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WISCONSIN DEER FARMING Chronic Wasting Disease CWD DATCP

Posted Jun 13 2013 10:44pm
WISCONSIN DEER FARMING Chronic Wasting Disease CWD DATCP
 
CWD: A 10-Year Retrospective
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) was first discovered in Wisconsin in February 2002. Much has changed in the last 10 years. The articles below provide a retrospective on those changes.
 
 
Disease Progression and Spread
 
 
Research Accomplishments
 
 
Management Approach of Other States
 
 
Wisconsin's Management Approach and Improvements
 
 
Disease Progression and Spread
 
 
The Wisconsin DNR began active surveillance for CWD in 1999 following increased awareness of interstate transport of elk from CWD-infected western game farms. In February 2002, the DNR was notified that three deer harvested the previous fall from Deer Management Unit 70A in western Dane County had tested positive for CWD. This discovery launched an intensive surveillance effort in Wisconsin that continues today. As of February 2012, nearly 172,000 wild white-tailed deer have been sampled, over 1,800 of which have tested CWD-positive.
 
 
There appear to be two main areas of CWD infection in Wisconsin. One is centered in western Dane and eastern Iowa counties. The second is located in northern Illinois and extends into southeastern Wisconsin. Illinois first detected the presence of CWD in this area in the fall of 2002 and as of April 2011, 336 CWD-positive deer have been found.
 
 
Surveillance has been continuously conducted since 2002 in the southern portions of the state and routinely on a rotating basis throughout the rest of the state. Sampling intensity across the majority of the state has been sufficient enough to have a high degree of confidence that CWD would be detected if the disease existed at 1% prevalence during the time of surveillance.
 
 
CWD has been found in 12 southern Wisconsin counties and the current CWD Management Zone encompasses all known locations of free-ranging deer that tested positive for CWD.
 
 
Sex and Age Composition of Infected Deer
 
 
Analysis of the sex and age composition of positive deer over the past ten years in Wisconsin has shown that:
 
 
disease prevalence is higher in older deer than in younger deer, and prevalence in males is approximately twice as high as in females. Overall, there has been an increasing trend in prevalence in all sex and age classes in the western and eastern Wisconsin core monitoring areas. Since 2002, prevalence in the western core has increased among:
 
 
adult males from about 8% to nearly 18%,
 
 
adult females from about 3% to approximately 7%,
 
 
yearling males from about 2% to about 6%,
 
 
and yearling females from 2% to about 5%.
 
 
Prevalence increases are also evident in the eastern core where prevalence in adult males has increased from 2% to 6% between 2003-2011.
 
 
Very few fawns have tested positive for CWD (27 out of more than 15,000 tested since 2002).
 
 
Distribution Analysis
 
 
Analyses of the geographic distribution of disease show that the disease is not evenly distributed throughout the CWD Management Zone.
 
 
Disease prevalence is much higher near the centers of each infection and declines with increasing distance from the center.
 
 
In a few square mile sections of land near the centers of the two infections, overall prevalence (includes deer of all ages and sexes) has been 8-20%. Analyses by wildlife disease scientists at the University of Wisconsin find that these spatial patterns are consistent with two separate disease introductions. These introductions likely occurred more than 20 years ago with growth in prevalence near the points of introduction and expansion to current distribution.
 
 
Get more information about the location of CWD in Wisconsin and the progression of the disease.
 
 
Research Accomplishments
 
 
During the past 10 years there has been an international effort to learn as much about CWD as possible. During that time, the WDNR has served an important role in generating new information by conducting in-house research, directly funding university research and by collaborating with others to share data and tissue samples from harvested deer. The DNR continues to make scientific research a priority in management.
 
 
This research has expanded our understanding of many facets of the disease including:
 
 
genetic susceptibility of white-tailed deer to CWD, deer social organization and movement patterns, effects of artificial feeding and baiting on deer interactions, the effect of social organization and genetic relatedness on CWD transmission, the potential for scavengers feeding on deer carcasses to contribute to disease spread, how the landscape may influence the spread of the disease, and attitudes and behaviors of hunters and landowners in the CWD affected area. In addition, several research paths have resulted in direct, significant cost and time savings for CWD management in that:
 
 
improved diagnostic tools for detecting CWD has shortened the time required to notify most hunters of their test results, research on the binding of prions to soils has helped to identify safe and cost-effective methods of carcass disposal, an evaluation of the characteristics of deer that tested positive for CWD has led to more cost-effective strategies for detecting CWD in areas where it has not been found. Completed and ongoing research continues to fill important knowledge gaps regarding how CWD is transmitted among deer and how it spreads across southern Wisconsin. In addition, hundreds of surveys and discussions with hunters and landowners have led to a better understanding of opinions, attitudes and behaviors relative to CWD and its management. The results of the variety of research studies conducted during the past 10 years in Wisconsin and around the country were used in developing the current CWD Response Plan.
 
 
General State Response to the Threat of CWD in Captive and Wild Cervids
 
 
CWD has been found in captive and wild cervid herds in at least 18 states and two Canadian provinces. Each has a response plan in place with varying protocols for surveillance and monitoring. The widespread view held by most agencies is that eradication of CWD is at present not possible. In general, the programs and structures in place are designed with the following CWD management goals and guidelines:
 
 
Conduct surveillance sufficient enough to establish the distribution and intensity of CWD in affected areas.
 
 
Contain the disease within the known limits of its distribution, while minimizing geographic spread and local disease intensity.
 
 
Prohibit or limit deer baiting activities to prevent high-density aggregation of animals which can lead to increased transmission probability.
 
 
Quarantine or depopulation of captive cervid farms with infected animals.
 
 
Place restrictions on inter-state transportation of farm-reared cervids.
 
 
Dispose of infected carcasses by way of sealed landfills or incineration.
 
 
Use monetary incentives, increased hunting season length, landowner permits and sharp-shooting to reduce the density of infected and susceptible deer on the landscape.
 
 
In addition, in several (assumed) CWD-free states adjoining regions with known infection, surveillance programs are being strategically conducted to maintain an early detection system in the case of CWD discovery/spillover.
 
 
Examination of wild deer data from Wisconsin, Colorado and Wyoming (states with known widespread distribution of CWD) show that without control efforts, CWD prevalence can reach high levels and become geographically widespread. Additionally, results from predictive models and monitoring data from Colorado and Wyoming suggest CWD can reduce deer populations—in some cases, drastically. Prevalence in adult male mule deer on some local winter ranges in Colorado more than doubled during a six-year period (1997–2002), reaching levels of 25–40%. A study in Boulder, Colorado showed that prevalence among 46 adult male mule deer sampled was 41% and prevalence among 69 adult female mule deer was 20%. The study concluded that high prevalence and shortened lifespan of infected deer is sufficient to have produced the observed 45% population decline. Preliminary findings from research in Wyoming have estimated a prevalence of 28% among white-tailed deer and have documented shorter lifespans among CWD positive animals.
 
 
In contrast to other states, Illinois has pursued a strategy of expanded public hunting regimes supplemented by localized, intensive sharpshooting in an effort to increase population turnover. The goal is to prevent the spread of CWD and eventually eliminate CWD from the affected populations. Sharpshooting is used to augment the hunting season kill by significantly reducing post-hunt local deer populations in known CWD areas. This effort has contributed more than 20% of the deer removed from the four Illinois counties that have been the primary focus of management efforts during the past five years. Illinois is currently evaluating the effectiveness of their first five years of CWD management.Preliminary analyses indicate that they have achieved both local herd reductions and a corresponding decline in local prevalence levels in certain age and sex classes.
 
 
The Wisconsin and Illinois efforts to manage and respond to CWD are inextricably linked to the success or failure of one another. To formally acknowledge this fact, the two states signed a memorandum of understanding in mid 2010. It is imperative that the two states continue to work together on a mutual goal for CWD management to have a chance at success.
 
 
CWD Management Perspectives and Improvements
 
 
When Wisconsin initiated CWD management efforts in 2002, the goal was to eradicate the disease from the state. Surveillance efforts since then show the disease is found in a much larger area of southern WI than initial data indicated.Given the lack of tools available to counter CWD over a broad spatial extent, eradication was not possible and the current goal for CWD management is to minimize the area of Wisconsin where CWD occurs and the number of infected deer in the state.
 
 
To that end, the WDNR has made (and will continue to make) a number of improvements to reduce costs of CWD management, facilitate reliable broad-scale testing, streamline data collection and management, and foster cooperative relationships with various community groups. Some of these measures include:
 
 
Improved operational efficiencies such as field lymph node collection for testing, rather than head removal, which reduces handling and processing costs.
 
 
Cooperative agreements with landfills to safely dispose of deer carcasses in accordance with guidelines developed through research with UW Madison. This safe and cost saving measure is an improvement over previous disposal methods of chemical digestion and incineration (car-killed deer, butcher waste).
 
 
Implementation of an extended landowner hunting season within the CWD Management Zone from January–March. This season is open to landowners and those they allow to hunt on their property. It provides additional hunting opportunity and gives landowners tools to lower local deer herds in areas of overabundance and high CWD prevalence. Streamlining of detection efforts using risk factor analysis which allows sampling of fewer deer (focus on higher risk groups) to achieve a high level of confidence to detect CWD if it is present.
 
 
Establishing cooperative relationships with taxidermists and private businesses throughout the state (cooperative deer registration/sampling stations) to improve CWD surveillance, and with dozens of butchers to provide venison to food pantries within the CWD management zone.
 
 
Given the uncertainties regarding mechanisms of transmission, limited tools for management and declining public support and funding, eliminating CWD from Wisconsin is unlikely. However, a healthy deer population is essential to maintain Wisconsin’s deer hunting culture, thus there remains a need and responsibility for the DNR to continue monitoring CWD prevalence and distribution to make informed decisions about its management.
 
 
 
 
As of February 2013 there were 511 _registered_ deer farms in Wisconsin. White-tailed deer farming is regulated and licensed by the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) [exit DNR]. However the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) is responsible for regulating white-tailed deer farm fencing. Before you can register your farm with DATCP you must have your fence inspected and receive a deer farm fence certificate from the DNR.
 
 
 




Wisconsin cervids CWD first detected in captive herds
 
 
DNR has conducted annual surveillance in Portage County since 2002, when a captive game farm in the southeast part of the county experienced CWD positives in its herd. The disease was confirmed in a second captive herd in northwest Portage County in 2008. Since 2002, 1,506 wild deer have been tested.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Information for Farm-Raised Deer Keepers in Wisconsin

 
 
 
Veterans: For information on how to apply for License Fee Waiver under Act 209, see Veterans License Fee Waiver Program: 2011 Wisconsin Act 209 .
Wisconsin Administrative Rules for Farm-Raised Deer Keepers (see sections 10.45 to 10.58)
State Rule Changes to ATCP 10 Concerning Farm-Raised Deer Keepers (Effective August 1, 2012)
Federal Herd Certification Program Rules Concerning Farm-Raised Deer Keepers (Effective December 10, 2012)





General Requirements Summary Brochure
(2 page PDF)



New Farm-Raised Deer Keeper Application
(4 page PDF)




CWD Sampling Reimbursement funds are no longer available.


