Previous studies suggest that the risk of cancer at a specific site is higher in subjects with a family history of cancer at that same site. Researchers from the Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri (Italy) analyzed data collected on participants in a network of case-control studies on 13 cancer sites, conducted between 1991 and 2009, that included 12,647 cancer patients identified at hospitals in Italy and the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland; as well as 11,557 control subjects. The team collected data from all participants on history of any cancer in first-degree relatives, as well as information on such things as sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, lifestyle and dietary habits, and personal medical history. For each relative with a history of cancer, the participant was asked about his or her vital status at the time of interview, current age or age at death, cancer site, and age at diagnosis. Whereas a family history of cancer at any site was associated with an increased risk of cancer at the same site, for most cancer sites, the link with family history was stronger when the participant was younger than 60 when he or she was affected. That is, the investigators reported that the odds ratio for ovarian cancer, given a family history of the disease, was 20.1 when the participant was younger than 60 and 3.2 when she was 60 or older. And the researchers also found significantly increased risks for: Oral and pharyngeal cancer given a family history of laryngeal cancer, with an odds ratio of 3.3; Esophageal cancer, given a family history of oral and pharyngeal cancer, where the odds ratio was 4.1; Breast cancer, given a family history of colorectal cancer or hemolymphopoietic cancers, where the odds ratios were 1.5, and 1.7, respectively; Ovarian cancer in the light of a family history of breast cancer, with an odds ratio of 2.3; and prostate cancer, given a first-degree relative with bladder cancer, where the odds ratio was 3.4. The study authors submit that: “Our results point to several potential cancer syndromes that appear among close relatives and may indicate the presence of genetic factors influencing multiple cancer sites.”
Turati F, Edefonti V, Bosetti C, Ferraroni M, Malvezzi M, Franceschi S, et al. “Family history of cancer and the risk of cancer: a network of case-control studies.” Ann Oncol. 2013 Jul 24.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) selectively inhibit growth and induce cell death in early and late-stage oral and skin cancers.
Swiss team successfully develops artificial organelles that are able to support the reduction of toxic oxygen compounds within cells.
A week of exposure solely to natural light synchronizes the body’s circadian rhythm to the solar day.
Ups and downs in blood pressure may associate with a greater risk of cognitive impairment, among older adults.
Children and adults who consume fresh grapes, raisins and 100% grape juice tend to have healthier dietary patterns and improved nutrient intakes.
A family history of one type of cancer may not only increase the risk of the same variety of cancer, but of cancers at other sites as well.
Levels of cortisol, the stress hormone, tend to be more stable in people with positive personalities.
Low hemoglobin levels in older adults may predict a long-term risk of developing dementia.
Abundant in the amino acid, l-Citrulline, watermelon juice can relieve sore muscles.
The blood cancer non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs at greater incidence in relation to proximity near petroleum refineries and manufacturing plants.
Concept utilizes nanoparticles that concentrate and expand in the presence of higher acidity found in tumor cells.
Large-scale European study suggests that long-term exposure to low-level air pollution may increase the risk of lung cancer, and adenocarcinoma in particular.
Consuming a modest amount of walnuts may confer protective effects against prostate cancer, suggests data from a lab animal study.
Increased intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may cut a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer by up to 14%.
Higher blood levels of Vitamin B6 associate with less damage to DNA, among men.
Chlamydia trachomatis can cause mutations in the host DNA, thereby leading to the development of cancer.
The invisible remains of cigarette smoke that deposit on carpeting, clothing, furniture and other surfaces may be a major cause of significant genetic damage in
Exposure to low doses of the synthetic compound bisphenol A (BPA) is linked to increased risk of prostate cancer in human stem cells.
Metal-oxide nanofiber based chemiresistive gas sensors offer greater usability for real-time breath tests on smart phones or tablet PCs in the near future.
After being diagnosed with prostate cancer, men who eat a diet high in vegetable fats, such as those in nuts and olive oil, may be less likely to have their dis
Tip #192 - Stay Connected
Researchers from the University of Chicago (Illinois, USA) report that social isolation may be detrimental to both mental and physical health. The team analyzed data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationwide US study involving 3,000 men and women, ages 57 to 85 years. They arrived at three key findings regarding the relationships between health and different types of isolation:
• The researchers found that the most socially connected older adults are three times as likely to report very good or excellent health compared to those who are least connected, regardless of whether they feel isolated.
• The team found that older adults who feel least isolated are five times as likely to report very good or excellent health as those who feel most isolated, regardless of their actual level of social connectedness.
• They determined that social disconnectedness is not related to mental health unless it brings feelings of loneliness and isolation.
Separately, Rush University Medical Center (Illinois, USA) researchers studied 906 older men and women, testing their motor functions (including grip, pinch strength, balance, and walking) and surveying their social activity, for a period of 5 years. Those study participants with less social activity were found to have a more rapid rate of motor function decline. Specifically, the team found that every one-point decrease in social activity corresponded to an increase in functional aging of 5 years, translating to a 40% higher risk of death and 65% higher risk of disability.