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Glossary C

Posted Jun 02 2009 4:41pm

C

Call to stool
Feeling the need to have a bowel movement.
Celiac disease
Inability to digest and absorb the protein gliadin (a component of gluten). Gliadin is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Celiac disease is also called celiac sprue, and gluten intolerance.
Cell
The basic unit of any living organism. It is a small, watery, compartment filled with chemicals and a complete copy of the organism's genome.
Central amplification
Changes that occur in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) that affect cell transmitters and receptors, thereby increasing the excitability of neurons and resulting in heightened perception of signals from the gastrointestinal tract.
Chronic
Symptoms occurring over a long period of time.
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP)
A rare disorder of gastrointestinal motility where coordinated contractions ( peristalsis ) in the intestinal tract become altered and inefficient.
Clinical science
The approach aimed at understanding the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders through studies involving people, usually carried out in clinical settings.
Clinical significance
A conclusion that an intervention has an effect that is of practical meaning to patients and health care providers.
Clinical trial
An experimental research study that tests new medical interventions on people. These interventions may include drugs, devices, or other instruments.
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)
A gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. C. difficile is recognized as the major causative agent of colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic intake.
Cohort study
An observational study in which outcomes in a group of patients that received an intervention are compared with outcomes in a similar group i.e., the cohort, either contemporary or historical, of patients that did not receive the intervention.
Colectomy
Removal of part or all of the colon.
Colitis
Inflammation of the colon.
Colon
The large intestine.
Colonic inertia
Delayed colonic action. Symptoms include long delays in the passage of stool accompanied by lack of urgency to move the bowels
Colonoscopy
Colonoscopy is a fiberoptic (endoscopic) procedure in which a thin, flexible, lighted viewing tube (a colonoscope) is threaded up through the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the entire colon and rectum and, if there is an abnormality, taking a tissue sample of it (biopsy) for examination under a microscope, or removing it.
Colostomy
A surgically created opening of the colon to the abdominal wall, allowing the diversion of fecal waste.
Commensals
Non-pathogenic microorganisms that become part of the host's normal flora.
Comorbidity
Coexistence with another disease or condition.
Congenital
Conditions existing at birth, but not through heredity.
Contrast radiology
A test in which a contrast material (i.e., Barium) is used to coat the rectum, colon, and lower part of the small intestine so they show up on an x-ray.
Control
(See Randomized controlled trial ) A standard of comparison which can be a conventional practice, a placebo, or no intervention.
Control group
A group of patients that serves as the basis of comparison when assessing the effects of the intervention of interest that is given to the patients in the treatment group.
Constipation
Reduced stool frequency, or hard stools, difficulty passing stools, or painful bowel movements.
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)
CRF is a family of peptides. They act as messengers and interact with CRF receptors on cells (CRF1 and CRF2) that receive a stimulus or message, which induce a physiological response in the body. These CRF peptides and receptors are located, among other sites, both in the brain and the gut in regions linked with digestive function, emotional behavior, and autonomic nervous system activity.
Cortisol
A hormone associated with the physical effects of the stress response within the body.
Crohn's disease
A chronic form of inflammatory bowel disease.
Cytokines
A type of protein released by cells of the immune system, which act through specific cell receptors to regulate immune responses
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