Herds With White-tailed Deer (see section 90.21)

Herds With No White-tailed Deer (see section 90.20)


Premises Within 5 Miles of Multiple CWD Positive Wild Deer (see section ATCP 10.58)



http://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/code/admin_code/atcp/010/10.pdf



CWD Herd Status Program Summary Brochure (2 page PDF)

CWD Herd Status Program Application Packet (5 page PDF)

Census Instructions (1 page Word doc)


Inventory Census Form (2 page PDF)

Purchased Additions (2 page PDF)

Live Subtractions (2 page PDF)

Deaths (2 page PDF)

Newborn Summary (2 page PDF)

Certified Brucellosis-Free Herd Status Application Form (1 page PDF)

Hunting Preserves in Wisconsin Summary Brochure (2 page PDF)

Hunting Preserve Certificate Application (2 page PDF)

In-State Movement Requirements

In-State Shipping Permit (2 page Word doc)

Importing Into Wisconsin

Exporting to Other States

To Purchase a CD List of Registered Farm-Raised Deer Keepers

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources - Wild deer testing positive for CWD

United States Geological Survey - Chronic Wasting Disease in North America

Laboratories that are certified by the United States Department of Agriculture

Whitetails of Wisconsin

Wisconsin Commercial Deer and Elk Farmer’s Association

Reindeer Owners and Breeders Association

North American Elk Breeder Association

Dr. Richard Bourie, Program Manager
(608) 224-4886 Richard.Bourie@wisconsin.gov

Karen Torvell, Program Associate
(608) 224-4896 Karen.Torvell@wisconsin.gov

USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Safeguarding American Agriculture

This material was made possible, in part, by a Cooperative Agreement from the United States department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). It may not necessarily express APHIS' view.

 
 
 
WISCONSIN DEER FARMING






Subject: WISCONSIN DEER FARMING DATCP




ATCP 10.52 Chronic wasting disease in farm− raised deer.




(1) TEST−ELIGIBLE FARM−RAISED DEER. A farm− raised deer is a test−eligible deer if it is at least 16 months old, unless a different age is required under USDA rules. (1m) TESTING REQUIRED. A person who keeps farm−raised deer in this state shall have a chronic wasting disease test performed on test−eligible farm−raised deer according to this section:

 
 

(a) A farm−raised deer keeper whose herd is enrolled in the chronic wasting disease herd status program under s. ATCP 10.53 shall have a chronic wasting disease test performed on each of the following test−eligible farm−raised deer:




1. A farm−raised deer that dies or is killed while kept by that person.


2. A farm−raised deer that the person ships directly to a slaughtering establishment.


Note: A hunting preserve certified under s. ATCP 10.47 that is enrolled in the chronic wasting disease herd status program under s. ATCP 10.53 must comply with par. (a).


(b) A farm−raised deer keeper whose herd is not enrolled in the chronic wasting disease herd status program under s. ATCP 10.53 shall have a chronic wasting disease test performed on all of the following test−eligible farm−raised deer:


1. All farm−raised deer that are killed intentionally or die by accidental death or natural causes on the premises while kept by that person.


2. Twenty−five percent of all farm−raised deer that are sent to slaughter.


3. Fifty percent of all farm−raised deer that are intentionally killed while being kept on a hunting preserve certified under s. ATCP 10.47.


(2) MOVING LIVE FARM−RAISED DEER FROMHERDS IN THIS STATE. No person may move a live farm−raised deer from a herd in this state unless the movement complies with s. ATCP 10.56 (1).


(3) COLLECTING TEST SAMPLES. (a) A chronic wasting disease test under sub. (1m) shall be performed on a tissue sample that complies with all of the following requirements:


1. The tissue sample shall be collected by a qualified person under sub. (4).


2. The tissue sample shall be collected within 7 calendar days after the farm−raised deer dies or is killed or slaughtered, or within 7 calendar days after its death is first discovered.


3. Except as provided in par. (b), the tissue sample shall be collected before any part of the farm−raised deer carcass leaves the premises where the farm−raised deer died, or was killed or slaughtered.


(b) A keeper of farm−raised deer who holds a valid herd registration certificate under s. ATCP 10.46 (1) may separate the head of a farm−raised deer carcass from the rest of the carcass, and may ship the head to the person who collects the test sample under sub. (1m), if the keeper identifies both the head and the rest of the carcass according to s. ATCP 10.46 (13) before either the head or the rest of the carcass leaves the herd premises.


(c) A person who collects a test sample under sub. (1m) shall do all of the following:


1. Comply with standard veterinary procedures when collecting the test sample.


2. Submit the test sample to a laboratory approved under sub.


(5) within 10 calendar days.


(4) PERSONS QUALIFIED TO COLLECT TEST SAMPLES. (a) A person may not collect a test sample under sub. (1m) unless the person has completed sample collection training approved by the department and is one of the following:


1. A Wisconsin certified veterinarian.


2. An employee of the department or the federal bureau.


3. A person approved by the department or the federal bureau.


(b) The department may by written notice, without prior notice or hearing, disqualify a person from collecting samples under sub. (1m). The notice shall specify the reason for disqualification. The department may disqualify a person if the person lacks required qualifications, fails to collect samples that are consistently testable, or fails to meet other responsibilities under this chapter. A disqualified person may not collect test samples under sub. (1m). Note: A disqualified person may request a hearing on a disqualification under par. (b), pursuant to s. 227, Stats., and ch. ATCP 1. A request for a hearing does not automatically stay a summary disqualification.


(c) No person may misrepresent, directly or by implication, that any person is qualified to collect test samples under sub. (1m).


(5) APPROVED LABORATORIES. Tests under sub. (1m) shall be performed at a laboratory that the department and the federal bureau have approved to conduct chronic wasting disease tests.


(6) REPORTING TEST RESULTS. Whenever any person receives a laboratory test result that is positive for chronic wasting disease, that person shall report that test result according to s. ATCP 10.03. Note: The reporting requirement under sub. (6) applies to any laboratory test result that is positive for chronic wasting disease, not just the result of a test required under sub. (1m). Telephone and FAX reports should be made to the following numbers: Phone: (608) 224−4872 FAX: (608) 224−4871 Written reports should be made to the following address:


Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection Division of Animal Health P.O. Box 8911 Madison, WI. 53708−8911


(7) HERD QUARANTINE. The department shall quarantine a farm−raised deer herd, under s.ATCP 10.91, whenever any farm− raised deer from that herd tests positive for chronic wasting disease. The department shall conduct an epidemiological evaluation of the quarantined herd to determine the appropriate disposition of the herd.


(8) CONDEMNED FARM−RAISED DEER. (a) The department may order the slaughter or destruction of farm−raised deer, as provided in s. 95.23 (1m) or 95.31, Stats. An order may do all of the following:


1. Specify a reasonable deadline for the slaughter or destruction.


2. Direct appropriate disease testing and disposition of the carcasses.


3. Require the herd owner or custodian to enter into a premises plan agreement under par. (b), within a reasonable time specified in the order, as a condition to the payment of indemnities under par. (c). The terms of a premises plan agreement may be contingent on the outcome of disease testing.


(b) A premises plan agreement under par. (a) 3. may require the herd owner or custodian to clean and disinfect the herd premises, limit future cervid movement to and from the premises, or comply with other requirements that are reasonably designed to prevent the spread of disease. An agreement may include a restrictive covenant, such as a fence maintenance requirement, that is binding on subsequent property owners for the duration of the agreement.


(c) The owner of farm−raised deer slaughtered or destroyed pursuant to a department order under par. (a) may request an indemnity as provided in s. 95.23 (1m) or 95.31, Stats. The owner shall file the request with the department, on a form provided by the department. The request shall include proof of compliance with the department’s order under par. (a).


Note: A person may obtain an application form under par. (c) by calling (608) 224−4872, by visiting the department website at www:datcp.state.wi.us, or by writing to the following address:


Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection Division of Animal Health P.O. Box 8911 Madison, WI 53718


(9) KEEPER SHALL NOTIFY VETERINARIAN. Whenever a keeper of farm−raised deer observes signs or symptoms of chronic wasting disease in any animal in the herd, the keeper shall report the signs or symptoms to a Wisconsin certified veterinarian. The keeper shall make the report within 24 hours after observing the signs or symptoms.


History: CR 06−009: cr. Register September 2006 No. 609, eff. 10−1−06; CR 07−107: am. (1) (intro.), r. and recr. (3) (a), (c) 2. and (8) Register November 2008 No. 635, eff. 12−1−08; CR 11−048: renum. (1) to be (1m) and am., cr. (1), am. (3) (a) (intro.), (b), (c), (4) (a) (intro.), (b), (c), (5) Register July 2012 No. 679, eff. 8−1−12.


ATCP 10.53 Farm−raised deer; chronic wasting disease herd status program. (1) GENERAL. A person who keeps farm−raised deer in this state and holds a valid farm−raised deer keeper registration under s. ATCP 10.46 may enroll the herd in the chronic wasting disease herd status program under this section. Note: No person may move a live farm−raised deer from a herd in this state unless the herd is enrolled in the status program under this section. See ss. ATCP 10.52 (2) and 10.56 (1).


(1m) HERD STATUS, MULTIPLE HERDS. A chronic wasting disease herd status may cover multiple herds of farm−raised deer of one deer keeper or farm−raised deer of multiple deer keepers if all of the farm−raised deer included in the herd status are commingled and managed as one herd for disease control purposes. This subsection does not apply to herds considered by the department to be medically separated herds.


(2) APPLICATION. To enroll a herd in the status program under this section, a person shall submit an application on a form provided by the department. The application shall include all the following:


(a) The name, address and telephone number of the herd owner, and any trade names under which the herd owner does business.


(b) The name, address and telephone number of the herd custodian, if other than the herd owner.


(c) The herd location, including the county, town, section and fire number assigned to that location.


(d) A report of a complete herd census completed no more than 30 days prior to the date of application. The applicant shall submit the census report on a form provided by the department. The census report shall include all the following:


1. The number, species and sex of farm−raised deer in the herd.


2. The number of farm−raised deer at least one year old.


3. The number of farm−raised deer less than one year old.


4. The official individual identification of each farm−raised deer.


5. The month and year of birth of each farm−raised deer. (e) A written statement, by a Wisconsin certified veterinarian, which certifies all of the following:


1. That the veterinarian is the herd veterinarian, having established a valid veterinarian−client relationship with the herd keeper and a valid veterinarian−patient relationship with the herd.


