Vitamins and minerals are needed in addition to calories, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to keep your body healthy. There are 13 vitamins that your body requires (vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins, which include thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate). There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals.
Macrominerals are minerals that your body needs in larger amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur), while trace minerals are minerals that body needs only small amounts (iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium).
If you are meeting your body’s calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and fat requirements as well as eating a variety and a balance of food from all the food groups, you can usually get all of the vitamins and minerals your body needs from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. In some cases, you may need to take a daily multivitamin for optimal health (for example, some people who follow a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement). However, high doses of some vitamins can make you sick.
Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders offers a great list of sources, importance, and signs and symptoms of deficiency in relation to vitamins and minerals. There is also helpful information regarding vitamins and minerals on MedlinePlus National Institutes of Health website. Check out these resources.