromes are collections of symptoms that result from substances produced by the tumor, and they occur remotely from the tumor itself. The symptoms may be endocrine, neuromuscular or musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, cutaneous, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, or miscellaneous in nature.
Paraneoplastic syndromes most commonly occur in patients not known to have cancer, as well as in those with active cancer and those in remission after treatment. A complete history and physical examination findings can suggest neoplasia. Persons with a family history of malignancies (eg, breast, colon) may be at increased risk and should be screened for cancer. Nonspecific syndromes can precede the clinical manifestations of the tumor, and this occurrence is a negative prognostic factor.
Because of their complexity and variety, the clinical presentations of these syndromes may vary greatly. Usually, paraneoplastic syndromes are divided into the following categories: (1) miscellaneous (nonspecific), (2) rheumatologic, (3) renal, (4) gastrointestinal, (5) hematologic, (6) cutaneous, (7) endocrine, and (8) neuromuscular.
Paraneoplastic arthropathies arise as rheumatic polyarthritis10 or polymyalgia, particularly in patients with myelomas; lymphomas; acute leukemia; malignant histiocytosis; and tumors of the colon, pancreas, prostate, and CNS.
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy may be observed in patients with lung cancers, pleural mesothelioma, or phrenic neurilemmoma.
Scleroderma may precede direct evidence of tumor
The widespread form is typical of malignancies of the breast, uterus, and lung (both alveolar and bronchial forms).
The localized form is characteristic of carcinoids and of lung tumors (bronchoalveolar forms).
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may develop in patients with lymphomas or cancers of the lung, breast, or gonads.
Secondary amyloidosis of the connective tissues is a rare presentation in patients with myeloma, renal carcinoma, and lymphomas.