2. That no farm−raised deer in the herd has shown any clinical signs of chronic wasting disease in the past 12 months. Note: A person may obtain an application form under sub. (2) by calling (608) 224−4872, by visiting the department website at www.datcp.state.wi.us, or by writing to the following address:


Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection Division of Animal Health P.O. Box 8911 Madison, WI 53708−8911


(3) ACTION ON APPLICATION. The department shall grant or deny an application under sub. (2) within 30 days after the department receives a complete application. Except as provided in sub. (9), a herd is enrolled on the day that the department accepts the application. The department shall notify the herd keeper of the enrollment date.


(4) CONTINUED ENROLLMENT. A person who enrolls a herd in the status program under this section shall do all the following to continue that enrollment: (a) Identify every farm−raised deer in the herd with official individual identification before the farm−raised deer is one year old.


(b) Have a chronic wasting disease test performed, according to s. ATCP 10.52, on each of the following farm−raised deer that is at least 16 months old:


1. A farm−raised deer that dies or is killed while kept by that person.


2. A farm−raised deer that the person ships to slaughter.


(c) Notify the herd veterinarian within 24 hours after observing any signs or symptoms of chronic wasting disease in the herd.


(d) Complete an annual herd census and file a report of that herd census under sub. (5).


(e) Create and maintain complete herd records under sub. (6).


(f) Provide the department with an annual written statement from the herd veterinarian. A Wisconsin certified veterinarian shall sign and submit the statement within 30 days before or after the anniversary of the herd’s enrollment under sub. (3). The statement shall certify all the following:


1. That the veterinarian is the herd veterinarian, having established a valid veterinarian−client relationship with the herd keeper and a valid veterinarian−patient relationship with the herd.


2. That the herd has not had any signs of chronic wasting disease, or any positive test results for chronic wasting disease, in the past 12 months.


(g) Report any escapes from the herd, and any returns of escaped farm−raised deer to the herd, as required by s. ATCP 10.46 (12).


Note: Under s. ATCP 10.46 (12), if a farm−raised deer escapes from a herd enrolled in the chronic wasting disease herd status program, and is returned to the herd more than 72 hours after the escape, it loses its status under the program and is treated as a new addition to the herd. That will adversely affect the program status of the entire herd.


A more stringent rule applies if the farm−raised deer escapes into a wild deer disease control area designated by the Wisconsin department of natural resources. If that escaped farm−raised deer is returned to the herd more than 24 hours after the escape, it loses its status under the program and is treated as a new addition to the herd. That will adversely affect the program status of the whole herd.


If an escaped farm−raised deer is not returned to the herd, there is no effect on the program status of the herd, except as provided in sub. (7).


(5) ANNUAL HERD CENSUS. A person shall complete an annual herd census under sub. (4) (d) within 30 days before or after the anniversary of the herd’s enrollment under sub. (3). The person shall file an annual census report under sub. (4) (d), on a form provided by the department, within 10 days after completing the annual herd census. The report shall include all of the following:


(a) A whole herd inventory that shall include all of the following:


1. The total number of farm−raised deer in the herd at least one year old.


2. The total number of farm−raised deer less than one year old.


3. The species, sex, and month and year of birth of all farm− raised deer in the herd.


4. The official individual identification and any auxiliary identification of each farm−raised deer that is at least one year old.


5. The following information for each farm−raised deer added to the herd since the last herd census:


a. Whether the new farm−raised deer was born in the herd or added from another source.


b. If the farm−raised deer was added from another source, the name and address of the person from whom it was obtained.


Note: Farm−raised deer less than one year old may be grouped by like species, sex, and month and year of birth, for example: 5 WTD, Female, born in herd, June, 2011.


(b) A report that indicates, for each farm−raised deer that has left the herd since the last reported herd census, by escape, death, slaughter or transfer of ownership, all of the following:


1. The total number of farm−raised deer less than one year old that left the herd.


2. The official individual identification and any auxiliary identification of each farm−raised deer that left the herd.


3. Species, sex, and month and year of birth for each farm− raised deer that left the herd.


4. Whether the farm−raised deer escaped, died on the premises, was shipped directly to a slaughtering establishment for slaughter, or was shipped to a place other than a slaughtering establishment.


5. If the farm−raised deer was shipped live to a place other than a slaughtering establishment, the name and address of the person to whom it was shipped and the place to which it was shipped.


6. If the farm−raised deer died on the premises, was slaughtered, or killed and the farm−raised deer was at least 16 months old, copies of the laboratory report showing the chronic wasting disease test results required under sub. (4) (b) if the test was not performed at the Wisconsin veterinary diagnostic laboratory.


7. If the farm−raised deer died on the herd premises, the disposition of its carcass. If the carcass left the premises, the report shall identify the carcass destination and recipient.


8. If the farm−raised deer was shipped directly to a slaughtering establishment, the name and address of the slaughtering establishment.


9. If the farm−raised deer escaped, the information required under par. (c).


(c) A report of escapes that shall include information related to every farm−raised deer that has escaped since the last reported herd census, including:


1. The date of the escape, and the date of the escape report required under s. ATCP 10.46 (12).


2. If the escaped animal was returned to the herd, the date of the return and the date of the return report required under s. ATCP 10.46 (12).


3. If the escaped animal was killed before returning to the herd, the date it was killed, the date the chronic wasting disease sample was submitted for testing, and the results of that test.


4. The circumstances that resulted in the escape.


5. Steps taken to prevent recurring escapes.


(d) Census verification by a certified veterinarian, if required by the department.


Note: The department may require census verification by a certified veterinarian if, for example, the federal bureau requires such verification or the census contains significant discrepancies.


(5m) FINAL HERD CENSUS. (a) A registered farm−raised deer keeper who is no longer operating a deer farm or no longer participating in the chronic wasting disease herd status program under this section shall complete a final herd census. The final herd census shall include all the information required under sub. (5).


(b) A final census shall be submitted to the department within 30 days of herd dispersal, or immediately upon termination of participation in the chronic wasting disease herd status program.


(6) HERD RECORDS. The keeper of a herd enrolled in the status program under this section shall keep the following herd records, shall retain the records for at least 5 years, and shall make the


records available to the department for inspection and copying upon request:


(a) A record of each farm−raised deer added to the herd from another source, including:


1. The species, age, sex and official individual identification of the farm−raised deer.


2. The name and address of the person from whom the farm− raised deer was obtained.


3. The address and livestock premises code, if any, of the herd from which the farm−raised deer was obtained.


4. A copy of the certificate of veterinary inspection that accompanied the farm−raised deer.


(b) A record of each farm−raised deer leaving the herd, including all the following:


1. Whether the farm−raised deer died on the premises, was shipped directly to a slaughtering establishment, or was shipped live to a place other than a slaughtering establishment.


2. If the farm−raised deer was shipped live to a place other than a slaughtering establishment, the name of the person to whom it was shipped, the place to which it was shipped, and a copy of the certificate of veterinary inspection that accompanied the farm−raised deer.


3. If the farm−raised deer died on the premises, the apparent cause of death, the age of the farm−raised deer, and the disposition of its carcass. If the carcass left the premises, the record shall identify the carcass destination and recipient.


4. If the farm−raised deer was shipped directly to a slaughtering establishment, the age of the farm−raised deer and the name and address of the slaughter establishment.


(c) A record of all chronic wasting disease tests conducted on farm−raised deer in the herd.


(d) Records received from the herd veterinarian related to veterinary services provided to the herd.


(7) HERD ENROLLMENT; SUSPENSION. (a) The department may by written notice, without prior notice or hearing, suspend a herd’s enrollment in the herd status program under this section if any of the following occur:


1. The herd keeper falsifies any information in an enrollment application, or falsifies any subsequent information required for continued enrollment.


2. The herd keeper fails to comply with requirements under subs. (4) and (5) for continued enrollment.


3. The herd keeper violates sub. (10) related to herd additions.


4. At least 2 wild deer found or killed within 5 miles of the farm−raised deer herd have tested positive for chronic wasting disease, and the farm−raised deer herd is not enclosed by a double protective barrier under s. ATCP 10.58.


5. Fewer than 90% of the farm−raised deer that left the herd by death, escape or slaughter in any census year, including farm− raised deer whose remains were not testable because of deterioration when found, were tested for chronic wasting disease according to sub. (4) (b).


6. A chronic wasting disease test positive farm−raised deer was previously a member of the herd.


7. The department reasonably suspects that the herd may include one or more deer infected with chronic wasting disease.


(b) The state veterinarian or designee may issue a suspension notice under par. (a). The suspension notice shall state the reasons for the suspension.


Note: No live farm−raised deer may be moved from a herd while a suspension under sub. (7) is in effect. See ss. ATCP 10.52 (2) and 10.56 (1). A herd keeper may request a hearing on a suspension, pursuant to s. 227.42, Stats., and ch. ATCP 1. A request for hearing does not automatically stay a summary suspension.


(8) HERD ENROLLMENT; REVOCATION. (a) The department shall by written notice, without prior notice or hearing, revoke a herd’s enrollment in the herd status program under this section if a farm− raised deer in the herd tests positive for chronic wasting disease.


(b) The department may by written notice, without prior notice or hearing, revoke a herd’s enrollment in the herd status program under this section if the herd keeper fails, within 90 days after the department suspends the herd’s enrollment under sub. (7), to correct conditions for which the department has suspended the herd’s enrollment.


(c) The state veterinarian or designee may issue a revocation notice under par. (a) or (b). The revocation notice shall state the reason for the revocation.


Note: No live farm−raised deer may be moved from a herd after a herd enrollment is revoked under sub. (8). See ss. ATCP 10.52 (2) and 10.56 (1). A herd keeper may request a hearing on a revocation, pursuant to s. 227.42, Stats., and ch. ATCP 1. A request for hearing does not automatically stay a summary revocation.


(9) HERD ENROLLMENT; REINSTATEMENT. (a) Except as provided in par. (b), the department may reinstate a herd’s enrollment in the herd status program, following a valid suspension or revocation, if the department finds that changed circumstances warrant reinstatement. The department may specify a reinstatement date that it deems appropriate. The department may reinstate enrollment retroactively following a valid suspension, as it deems appropriate, but may not reinstate enrollment retroactively following a valid revocation.


(b) The department may not reinstate enrollment following a valid revocation under sub. (8) (a).


(c) If the department finds that a suspension or revocation was invalid when issued, the department shall reinstate the enrollment retroactive to the applicable status date of the herd at the time the invalid suspension or revocation was issued.


(d) The department may reinstate a herd status program enrollment suspended under sub. (7) (a) 5., subject to conditions specified by the department, if any of the following apply:


1. The next annual herd census documents that 95% of the farm−raised deer which in that census year left the herd by escape, death or slaughter, including farm−raised deer whose remains were not testable because of deterioration when found, were tested for chronic wasting disease according to sub. (4) (b).


