Previously, researchers from Pittsburgh Children’s Hospital (Pennsylvania, USA) report that increasing physical activity -- without caloric restriction -- is effective in reducing total, fat, visceral obesity, and liver fat in obese adolescent boys. SoJung Lee and colleagues engaged in a similar study to ascertain insights for teenage girls. The researchers enrolled 40 obese adolescent girls with BMIs in the 95th percentile or greater for their age. They were randomized to 3 months of aerobic exercise, with three 60-minute sessions on a treadmill a week; resistance exercise consisting of working out on a weigh machine three times a week, for 60 minutes a session; or a sedentary control group. The teens were allowed to continue to eat as before. Compared with controls, body weight dropped 1.3 kg in the aerobic exercise group and 0.3 kg in the resistance training group. Despite the absence of weight loss, total fat decreased 1.5% in the aerobic exercise group and 1.4% in the resistance training group compared with controls. Visceral fat dropped 19% and lipid fat decreased 43% in the aerobic arm compared with the control arm. Also, insulin sensitivity improved 23% in the girls who did aerobics compared with the sedentary teens.
Lee S, et al. "Aerobic exercise but not resistance exercise reduces visceral adiposity, liver fat and insulin resistance in obese adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial" [Abstract 216-OR]. Presented at Annual Meeting of the American Diabetes Association, 27 June 2013.
Both aerobic exercise and resistance training are effective at reducing body fat, among previously sedentary adolescent girls.
Postmenopausal women who work tend be in better health than their unemployed counterparts.
A daily multivitamin supplement exerts beneficial effects on stress, anxiety and fatigue.
Two-thirds of patients with both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may be raising their risks of coronary heart disease by 50% or more.
Japanese team reports the successful generation of a successfully transplanted functional human liver using liver buds derived from pluripotent stem cells.
American Society of Nutrition reaffirms the health benefits of whole grain and bran foods, to reduce risks of diabetes, obesity, and heart disease.
British team identifies 22 metabolites linked to aging, one of which is correlated to birthweight.
Broken amyloid fibrils may be a cause of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s.
Higher blood levels of Vitamin B6 associate with less damage to DNA, among men.
The prevalence of disability increases in the 2 years prior to death, with those who die at the oldest ages far more likely to have disability.
Phthalates may raise the risk of elevated blood pressure in children and teens.
Giving children at elementary school an extra 60 minute gym class each week significantly reduces their risk of being obese by fifth-grade.
Babies of women who eat junk food in pregnancy are programmed to be addicted to a high-fat, high-sugar diet.
Bisphenol A (BPA) associates with increased levels of albumin in the urine, potentially signaling renal impairment and kidney disease.
Meals at which the entire family dines together encourage children to consume fruits and vegetables.
Eating a choline-rich diet during pregnancy may help mothers to reduce their child’s risk of developing high blood pressure and/or diabetes in adulthood.
Female athletes perform worse than males on visual memory tests, and report more symptoms postconcussion.
Men and women who have a high body mass index (BMI) for a long period of time are at an increased risk of type-2 diabetes
Vigorous exercise raises osteocalcin levels, a hormone associated with bone heath, insulin sensitivity and fat stores.
The risk of coronary heart disease in middle age is moderately higher for men and women who grew up in adverse family settings.
Tip #192 - Stay Connected
Researchers from the University of Chicago (Illinois, USA) report that social isolation may be detrimental to both mental and physical health. The team analyzed data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationwide US study involving 3,000 men and women, ages 57 to 85 years. They arrived at three key findings regarding the relationships between health and different types of isolation:
• The researchers found that the most socially connected older adults are three times as likely to report very good or excellent health compared to those who are least connected, regardless of whether they feel isolated.
• The team found that older adults who feel least isolated are five times as likely to report very good or excellent health as those who feel most isolated, regardless of their actual level of social connectedness.
• They determined that social disconnectedness is not related to mental health unless it brings feelings of loneliness and isolation.
Separately, Rush University Medical Center (Illinois, USA) researchers studied 906 older men and women, testing their motor functions (including grip, pinch strength, balance, and walking) and surveying their social activity, for a period of 5 years. Those study participants with less social activity were found to have a more rapid rate of motor function decline. Specifically, the team found that every one-point decrease in social activity corresponded to an increase in functional aging of 5 years, translating to a 40% higher risk of death and 65% higher risk of disability.