A balance between the levels of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters is necessary for optimal health. When the critical balance between the excitatory and inhibitory systems is lost, it creates a situation that increases the likelihood of a neurotransmitter-related condition developing.
Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels lead to imbalances in neurotransmitter concentrations and raised hormone (cortisol) levels.
Changes in mood and mental health are frequently associated with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines that trigger imbalances in certain neurotransmitters.
In particular1. Serotonin levels are decreased and 2. Norepinephrine levels are increased
The cytokine-induced neurotransmitter imbalance is observed when people are sad, lethargic, and unable to focus during an acute viral or bacterial infection, when the immune system is activated.
Historically, neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones were considered signal messengers of the Nervous, Endocrine, and Immune systems, respectively.
However, recent evidence shows that those systems are actually part of a single and integrated Neuro-Endocrine-Immune (NEI) Connection.
Autoimmune Disorders is a frequent cause of increased inflamatory Cytokines.
What are autoimmune disorders?
Autoimmune disorders are diseases caused by the body producing an inappropriate immune response against its own tissues. Sometimes the immune system will cease to recognize one or more of the body’s normal constituents as “self” and will create autoantibodies – antibodies that attack its own cells, tissues, and/or organs. This causes inflammation and damage and it leads to autoimmune disorders.
The cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown, but it appears that there is an inherited predisposition to develop autoimmune disease in many cases. In a few types of autoimmune disease (such as rheumatic fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.
Autoimmune disorders fall into two general types: those that damage many organs (systemic autoimmune diseases) and those where only a single organ or tissue is directly damaged by the autoimmune process (localized). However, the distinctions become blurred as the effect of localized autoimmune disorders frequently extends beyond the targeted tissues, indirectly affecting other body organs and systems.
Some of the most common types of autoimmune disorders include Systemic Autoimmune Diseases
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (pancreas islets) Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease (thyroid) Celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis (GI tract) Multiple sclerosis (There is still some debate as to whether MS is an autoimmune disease.) Addison's disease (adrenal) Primary biliary cirrhosis, Sclerosing cholangitis, Autoimmune hepatitis (liver) Temporal Arteritis / Giant Cell Arteritis (arteries of the head and neck)