2. Within 60 days after the farm−raised deer keeper receives the suspension notice, the keeper kills and tests for chronic wasting disease a number of farm−raised deer that is at least equal to 90% of the number that the keeper failed to test in the census year in which the keeper failed to meet the testing standard under sub. (7) (a) 5. Farm−raised deer killed and tested under this subdivision shall be at least 16 months old, and shall have been in the herd for at least 120 days.


Note: For example, if under sub. (7) (a) 5. the department suspends a herd’s enrollment in the chronic wasting disease herd status program because the farm−raised deer keeper tested only 19 of the 30 herd members that died or were slaughtered during a census year (less than 90%), the department may reinstate the enrollment if within 60 days the farm−raised deer keeper kills and tests at least 10 farm−raised deer from the herd. Reinstatement may also be conditioned on the keeper’s agreement to pay a court−ordered civil forfeiture under s. 95.99 (3), Stats., for violation of the testing requirement under s. ATCP 10.52 (1m).


(10) HERD ADDITIONS. (a) No person may add a cervid to a herd enrolled in the status program under this section unless one of the following applies:


1. The cervid is a farm−raised deer that originates from another herd in this state that is enrolled under this section and is moved in compliance with s. ATCP 10.56.


2. The cervid is a farm−raised deer that is imported in compliance with s. ATCP 10.55, and originates from a herd that is one of the following:


a. Enrolled in a state−recognized chronic wasting disease program that is at least equal to the program under this section.


b. Enrolled in a federal program that complies with federal uniform methods and rules.


(b) If a person adds a farm−raised deer in a manner not in compliance with par. (a), the status date of the receiving herd will be lowered to the status date of the incoming farm−raised deer’s herd of origin.


Note: If a farm−raised deer originates from the wild or from a herd that is not enrolled in a program meeting the requirements of par. (a), the destination herd will lose all status. The certificate of veterinary inspection indicates chronic wasting disease program status.


(c) The herd status of the herd of destination is not affected under this section if the herd of origin of the added cervid has 5 or more years of status in a program meeting par. (a).


(11) NEW HERD; ENROLLMENT DATE. If a person assembles a new herd consisting solely of farm−raised deer from source herds that are already enrolled in a program under sub. (10) (a), the new herd is enrolled in the program under this section on the latest enrollment date assigned to any of those source herds if all the following apply:


(a) The herd keeper submits an enrollment application under sub. (2) within 90 days after the keeper acquires the first farm− raised deer to create the new herd, and the department accepts that enrollment application.


(b) The herd keeper complies with this section.


(c) The herd keeper includes the following information in the initial herd census report under sub. (2) (d), in addition to the information required under sub. (2) (d):


1. The official individual identification of every farm−raised deer in the new herd, including those less than one year old.


2. The source herd from which each farm−raised deer in the new herd originated, including the address of the source herd, the name and address of the source herd keeper, and the livestock premises code if any for the source herd premises.


3. The date on which each farm−raised deer was added to the new herd.


(d) The herd keeper conducts a chronic wasting disease test, according to s. ATCP 10.52, on any farm−raised deer in the new herd that dies or is killed or slaughtered before the herd is enrolled under this section. This paragraph does not apply to a farm−raised deer that is less than 16 months old.


(e) The herd is not kept at a location where a prior herd was depopulated because of exposure to or infection with chronic wasting disease.


(f) The farm−raised deer in the new herd were moved in compliance with ss. ATCP 10.55 and 10.56.


History: CR 06−009: cr. Register September 2006 No. 609, eff. 10−1−06; CR 07−107: cr. (4) (g), (5) (f) 5., (g) to (i) and (9) (d), am. (5) (f) (intro.), 1., (7) (a) 5. and (8) (b), r. and recr. (7) (a) 4. Register November 2008 No. 635, eff. 12−1−08; CR 11−048: am. (1), cr. (1m), am. (2) (d) 4., cr. (2) (d) 5., r. and recr. (5), cr. (5m), am. (7) (a) 2., (9) (c), (10) (a) 1., r. and recr. (10) (b), (c) Register July 2012 No. 679, eff. 8−1−12; correction in (1m) (title) under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 2. Register July 2012 No. 679.


ATCP 10.54 Farm−raised deer; identification.


(1) OFFICIAL INDIVIDUAL IDENTIFICATION. (a) Whenever a veterinarian does any of the following to a farm−raised deer, the veterinarian shall identify the farm−raised deer with an official individual identification unless the farm−raised deer already bears an official individual identification:


1. Vaccinates, identifies or tests a farm−raised deer in order to complete a certificate of veterinary inspection or other official document or certification.


2. Tests, or collects test samples from, a farm−raised deer for any disease identified in s. ATCP 10.03.


(c) A keeper of farm−raised deer shall identify each of the following farm−raised deer with an official individual identification unless that farm−raised deer already bears an official individual identification:


1. Each farm−raised deer that the person receives from another person.


2. Each farm−raised deer that the person ships or delivers to another person.


3. Each farm−raised deer that the person moves from one farm−raised deer herd to another.


4. Each farm−raised deer that the person moves between locations that are registered under one registration certificate under s. ATCP 10.46 (4) (b).


(d) Whenever an animal dealer or animal market operator receives any farm−raised deer, the animal dealer or animal market operator shall immediately identify that farm−raised deer with an official individual identification unless the farm−raised deer already bears an official individual identification or is backtagged for slaughter under sub. (2).


(e) No animal dealer or animal market operator may deliver a farm−raised deer to the custody of any other person unless that farm−raised deer bears an official individual identification or is backtagged for slaughter under sub. (2).


(f) No person may remove, alter or tamper with the official individual identification given to any farm−raised deer, except as approved by the department or the federal bureau.


(2) SLAUGHTER IDENTIFICATION.


(a) Whenever an animal trucker, animal dealer, animal market operator or slaughtering establishment operator receives any farm−raised deer for slaughter, or for sale or shipment to slaughter, that recipient shall immediately identify that farm−raised deer with an official backtag or other official slaughter identification approved by the department unless the farm−raised deer already bears official slaughter identification.


(b) Whenever any person under par. (a) receives a farm−raised deer for slaughter, or for sale or shipment to slaughter, that recipient shall immediately record the following information related to that farm−raised deer:


1. The official slaughter identification under par. (a).


2. The date on which that recipient received the farm−raised deer.


3. The name and address of the person from whom that recipient received the farm−raised deer.


(c) A person who is required to keep records under par. (b) shall do all of the following:


1. Retain each record for at least 5 years.


2. Make the records available to the department, upon request, for inspection and copying. History: CR 06−009: cr. Register September 2006 No. 609, eff. 10−1−06; CR 11−048: am. (1) (a) 2. Register July 2012 No. 679, eff. 8−1−12.


ATCP 10.55 Farm−raised deer; imports.


(1) GENERAL.


No person may import a farm−raised deer into this state without an import permit under s. ATCP 10.07 (2). Imports of farm−raised deer shall comply with this section.


Note: See also ss. ATCP 10.81 (importing circus, rodeo, racing and menagerie animals) and 10.84 (importing wild animals).


(2) CERTIFICATE OF VETERINARY INSPECTION; REQUIREMENT. (a) Except as provided in par. (b), a valid certificate of veterinary inspection shall accompany every farm−raised deer imported into this state.


(b) A certificate of veterinary inspection is not required under par. (a) for a farm−raised deer imported directly to a slaughtering establishment for slaughter if all the following apply:


1. The farm−raised deer is accompanied by a completed federal bureau form VS 1−27. Note: Federal bureau form VS 1−27 must be completed by an accredited veterinarian, an authorized state animal health official or the federal bureau.


2. The farm−raised deer, if at least 16 months old, is tested for chronic wasting disease after being slaughtered. Testing shall comply with test standards in s. ATCP 10.52.


(3) CERTIFICATE OF VETERINARY INSPECTION; CONTENTS. A certificate of veterinary inspection under sub. (2) (a) shall include all of the following:


(a) A tuberculosis certification under sub. (4).


(b) A report of compliance with brucellosis testing requirements specified, in the brucellosis uniform methods and rules, for interstate movement of farm−raised deer.


Note: The brucellosis uniform methods and rules are on file with the department and the legislative reference bureau. Copies may be obtained from the USDA website at: www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health. Copies may also be obtained by writing to the following address:


Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection Division of Animal Health P.O. Box 8911 Madison, WI 53708−8911


(e) The following statement or a substantially similar statement: “All cervids identified on this certificate originate from a herd enrolled for the past 5 years under a state−recognized chronic wasting disease program that is at least equal to the program under s. ATCP 10.53, Wis. Adm. Code.”


(4) TUBERCULOSIS STATUS. A certificate of veterinary inspection under sub. (2) (a) shall certify one of the following:


(a) The farm−raised deer originates from a herd that qualifies as an accredited tuberculosis−free herd under s. ATCP 10.49 (1) (a).


(b) The farm−raised deer originates from a herd that qualifies as a tuberculosis qualified herd, based on a whole herd test completed within 365 days prior to the import date. History: CR 06−009: cr. Register September 2006 No. 609, eff. 10−1−06; CR 07−107: r. (3) (c), (d), (4) (c), (d) and (5), am. (4) (b) Register November 2008 No. 635, eff. 12−1−08; CR 11−048: am. (3) (e) Register July 2012 no. 679, eff. 8−1−12.


ATCP 10.56 Moving farm−raised deer in Wisconsin.


(1) CERTIFICATE OF VETERINARY INSPECTION REQUIRED. A valid certificate of veterinary inspection shall accompany every farm− raised deer that is moved from a herd in this state, except that no certificate of veterinary inspection is required for any of the following:


(a) A farm−raised deer moved directly to slaughter, if all the following apply:


1. The farm−raised deer is accompanied by a completed federal bureau form VS 1−27, or a department permit under s. ATCP 10.08 (3).


Note: Federal bureau form VS 1−27 may be completed by an accredited veterinarian, an authorized state animal health official or the federal bureau.


2. The farm−raised deer, if at least 16 months old, is tested for chronic wasting disease after being slaughtered. Testing shall comply with test standards in s. ATCP 10.52.


(b) A farm−raised deer moved, pursuant to a permit under s. ATCP 10.08 (3), between institutions that are accredited by the American association of zoological parks and aquariums.


(c) A farm−raised deer moved between 2 locations that are covered by the same registration certificate under s. ATCP 10.46 (4) (b).


(d) A farm−raised deer movement that is treated as a movement within a single herd for purposes of s. ATCP 10.46 (5) (b).


(2) CERTIFICATE OF VETERINARY INSPECTION; CONTENTS. A certificate of veterinary inspection under sub. (1) (a) shall be signed by a Wisconsin certified veterinarian who is the herd veterinarian for the herd of origin. The certificate shall include all of the following:


(a) The tuberculosis certification under sub. (3).


