Maintaining normal blood sugar levels in the human bloodstream requires a good knowledge of physiological function of the human body. The major source of energy for human body is glucose and it is exactly the sugar that travels through the bloodstream. The Glucose gets converted as energy when you consume foods containing carbohydrates. The glucose levels are controlled and regulated by the hormonal secretion of insulin in the beta cells of the tissues of the pancreas. That way,the pancreas triggers the the production of insulin which is released into the bloodstream to control blood glucose.
Normal levels of blood glucose usually range from 70 to 140 mg/dl. The glucose level is generally at a lower point during morning before breakfast and rises after consuming food. If the sugar levels rise above 150 mg/dl it is identified as hyperglycemia, one of the signs of high blood sugar. In case the levels fall below 70 mg/dl it is an indication of hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Hypoglycemia is usually observed as a serious or fatal condition of diabetes if left ignored. As such, a few symptoms of low blood glucose are fatigue and unconsciousness at extreme condition. People who suffer with chronic or frequent bouts due to hyperglycemia are liable to develop complications like damage to nerves, kidneys, and loss of vision.
It is essential for persons who suspect symptoms of low or high blood sugar to take blood tests (Pre-prandial and Postprandial) to measure the quantum of glucose deposited in the bloodstream. As mentioned above, the glucose levels should be close to 70mg/dl and 140mg/dl before and after meals respectively. Physicians who perform testing glucose levels usually suspect and investigate the presence of any complications with diabetes type I or type II. Normal measure of blood sugar in fasting would be safe if it falls between 70 and 100mg/dl. Similarly the postprandial measure should safely be maintained between 130 and 150mg/dl.
Fasting blood sugar test is taken to check the measure of glucose level 8 hours after eating food. The postprandial test is administered 2 hours after consuming food. There is another test called random type in which frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels is done at random intervals throughout the day considering no time intervals and consumption of food. Normal glucose readings in this test would be safe if they fall between 70 and 120 mg/dl. There is again the oral GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) that is administered frequently by taking sugary drinks particularly for women during the middle days of pregnancy.