Living in the countryside 'may increase the risk of Parkinson's disease' by up to 80%
This is just correlational rubbish. Country people tend to have lower IQs and low IQ is associated with worse health. Pesticides need have nothing to do with it
A country life may sound idyllic, but experts have found a possible link between rural living and Parkinson's disease.
Analysis of more than 100 studies from around the world shows that exposure to pesticides, bug and weed killers and solvents is associated with a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease.
Study author, Dr Emanuele Cereda, said: 'Due to this association, there was also a link between farming or country living and developing Parkinson's in some of the studies.'
Researchers from the IRCCS University Hospital San Matteo Foundation in Pavia, Italy, reviewed studies that looked at weed, fungus, rodent or bug killers, and solvents in relation to the risk of developing Parkinson's disease.
Proximity to these chemicals, due to country living, occupation and drinking water were also evaluated.
The research found that being exposed to bug or weed killers and solvents increased the risk of developing Parkinson's disease by 33 to 80 per cent.
In controlled studies, exposure to the weed killer paraquat or the fungicides maneb and mancozeb was associated with twice the risk of developing the disease.
Dr Cereda added: 'We didn't study whether the type of exposure, such as whether the compound was inhaled or absorbed through the skin and the method of application, such as spraying or mixing, affected Parkinson's risk.
'However, our study suggests that the risk increases in a dose response manner as the length of exposure to these chemicals increases.'
Toddlers should drink two cups of cow's milk a day - no more, no less, say experts
Cow's milk is both good and bad for you? Sounds unlikely. Much in need of replication before it is taken seriously. Journal article here
Two cups of cow’s milk a day is the ideal amount for toddlers, researchers say. Too little can lead to deficiency in vitamin D - but too much can deplete levels of iron, a study found.
The authors looked at the levels of vitamin D and iron, two of the most important nutrients in milk, in more than 1,300 children aged between one and five from 2008 to 2010.
Lead author of the study, Dr Jonathon Maguire, a paediatrician at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto, Canada, said: 'Vitamin D deficiency in children has been linked to bone health issues and iron deficiency has been linked to anaemia and delays in cognitive development.
'We started to research the question because professional recommendations around milk intake were unclear and doctors and parents were seeking answers.
'Being able to answer parents’ questions about healthy cow’s milk intake is important to avoiding these potentially serious complications of low vitamin D and iron stores.'
They found that children who drank the most cow’s milk had higher Vitamin D stores, but lower iron stores.
He added: 'We saw that two cups of cow’s milk per day was enough to maintain adequate vitamin D levels for most children, while also maintaining iron stores.
'With additional cow’s milk, there was a further reduction in iron stores without greater benefit from vitamin D.'
The researchers recruited healthy children during routine doctor’s appointments. Parents were asked to fill out an extensive questionnaire about their children’s milk drinking habits and other factors that could affect iron and Vitamin D stores.
A blood sample was obtained from each child to determine body stores of iron and Vitamin D.
The study also suggested that children with darker skin pigmentation may not have enough vitamin D stores during the winter months.
However, Dr Maguire suggested that instead of consuming more milk to increase these levels, wintertime vitamin D supplementation may be a more appropriate way of increasing vitamin D stores while preserving iron stores.
The results of the study were published online by the journal Paediatrics.