(b) The chronic wasting disease certification under sub. (4).


(3) TUBERCULOSIS CERTIFICATION. A certificate of veterinary inspection under sub. (1) (a) shall certify one of the following:


(a) The farm−raised deer originates from an accredited tuberculosis−free herd under s. ATCP 10.49.


(b) The farm−raised deer originates from a herd that is classified as a tuberculosis qualified herd under s. ATCP 10.49, based on a whole herd test completed within the preceding 365 days.


(c) The farm−raised deer meets all of the following requirements:


1. It originates from a tuberculosis monitored herd under s. ATCP 10.49.


2. It has tested negative on a tuberculosis test conducted no more than 90 days prior to the movement date.


3. It has been continuously isolated since the test under subd. 2., in a manner that prevents it from contracting tuberculosis from other cervids.


(d) The farm−raised deer meets all of the following requirements: 1. It has tested negative on 2 tuberculosis tests conducted 90 to 270 days apart, and the second test was performed within 90 days prior to the movement date.


2. It has been isolated since the first test under subd. 1., in a manner that prevents it from contracting tuberculosis from other cervids.


Note: The department offers a pamphlet describing suggested bio−security measures to prevent the transmission of tuberculosis. You may obtain a copy by calling (608) 224−4872, by visiting the department website at www.datcp.state.wi.us, or by


writing to the following address: Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection Division of Animal Health P.O. Box 8911 Madison, WI 53708−8911


(e) It is being moved, pursuant to a department permit under s. ATCP 10.08 (3), to a tuberculosis isolation and testing facility for which the department has issued a permit under s. ATCP 10.46 (14).


(f) The farm−raised deer meets all of the following requirements:


1. The farm−raised deer is moving into a hunting preserve holding a certificate under s. ATCP 10.47.


2. It originates from a herd that has completed a whole herd test.


3. It has tested negative on a tuberculosis test conducted no more than 90 days prior to the movement date. 4. It has been continuously isolated since the tuberculosis test in a manner that prevents it from contracting tuberculosis from other cervids.


Note: See the note under par. (d) above.


(4) CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CERTIFICATION.


A certificate of veterinary inspection under sub. (1) (a) shall certify that the farm− raised deer originates from a herd that meets all of the following requirements:


(a) It has shown no clinical signs of chronic wasting disease in the past 12 months.


(b) It has been enrolled in the chronic wasting disease herd status program under s. ATCP 10.53 and has at least 5 years of status.


(c) It is adequately separated from any wild deer herd known to be infected with chronic wasting disease. If 2 or more wild deer found or killed within 5 miles of the farm−raised deer herd have tested positive for chronic wasting disease, the certificate of veterinary inspection may not certify that the farm−raised deer herd is adequately separated under this paragraph unless the herd is enclosed by a double protective barrier under s. ATCP 10.58 that was installed before, or within a reasonable time after, the farm− raised deer keeper first received notice of the disease finding in the second wild deer and has been continuously maintained since erected.


Note: The department will notify a farm−raised deer keeper whenever a wild deer found or killed within 5 miles of the keeper’s farm−raised deer herd tests positive for chronic wasting disease. Ninety days is generally a “reasonable time” to install a double protective barrier, for purposes of par. (c), although winter construction limitations may justify a longer “reasonable time.”


History: CR 06−009: cr. Register September 2006 No. 609, eff. 10−1−06; CR 07−107: cr. (1) (d) and (4) (c), am. (3) (d) 1., r. and recr. (4) (b) Register November 2008 No. 635, eff. 12−1−08; CR 11−048: am. (3) (b), cr. (3) (f), am. (4) (b) Register July 2012 No. 679, eff. 8−1−12.


ATCP 10.58 Farm−raised deer; separation from diseased wild deer. For purposes of ss. ATCP 10.53 (7) (a) 4. and 10.56 (4) (c), a double protective barrier means one of following systems, or a combination of any of the following systems, which fully encloses a farm−raised deer herd and is approved by the department:


(1) A double fence that meets all of the following requirements:


(a) Each fence is at least 8 feet high at every point.


(b) The 2 fences are at least 10 feet but not more than 16 feet apart at every point.


(2) A solid barrier that is at least 8 feet high at every point. History: CR 07−107: cr. Register November 2008 No. 635, eff. 12−1−08; correction in (intro.) and renumbering made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 1. and 7., Stats., Register November 2008 No. 635.




CWD Sample Training Available to Deer Farm Owners Wisconsin Ag Connection - 06/07/2013


Farm-raised deer owners from across Wisconsin who are interested in becoming certified to collect the tissues needed for Chronic Wasting Disease testing can receive training later this month. A special course will be held on June 27 at 1:00 p.m. at the Hancock Ag Research Station.


Instructed by Dr. Richard Bourie and field staff veterinarians from the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, attendees of this free seminar will receive information on rules, procedures and equipment necessary to collect CWD tissue samples. In addition, workshop attendees will learn the details of the entire certification process.


Training is available to owners, their designated employee or immediate family member.


Pre-registration is required by June 20 by calling 608-224-4896.

 
 


 
 
 



Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin Deer




2011


By Erin Larson

 
 

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) began monitoring the state’s wild white-tailed deer for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in 1999. Three positive deer were identified from Dane County through random testing of hunter harvested deer in November 2001. Since 2002 about 172,000 deer have been tested in Wisconsin for CWD with 1,806 testing positive. Surveillance has been continually conducted in the southern portions of the state as well as rotating statewide surveillance. CWD positive wild deer have been found in 12 southern counties to date. The majority of the positives remain in a small 126-mi2 area bounded by Spring Green, Mazomanie, Black Earth, Mount Horeb and Ridgeway in Dane and Iowa counties. No positives have been found outside of the CWD management zone.




Over 5,000 wild deer were tested during the 2011-2012 CWD year. Currently 236 deer have tested positive during this year (see Table 1). Also taking place during the 2011-2012 year was a landowner hunting season. Landowners and hunters could buy $2 permits for hunting from January 9, 2012 – March 31, 2012.




Since 2002, CWD prevalence within our western monitoring area has shown an overall increasing trend in all sex and age classes. During the past 10 years, the trend in prevalence in adult males has risen from about 8 percent to about 18 percent, and in adult females from about 3 percent to approximately 7 percent. During that same time, the prevalence trend in yearling males has increased from about 2 percent to about 6 percent and in yearling females from less than 2 percent to about 5 percent. It is important to keep in mind that annual prevalence estimates are subject to sampling variation, and that trends over time give better information.






snip...












Prevalence & surveillance Since 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD) prevalence within our western monitoring area has shown an overall increasing trend in all sex and age classes. During the past 11 years, the trend in prevalence in adult males has risen from 8-10 percent to over 20 percent, and in adult females from about 3-4 percent to approximately 9 percent. During that same time, the prevalence trend in yearling males has increased from about 2 percent to about 6 percent and in yearling females from roughly 2 percent to about 5 percent.

 
 



We continue to find that disease prevalence is higher in males than females and higher in adults than yearlings. It is important to keep in mind that annual prevalence estimates are subject to sampling variation, and that trends over time give us better information. These annual monitoring data are important for Wisconsin's understanding of CWD distribution and prevalence.


 
 


The graphs in the links below show estimates of prevalence of CWD in the western monitoring area for yearling and adult males and females during 2002-2012. Illustrated in the graphs are the annual estimates (solid diamonds and open squares), trend lines that are based on all 11 years of test results (bold solid and dashed lines), and the uncertainty associated with the trend lines (thin solid and dashed lines).








 
Interactive mapping application showing harvest locations of all deer tested including those with positive test results.
Map of sampling areas for 2012
CWD sampling areas for 2012 [PDF] The DNR will focus statewide surveillance in Dodge, Grant, Juneau, and Adams counties for the 2012 season. In the CWD Management Zone, the department will continue to sample in the monitoring areas, Devils Lake, and Racine, Kenosha, Richmond, and Sauk counties. In addition, an intense sampling effort will take place around the Washburn positive.

Prevalence of CWD
Prevalence of CWD in the CWD Zones [PDF] This map displays the estimated prevalence of CWD per square mile within the CWD management zone. It is based on testing data collected from 2002-2009.

CWD Positive Locations
CWD positive deer locations [PDF] Updated 4/3/2013.



Wisconsin/Illinois CWD Positive Locations
Wisconsin/Illinois Positive Locations [PDF] Updated 4/12/2013.






http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/wildlifehabitat/prevalence.html
 
 
 
CWD detected in Washburn county in northwest Wisconsin
 
 
 
 
Why fawns are not routinely tested for CWD
The department highly discourages the testing of any fawns regardless of where they were harvested. Of the more than 15,800 fawns from the CWD-MZ that have been tested, only 27 tested positive, and most of those were nearly one year old.
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, February 04, 2012
 
 
Wisconsin 16 MONTH age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised
 
 
 
 
 
Deer trustee report implementationHerd Health/Chronic Wasting Disease Action Team
 
 
 
 
yep, while the Texas deer czar dr. dough was off to Wisconsin pushing the privately owned shooting pen industry (livestock cervids industry), Texas fell to CWD, and just reported 4 more CWD postives. ...
 
 
 
 
for your information...
 
 
 
According to Wisconsin’s White-Tailed Deer Trustee Dr. James Kroll, people who call for more public hunting opportunities are “pining for socialism.” He further states, “(Public) Game management is the last bastion of communism.” “Game Management,” says James Kroll, driving to his high-fenced, two-hundred-acre spread near Nacogdoches, “is the last bastion of communism.” Kroll, also known as Dr. Deer, is the director of the Forestry Resources Institute of Texas at Stephen F. Austin State University, and the “management” he is referring to is the sort practiced by the State of Texas. The 55-year-old Kroll is the leading light in the field of private deer management as a means to add value to the land. His belief is so absolute that some detractors refer to him as Dr. Dough, implying that his eye is on the bottom line more than on the natural world. Kroll, who has been the foremost proponent of deer ranching in Texas for more than thirty years, doesn’t mind the controversy and certainly doesn’t fade in the heat. People who call for more public lands are “cocktail conservationists,” he says, who are really pining for socialism. He calls national parks “wildlife ghettos” and flatly accuses the government of gross mismanagement. He argues that his relatively tiny acreage, marked by eight-foot fences and posted signs warning off would-be poachers, is a better model for keeping what’s natural natural while making money off the land.
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
Dr. James C. Kroll Texas deer czar final report on Wisconsin
 
 
 
 
Friday, June 01, 2012
*** TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS
 
 
 
 
Thursday, March 29, 2012
TEXAS DEER CZAR SAYS WISCONSIN DNR NOT DOING ENOUGH ABOUT CWD LIKE POT CALLING KETTLE BLACK
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Far West Texas
 
 
 
 
Monday, February 11, 2013
TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD Four New Positives Found in Trans Pecos
 
 
 
 
Thursday, May 02, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Texas Important Update on OBEX ONLY TEXTING
 
 
 
Tuesday, November 02, 2010
IN CONFIDENCE
The information contained herein should not be disseminated further except on the basis of "NEED TO KNOW".
BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992
 
 
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, and other TSE prion disease, these TSE prions know no borders.
these TSE prions know no age restrictions.
The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.
you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat.
you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.
the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.
IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.
you can bury it and it will not go away.
The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.
it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
I go from state to state trying to warn of the CWD and other TSE prion disease in other species, I just made a promise to mom. back then, there was no information.
so, I submit this to you all in good faith, and hope that you take the time to read my research of the _sound_, peer review science, not the junk science that goes with the politics $$$
right or left or teaparty or independent, you cannot escape the TSE prion disease.
there is a lot of science here to digest, but better digesting this _sound_ science, instead of the junk political science you will hear from the shooting pen industry.
snip...
 
see full text of my submission here ;
 
 
 
please see what the U.K. DEFRA recently said ABOUT CWD RISK FACTORS ;
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
 
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
 
snip...
 
