Current evidence supports a significant association between fruit and vegetable intake and health. In this study, we assessed the effect of consuming a vegetable-soup "gazpacho" on vitamin C and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in a healthy human population. We also examined the association between vitamin C and F2-isoprostanes (8-epiPGF2), uric acid (UA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-6.
Gazpacho is a Mediterranean dish defined as a ready-to-use vegetable soup, containing 80% crude vegetables rich in vitamin C. Subjects (6 men, 6 women) enrolled in this study consumed 500 mL/d of gazpacho corresponding to an intake of 72 mg of vitamin C. On d 1, subjects consumed the gazpacho in one dose; from d 2 until the end of the study, d 14, 250 mL was consumed in the morning and 250 mL in the afternoon. Blood was collected before drinking the soup (baseline) and on d 7 and 14. Baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations did not differ between men and women (P = 0.060).
Compared with baseline, the vitamin C concentration was significantly higher on d 7 and 14 of the intervention in both men and women (P
< 0.05). Baseline plasma levels of UA and F2-isoprostanes were higher (P 0.002) in men than in women. The F2-isoprostanes decreased on d 14 in men and women (P 0.041), and UA decreased in men (P = 0.028). The concentrations of vitamin C and 8-epiPGF2 were inversely correlated (r = –0.585, P = 0.0002). Plasma PGE2 and MCP-1 concentrations decreased in men and women (P 0.05) on d 14, but those of TNF-, IL-1ß, and IL-6 did not change. Consumption of the vegetable soup decreases oxidative stress and biomarkers of inflammation, which indicates that the protective effect of vegetables may extend beyond their antioxidant capacity.