I don't know if you've seen the headlines (the story has been making the rounds in the psychology circles for the past day or two), but a study just came out that looked at the relationship between body dysmorphic disorder and nose jobs. The study found that one-third of people who wanted a nose job for cosmetic reasons had moderate to severe symptoms of BDD. Of those who wanted a nose job for medical reasons (to improve breathing, etc), 2% had been diagnosed with BDD.
Except that's not how the study was reported. Instead, headlines like " Nose job patients often mentally ill, study says ." An excerpt from this piece below Of patients who were seeking the procedure to correct a breathing problem, only about 2 percent showed symptoms of BDD. But of those who wanted a nose job for cosmetic reasons, 43 percent showed symtoms of the disorder.
BDD was especially common among people with a history of mental illness, as well as those who had already had a nose job and were seeking “revision” surgery.
The problem, as John Grohol pointed out on the World of Psychology blog, is that "symptoms of BDD" aren't the same as being diagnosed with BDD. It's a subtle difference in words, yes. But it's a major difference in what we're actually talking about.
I had symptoms of the flu several winters ago. High fever, muscle aches, chills, feeling utterly crap, all with a sudden onset. Classic flu symptoms. Except a flu test revealed that whatever I had wasn't the flu. It looked a lot like the flu, it had the same symptoms as the flu, but it wasn't caused by the influenza virus.
Someone can have symptoms of depression (low mood, feeling hopeless), but not actually have clinical depression. Same with BDD. Same with EDs, too. The scales and questionnaires used in research aren't diagnostic tools. They can give you an idea whether you should see an actual living, breathing professional for evaluation and a potential diagnosis, but they don't say whether you actually have the condition.
It's not the public's job to know this. I'm not saying scientists shouldn't use these measures simply because they are so frequently misinterpreted by laypeople and journalists alike. But I am saying that journalists and editors need to know the difference. It's responsible reporting.
It happens with eating disorder stories all the time. Most commonly, it happens when people conflate disordered eating with eating disorders, or the scores on a survey with an actual diagnosis. The problem is that most people don't know there's a difference between these two things, or that the difference really matters.
Of course we would expect that people seeking nose jobs have higher concern and focus on their appearance. They are, after all, dropping thousands of dollars in an attempt to, you know, look better. But focus on your appearance isn't the same as BDD, and it's offensive to those who are suffering to make the two things equivocal. It's like saying someone who is obsessed with their weight has an eating disorder. They're not the same. At all.
We need to start distinguishing between these two things so that we stop trivializing deadly mental illnesses as little more than cultural fads.