 
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
 
 
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
 
 
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
 
 
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
 
 
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
 
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
 
 
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.
 
 
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
 
 
snip...
 
 
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).
 
 
The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
 
 
Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.
 
 
snip...
 
 
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
 
 
snip...
 
 
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.
 
 
snip...
 
 
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.
 
 
snip...
 
 
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.
 
 
snip...
 
 
see full text report here ;
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
 
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
 
 
 
 
how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??
 
 
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.
RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
SUMMARY:
snip...
C. The DNR will begin timber removal from outside the fence this winter. Timber removal from inside the fence has begun with hazardous trees removed. The construction of a second fence 10 – 12 feet outside the present fence will begin in the spring. This will add an additional level of security for keeping wild deer from entering the farm and maintain the integrity of the perimeter (see attachment).
D. The DNR plans to use the Almond Farm as a CWD research facility. Because the question of how long a contaminated site is a risk to deer is of national and international interest, there may be opportunities for research and funding at this facility. One way to potentially assess whether there is a risk to deer from the Almond Farm is to conduct bioassays focusing on prions persisting in soil and what role environmental contamination plays in disease transmission. A proposal is pending from the University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point that concerns prion degradation via composting. The group is seeking additional funding from the University of Wisconsin – Madison and representatives in Canada. USGS is also contemplating a proposal contingent on funding from their pending federal budget. Any proposed research that includes bringing captive cervids onto the property will be thoroughly reviewed by the CWD Research Committee consisting of the Wildlife Health Team, the Wildlife Policy Team, and Department administration as well as external CWD experts prior to permission being granted to ensure that the health of the wild deer herd will not be endangered. The double fencing described above will be critical to minimize the risk of ingress of free-ranging and egress of any experimental captive cervids. E. The house is rented and currently occupied by a Northeast district wildlife employee. The Lessee agrees to perform weekly fence inspections to insure that the fence integrity has not been compromised. The Lessee also pays for all utilities, and will provide lawn care, snow removal, gutter cleaning, and other miscellaneous maintenance as needed. In exchange for these services the monthly rental fee has been waived. It is agreed that the Lessor and the Lessee shall review said waiver of the monthly rental charge at the end of every twelve months that this lease is in effect (see attachment).
snip...
Despite the five year premise plan and site decontamination, The WI DNR has concerns over the bioavailability of infectious prions at this site to wild white-tail deer should these fences be removed. Current research indicates that prions can persist in soil for a minimum of 3 years. However, Georgsson et al. (2006) concluded that prions that produced scrapie disease in sheep remained bioavailable and infectious for at least 16 years in natural Icelandic environments, most likely in contaminated soil. Additionally, the authors reported that from 1978-2004, scrapie recurred on 33 sheep farms, of which 9 recurrences occurred 14-21 years after initial culling and subsequent restocking efforts; these findings further emphasize the effect of environmental contamination on sustaining TSE infectivity and that long-term persistence of prions in soils may be substantially greater than previously thought. Evidence of environmental transmission also was documented in a Colorado research facility where mule deer became infected with CWD in two of three paddocks where infected deer carcasses had decomposed on site 1.8 years earlier, and in one of three paddocks where infected deer had last resided 2.2 years earlier (Miller et al. 2004).
snip...
Environmental contamination has been identified as a possible cause of recurrence of CWD-infection on elk farms in Canada, when elk were reintroduced one year after depopulation, clean up and disinfection. To date, 8 CWD infected farms remain under CFIA (government of Canada) quarantine indefinitely and will not be allowed to repopulate with cervids until there is additional research on detection of prions in soils and better understanding of the duration of persistence of disease-causing prion post depopulation of CWD-infected cervid farms (Douglas, CFIA, pers. comm.).
Furthermore, the likely transmission of CWD via soil is corroborated by recent studies showing long-term persistence of prions in soil, that prion binds to soil components with high affinity and is not easily removed by water, and that oral prion disease transmission may be enhanced when bound to soil (Johnson et al. 2006, Schramm et al. 2006, Johnson et al. 2007). These findings suggest that soil may harbor more TSE infectivity and contribute more significantly to TSE transmission than previously recognized. These studies highlight the concerns about the risk of transmission via environmental contamination beyond five years and that efforts should be made to prevent freeranging deer from coming into contact with these contaminated facilities.
SNIP...
CHAPTER TWO
OBJECTIVE FOR PROPERTY
Maintain the Perimeter Deer Fence
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, November 16, 2011
Wisconsin Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011
 
 
 
Monday, January 16, 2012
9 GAME FARMS IN WISCONSIN TEST POSITIVE FOR CWD
 
 
 
Tuesday, April 16, 2013
Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease
 
 
 
Tuesday, December 18, 2012
A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk
 
 
 
*** Cumulative Distribution of CWD among Farmed Cervid Herds October 2012, 2013, and depopulation maps
 
 
 
see full text and more here ;
 
 
 
Thursday, February 09, 2012
50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
 
 
 
pens, pens, PENS ??
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.
 
 
 
now, decades later ;
The most widely accepted hypothesis at this time is that CWD may have originated from an interspecies transmission of scrapie. It is worth noting that experimental transmission of scrapie into elk via IC inoculation is clinically and neuropathologically indistinguishable from CWD with currently available experimental methods.44
 
 
 
 
snip...see much more here ;
Thursday, June 13, 2013
Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle
 
 
 
2012
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
snip...
After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.
 
 
 
2011
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.
 
 
 
Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity
After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.
 
 
2011 Annual Report
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit 2011 Annual Report
In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.
snip...
4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.
 
 
 
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection
snip...
This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.
see full text ;
 
 
 
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN
Wednesday, September 08, 2010
CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010
 
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
 
 
 
The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection) increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of having CWD in free-ranging herds: We’ve got this infectious agent out there that we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic livestock.”
 
 
 
P35
ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD
Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5
The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.
 
 
 
PPo3-7:
Prion Transmission from Cervids to Humans is Strain-dependent
Qingzhong Kong, Shenghai Huang,*Fusong Chen, Michael Payne, Pierluigi Gambetti and Liuting Qing Department of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA *Current address: Nursing Informatics; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; New York, NY USA
Key words: CWD, strain, human transmission
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in cervids (deer and elk) in North America where significant human exposure to CWD is likely and zoonotic transmission of CWD is a concern. Current evidence indicates a strong barrier for transmission of the classical CWD strain to humans with the PrP-129MM genotype. A few recent reports suggest the presence of two or more CWD strains. What remain unknown is whether individuals with the PrP-129VV/MV genotypes are also resistant to the classical CWD strain and whether humans are resistant to all natural or adapted cervid prion strains. Here we report that a human prion strain that had adopted the cervid prion protein (PrP) sequence through passage in cervidized transgenic mice efficiently infected transgenic mice expressing human PrP, indicating that the species barrier from cervid to humans is prion strain-dependent and humans can be vulnerable to novel cervid prion strains. Preliminary results on CWD transmission in transgenic mice expressing human PrP-129V will also be discussed.
Acknowledgement Supported by NINDS NS052319 and NIA AG14359.
PPo2-27:
Generation of a Novel form of Human PrPSc by Inter-species Transmission of Cervid Prions
Marcelo A. Barria,1 Glenn C. Telling,2 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's disease and related Brain disorders; Dept of Neurology; University of Texas Houston Medical School; Houston, TX USA; 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics and Neurology; Sanders Brown Center on Aging; University of Kentucky Medical Center; Lexington, KY USA; 3Institute of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA; 4Dept of Neurology; University of Chicago; Chicago, IL USA
Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded and infectious prion (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. CWD is highly contagious and its origin, mechanism of transmission and exact prevalence are currently unclear. The risk of transmission of CWD to humans is unknown. Defining that risk is of utmost importance, considering that people have been infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the infectious form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the pathological conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, this newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc, indicating that it corresponds to a novel human prion strain. Our findings suggest that CWD prions have the capability to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation, implying that the risk for human health progressively increases with the spread of CWD among cervids.
PPo2-7:
Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Different CWD Isolates
Martin L. Daus and Michael Beekes Robert Koch Institute; Berlin, Germany
Key words: CWD, strains, FT-IR, AFM
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease. The other two are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. CWD is contagious and affects captive as well as free ranging cervids. As long as there is no definite answer of whether CWD can breach the species barrier to humans precautionary measures especially for the protection of consumers need to be considered. In principle, different strains of CWD may be associated with different risks of transmission to humans. Sophisticated strain differentiation as accomplished for other prion diseases has not yet been established for CWD. However, several different findings indicate that there exists more than one strain of CWD agent in cervids. We have analysed a set of CWD isolates from white-tailed deer and could detect at least two biochemically different forms of disease-associated prion protein PrPTSE. Limited proteolysis with different concentrations of proteinase K and/or after exposure of PrPTSE to different pH-values or concentrations of Guanidinium hydrochloride resulted in distinct isolate-specific digestion patterns. Our CWD isolates were also examined in protein misfolding cyclic amplification studies. This showed different conversion activities for those isolates that had displayed significantly different sensitivities to limited proteolysis by PK in the biochemical experiments described above. We further applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with atomic force microscopy. This confirmed structural differences in the PrPTSE of at least two disinct CWD isolates. The data presented here substantiate and expand previous reports on the existence of different CWD strains.
 
 
 
 
2012
Envt.06:
Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates
Emmanuel Comoy,1,† Valérie Durand,1 Evelyne Correia,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Jürgen Richt,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Juan-Maria Torres,5 Paul Brown,1 Bob Hills6 and Jean-Philippe Deslys1
1Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa, ON Canada; 3Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS USA; 4INRA; Jouy-en-Josas, France; 5INIA; Madrid, Spain; 6Health Canada; Ottawa, ON Canada
†Presenting author; Email: emmanuel.comoy@cea.fr
The constant increase of chronic wasting disease (CWD) incidence in North America raises a question about their zoonotic potential. A recent publication showed their transmissibility to new-world monkeys, but no transmission to old-world monkeys, which are phylogenetically closer to humans, has so far been reported. Moreover, several studies have failed to transmit CWD to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease for which a zoonotic potential has been proven. We described the transmission of the atypical BSE-L strain of BSE to cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting a weak cattle-to-primate species barrier. We observed the same phenomenon with a cattleadapted strain of TME (Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy). Since cattle experimentally exposed to CWD strains have also developed spongiform encephalopathies, we inoculated brain tissue from CWD-infected cattle to three cynomolgus macaques as well as to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine or human PrP. Since CWD prion strains are highly lymphotropic, suggesting an adaptation of these agents after peripheral exposure, a parallel set of four monkeys was inoculated with CWD-infected cervid brains using the oral route. Nearly four years post-exposure, monkeys exposed to CWD-related prion strains remain asymptomatic. In contrast, bovinized and humanized transgenic mice showed signs of infection, suggesting that CWD-related prion strains may be capable of crossing the cattle-to-primate species barrier. Comparisons with transmission results and incubation periods obtained after exposure to other cattle prion strains (c-BSE, BSE-L, BSE-H and cattle-adapted TME) will also be presented, in order to evaluate the respective risks of each strain.
Envt.07:
Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease
Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany †Presenting author; Email: dausm@rki.de
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.
 
 
 
Thursday, April 03, 2008
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
Sigurdson CJ.
snip...
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
snip...
full text ;
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, November 14, 2011
WYOMING Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011
 
 
 
Sunday, November 13, 2011
COLORADO CWD CJD TSE PRION REPORTING 2011
 
 
 
Friday, November 09, 2012
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
 
 
 
Sunday, November 11, 2012
*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
*** Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012
 
 
 
Saturday, March 09, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases
 
 
 
CJD9/10022
October 1994
Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ
Dear Mr Elmhirst,
CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT
Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.
The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.
The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.
The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.
I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.
 
 
 
PLUS, THE CDC DID NOT PUT THIS WARNING OUT FOR THE WELL BEING OF THE DEER AND ELK ;
Thursday, May 26, 2011
Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey
Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.
 
 
 
NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II
 
 
 
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
 
 
 
Wednesday, June 12, 2013
CWD now waltzing into Texas from Pennsylvania CWD index herd, via Louisiana, or Missouri now ?
 
 
 
Sunday, June 09, 2013
Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
 
 
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania
 
 
 
PAUL BROWN SCRAPIE SOIL TEST
 
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.
Probable amount of CWD prions on contaminated boots and equipment
SNIP...
Given that a hunter or tourist walks in areas which are contaminated with CWD, it is possible that they will collect soil on their boots and other equipment. This likelihood will increase if the hunter has shot and handled a CWD infected deer resulting in contamination of the hunting equipment (e.g. knives) and their clothing and they subsequently arrive in GB with this equipment, footwear and clothing. Further, the soles of hiking boots tend to retain more soil than those of normal shoes. Wilkinson (2010), for example, removed 0.1 g of soil from hiking boots after returning to GB from a 2-month research visit to Canada. The amount of CWD prion in this amount of soil will depend upon the density of CWD infected animals excreting prions into the environment and the type of soil; CWD prion binds to clay soil, for example. Animal mortality sites could also be hotspots of CWD prion given the highly infectious nervous system matter entering into the environment and soil (Saunders et al., 2010).
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
 
 
Research Article
Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay
Tracy A. Nichols mail, Terry R. Spraker, Tara D. Rigg, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Clare Hoover, Brady Michel, Jifeng Bian, Edward Hoover, Thomas Gidlewski, Aru Balachandran, Katherine O'Rourke, Glenn C. Telling, Richard Bowen, [ ... ], Kurt C. VerCauteren equal contributor
Abstract
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.
snip...
The results of this study confirm that CWD can be successfully transmitted IN as a lyophilized prion particulate adsorbed to Mte and that genotype at codon 96 affects the lymphoid distribution of CWD within the body. Additionally, two novel intranasal tracking methods were employed that provided insight into CWD translocation within the nasal cavity. The data collected in this study may also shed light on why there is a higher prevalence of CWD in males, as males participate in more behaviors that generate dust. We propose chronic, long-term exposure to CWD prions adsorbed to dust particles to be a natural CWD infection route in addition to chronic oral and nasal contact exposure.
Citation: Nichols TA, Spraker TR, Rigg TD, Meyerett-Reid C, Hoover C, et al. (2013) Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay. PLoS ONE 8(5): e62455. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062455
Editor: Anthony E. Kincaid, Creighton University, United States of America
Received: November 30, 2012; Accepted: March 21, 2013; Published: May 9, 2013
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Funding: Funding was provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services (VS). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
see full text ;
 
 
 
Thanks again to PLOS et al for full text access to this scientific research on the CWD TSE prion disease...tss
see more here ;
Wednesday, May 15, 2013
Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay
Research Article
 
 
 
 
Friday, February 08, 2013
*** Behavior of Prions in the Environment: Implications for Prion Biology
 
 
 
Friday, February 25, 2011
Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds
 
 
 
Greetings TAHC, Carol Pivonka, et al,
I kindly wish to comment on the proposed rule making for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”.
AS a layperson, and since the confirmed death of my mother to the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, I have followed the mad cow debacle/blunder, the CWD blunder, the scrapie blunder, and the human CJD science, daily since that day December 14, 1997 MOM DOD hvCJD. I made a promise to her about the fact I would not let this die with her. back then there was no information, and I made a promise I would my best to find this information, make it public, for everyone to know.
There is much science out there, updated peer review science, and transmission studies, that dispute some of the things said by TAHC, and other government agencies, I wish to kindly submit this science. I hope that my submission is made available to the public, and especially the members of the meeting that is to be held on September 18, 2012 meeting, to amend Chapter 40, entitled “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”.
My submission is as follows, and I will comment after each key point separately ;
Below are key points of the proposed rules to Chapter 40:
• Require additional cervid species such as North American Elk or Wapiti, red deer and Sika deer to participate in surveillance for CWD if they are being moved or transported within the state.
• Provide enrollment requirements for the TAHC Complete Monitored Herd Program for CWD, based in large part on the USDA interim final rule on CWD.
o Complete physical inventory of the herd every three years
o Fences must be 8 feet in height for herds enrolling after the rule is effective
o Require 30 feet of separation between herds, with no shared working facilities
o Requires reporting of all CWD suspicious animals and testing of all death losses in animals 12 months of age or older (changed from 16 months).
• Delegates authority to the Executive Director to issue an order to declare a CWD high risk area or county based on sound epidemiological principles for disease detection, control and eradication.
>>> • Require additional cervid species such as North American Elk or Wapiti, red deer and Sika deer to participate in surveillance for CWD if they are being moved or transported within the state.
1st and foremost, any voluntary cwd program will fail.
BY only requiring this, ONLY ‘if these cervids are being moved or transported within state’, and NOT in general, this is a mistake. Elk or Wapiti, red deer and Sika that are not moved within state, will not be in the surveillance program, and these animals could potentially risk CWD to other herd mates, that might be transported within state.
ALSO, these same cervids, once traded within state, could potentially be subclinically infected with CWD (considering cwd testing protocols, age limits etc.), and once traded within state, could it not be possible to then trade them out of state?
*** I propose this proposal should be that all cervids, should be in this CWD surveillance program, and this program should be MANDATORY, if the state is going to license ANY game farm or fenced in game farm/ranch. ...TSS
Monday, June 18, 2012
natural cases of CWD in eight Sika deer (Cervus nippon) and five Sika/red deer crossbreeds captive Korea and Experimental oral transmission to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)
 
 
 
Tuesday, June 19, 2012
Experimental Oral Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease to Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)
 
 
 
====================================
>>> • Provide enrollment requirements for the TAHC Complete Monitored Herd Program for CWD, based in large part on the USDA interim final rule on CWD.
o Complete physical inventory of the herd every three years
o Fences must be 8 feet in height for herds enrolling after the rule is effective
o Require 30 feet of separation between herds, with no shared working facilities
o Requires reporting of all CWD suspicious animals and testing of all death losses in animals 12 months of age or older (changed from 16 months).
FIRST LET’S look at the USDA interim final rule on CWD and my submission ;
Comment from Terry Singeltary Document ID: APHIS-2011-0032-0002Document Type: Public Submission This is comment on Notice: Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program Docket ID: APHIS-2011-0032RIN: Topics: No Topics associated with this document
View Document: Show Details
Document Subtype: Public Comment Status: Posted Received Date: January 24 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Date Posted: January 25 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Comment Start Date: January 24 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Comment Due Date: March 26 2012, at 11:59 PM Eastern Daylight Time Tracking Number: 80fa2c68 First Name: Terry Middle Name: S. Last Name: Singeltary City: Bacliff Country: United States State or Province: TX Organization Name: LAYPERSON Submitter's Representative: CJD TSE PRION VICTIMS
Comment:
Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program (Document ID APHIS-2011-0032-0001) I believe that any voluntary program for CWD free herd certification from game farms will be futile, as was the partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban of August 4, 1997. That failed terribly, with some 10,000,000 of banned blood laced MBM being fed out in 2007, a decade post August 4, 1997 partial and voluntary ban. Game farms are a petri dish for CWD TSE Prion disease, with Wisconsin having documented 9 CWD infected game farms, with one having the highest CWD infection rate in the world, 80% CWD infection rate. I believe that all game farms should be SHUT DOWN PERMANENTLY. CWD TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit. you cannot cook the CWD TSE prion disease out of meat. you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE. Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well. the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes. IN fact, you should also know that the CWD TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades. you can bury it and it will not go away. CWD TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area. it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
 
 
additional data submission ;
Name: Terry S. Singeltary
Address: Bacliff, TX,
Submitter's Representative: CJD TSE PRION VICTIMS
Organization: LAYPERSON
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
General Comment
Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program (Document ID APHIS-2011-0032-0001)
I believe that any voluntary program for CWD free herd certification from game farms will be futile, as was the partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban of August 4, 1997. That failed terribly, with some 10,000,000 of banned blood laced MBM being fed out in 2007, a decade post August 4, 1997 partial and voluntary ban.
Game farms are a petri dish for CWD TSE Prion disease, with Wisconsin having documented 9 CWD infected game farms, with one having the highest CWD infection rate in the world, 80% CWD infection rate.
I believe that all game farms should be SHUT DOWN PERMANENTLY.
CWD TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.
you cannot cook the CWD TSE prion disease out of meat.
you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.
the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.
IN fact, you should also know that the CWD TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.
you can bury it and it will not go away.
CWD TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.
it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with.
that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
 
 
 
 
=====================================
>>> o Complete physical inventory of the herd every three years
By only doing a physical inventory of the herd every three years, any cervid escapee from any game farm will not be detected for 3 years. This will allow 3 years for any potential CWD infected cervid that might escape to infect the wild herds.
*** I propose a physical inventory of the herd should be done every year, and this should be mandatory. ...TSS
Deer, elk continue to escape from state farms
Article by: DOUG SMITH , Star Tribune Updated: March 14, 2011 - 12:08 PM
Curbing chronic wasting disease remains a concern; officials are increasing enforcement.
Almost 500 captive deer and elk have escaped from Minnesota farms over the past five years, and 134 were never recaptured or killed.
So far this year, 17 deer have escaped, and officials are still searching for many of those.
see ;
Friday, September 28, 2012
Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota
 
 
 
Monday, June 11, 2012
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting
 
 
 
==================================
 
>>> o Fences must be 8 feet in height for herds enrolling after the rule is effective
IT’s been documented that cervids can jump much higher than 8ft. This is a fact. This 8 foot rule on single fence heights does not completely protect the wild cervid herds from Chronic Wasting Disease CWD.
*** I propose that it should be mandatory for double fencing, with the height of either fence not to be any lower than 12 feet, if these deer farms/ranches are going to be in existence. WE MUST PROTECT OUR WILD HERDS. ...TSS
Oh deer! Animals escape from Todmorden farm after fence cut
Published on Saturday 7 April 2012 15:00
A STAG and six hinds are on the loose after a wire fence was cut at a Todmorden deer farm.
The damage was carried out between Tuesday April 3 and 8am the following day at East Hey Farm, Stone Cross Road.
The high-value animals are reported to have run in the direction of Burnley.
Police and the owner are appealing for witnesses or anyone with information to contact Sergeant Damon Walker on 101 or Crimestoppers, in confidence, on 0800 555 111.
 
 
 
 
Last year, only one deer was removed from the airport. It was unclear how the deer got past the wildlife fence — there might have been a small opening in the fence, or the deer might have simply jumped the 10 feet. Scherschligt said wildlife studies indicate that deer can sometimes jump 12-foot-tall obstructions, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture rates some whitetail deer as capable of jumping 15 feet.
 
 
 
 
Jumping to a vertical height of at least eight feet, deer can scale over barriers you may think are impossible. Watching a deer confronted with a vertical, eight-foot tall, hight-tensile wire fence then
watching it leap over from a standing position makes a startling impression. A frightened deer mhurdle a fence as high as 12 feet if given a running start and enough adrenalin. Horizontally, a deer may leap 15 to 30 feet, the longer distance only when frightened. In general, a deer may jump high or long, but not both at the same time. Deer have also been known to crawl under fences and through openings as small as 7.5 inches. The will of a deer to penetrate a fence is dependent on the force of the motivation behind it.
 
 
 
 
Sauer (1984) reported white-tailed deer could jump a 2.1-m fence from a standing start and could jump a 2.4-m fence from a running start. In contradiction, Fitzwater (1972) indicates that a 2.4-m fence is sufficient to prevent deer from jumping. Ludwig and Bremicker (1981) concluded that 2.4-m fencing was effective at keeping deer out of roadways as long as the length of the fence is extended well beyond the high-risk area for deer-vehicle collisions.
 
 
 
 
===================================
>>> o Require 30 feet of separation between herds, with no shared working facilities
IN my opinion, 30 feet is not enough separation between herds, considering AEROSOL SPREAD of the CWD TSE prion agent via dirt. Also, the spreading of the CWD TSE agent via rodents in the pens, from pen to pen, and any potential salvia from any feed that may be transferred from pen to pen via said rodents, could be a risk factor.
*** I propose that all pens should be double fenced as I proposed above, and that the separation between herds, should be much, much, greater than the 30 feet proposed, and that risk factors for any potential AEROSOL SPREAD, DIRT, RODENTS, WATER. ...TSS
Saturday, September 01, 2012
Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion
 
 
 
Monday, September 17, 2012
Rapid Transepithelial Transport of Prions Following Inhalation
 
 
 
Thursday, May 31, 2012
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PRION2012 Aerosol, Inhalation transmission, Scrapie, cats, species barrier, burial, and more
 
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents
Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email: cjohnson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu
We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in "rigid loop" structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.
 
 
 
please see ;
 
 
 
Detection of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Water from a CWD-Endemic Area
65
Tracy A. Nichols*1,2, Bruce Pulford1, Christy Wyckoff1,2, Crystal Meyerett1, Brady Michel1, Kevin Gertig3, Jean E. Jewell4, Glenn C. Telling5 and M.D. Zabel1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA 2National Wildlife Research Center, Wildlife Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 3Fort Collins Water and Treatment Operations, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 4 Department of Veterinary Sciences, Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82070, USA 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Molecular Genetics and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40536, USA * Corresponding author- tracy.a.nichols@aphis.usda.gov
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only known transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife. Experimental and epidemiological data indicate that CWD can be transmitted horizontally and via blood and saliva, although the exact mode of natural transmission remains unknown. Substantial evidence suggests that prions can persist in the environment, implicating it as a potential prion reservoir and transmission vehicle. CWD- positive animals can contribute to environmental prion load via biological materials including saliva, blood, urine and feces, shedding several times their body weight in possibly infectious excreta in their lifetime, as well as through decomposing carcasses. Sensitivity limitations of conventional assays hamper evaluation of environmental prion loads in water. Here we show the ability of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify minute amounts of CWD prions in spiked water samples at a 1:1 x106 , and protease-resistant prions in environmental and municipal-processing water samples from a CWD endemic area. Detection of CWD prions correlated with increased total organic carbon in water runoff from melting winter snowpack. These data suggest prolonged persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission.
snip...
The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.
snip...end...full text at ;
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
======================================
>>> o Requires reporting of all CWD suspicious animals and testing of all death losses in animals 12 months of age or older (changed from 16 months).
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, has been documented in many cervids (when tested), much younger than the 12 month rule now proposed. AS I so much appreciate the TAHC decreasing the age from 16 months to 12 months, I believe this rule to still leave a risk factor, due to the fact fawns as young as 4 or 5 months old have been documented with CWD.
*** I propose that ALL farmed cervids should be tested for CWD. going into a farm, leaving a farm, and or at death. ...TSS
Wisconsin : Six White-Tailed Deer Fawns Test Positive for CWD
Date: May 13, 2003 Source: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Contacts: Julie Langenberg Wildlife Veterinarian 608-266-3143 Tom Hauge Director, Bureau of Wildlife Management 608-266-2193
MADISON -- Six fawns in the area of south central Wisconsin where chronic wasting disease has been found in white-tailed deer have tested positive for the disease, according to Department of Natural Resources wildlife health officials. These are the youngest wild white-tailed deer detected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) to date.
Approximately 4,200 fawns, defined as deer under 1 year of age, were sampled from the eradication zone over the last year. The majority of fawns sampled were between the ages of 5 to 9 months, though some were as young as 1 month. Two of the six fawns with CWD detected were 5 to 6 months old. All six of the positive fawns were taken from the core area of the CWD eradication zone where the highest numbers of positive deer have been identified.
"This is the first intensive sampling for CWD in fawns anywhere," said Dr. Julie Langenberg, Department of Natural Resources wildlife veterinarian, "and we are trying to learn as much as we can from these data".
"One noteworthy finding is simply the fact that we found positive fawns," Dr. Langenberg said. "These results do show us that CWD transmission can happen at a very young age in wild white-tailed deer populations. However, we found that the percentage of fawns infected with CWD is very low, in the area of 0.14 percent. If there was a higher rate of infection in fawns, then fawns dispersing in the spring could be much more worrisome for disease spread."
Dr. Langenberg noted that while the youngest CWD-positive fawns had evidence of disease-causing prions only in lymph node tissue, several of the older CWD-positive fawns had evidence of CWD prions in both lymph node and brain tissues -- suggesting further progression of the disease.
"Finding CWD prions in both lymph and brain tissues of deer this young is slightly surprising," said Langenberg, "and provides information that CWD infection and illness may progress more rapidly in a white-tailed deer than previously suspected. Published literature suggests that CWD doesn't cause illness in a deer until approximately 16 months of age. Our fawn data shows that a few wild white-tailed deer may become sick from CWD or may transmit the disease before they reach that age of 16 months."
One of the positive fawns was shot with a doe that was also CWD positive. Information about these fawn cases combined with will help researchers who are studying the age and routes of CWD transmission in wild deer populations. "More data analysis and ongoing deer movement studies should give us an even better understanding of how this disease moves across the landscape", said Langenberg.
"Thanks to eradication zone hunters who submitted deer of all ages for sampling, we have a valuable set of fawn data that is contributing to our state's and the nation's understanding about CWD," Langenberg said.
 
 
> > > Two of the six fawns with CWD detected were 5 to 6 months old. < < <
Why doesn't the Wisconsin DNR want to routinely test fawns ?
The DNR highly discourages the testing of any fawns regardless of where they were harvested. Of the more than 15,000 fawns from the CWD-MZ that have been tested, only 23 were test positive, and most of those were nearly one year old. It is exceedingly unlikely that a deer less than one year old would test positive for CWD, even in the higher CWD prevalence areas of southern Wisconsin. Few fawns will have been exposed to CWD, and because this disease spreads through the deer's body very slowly, it is very rare in a fawn that the disease has progressed to a level that is detectable. This means that testing a fawn provides almost no information valuable to understanding CWD in Wisconsin's deer herd and does not provide information of great value to the hunter in making a decision about venison consumption.
 
 
 
> > > It is exceedingly unlikely that a deer less than one year old would test positive for CWD < < < ??
Chronic Wasting Disease in a Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer Farm
 
and 15 of 22 fawns aged 6 to 9 months (68.2%) were positive.
 
 
 
specific susceptibility?
194. It is probable, based on age-class specific prevalence data from wild cervids and epidemiological evidence from captive cervids in affected research centres, that both adults and fawns may become infected with CWD (Miller, Wild & Williams, 1998; Miller et al., 2000).
198. In Odocoileus virginianus – white tailed deer, out of 179 white-tailed deer which had become enclosed by an elk farm fence, in Sioux County, northwestern Nebraska, four fawns only eight months old were among the 50% of CWD-positive animals; these fawns were not showing any clinical signs of CWD (Davidson, 2002).
see full text ;
 
 
Saturday, February 04, 2012
 
 
Wisconsin 16 MONTH age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised
 
 
 
 
=================================
>>> • Delegates authority to the Executive Director to issue an order to declare a CWD high risk area or county based on sound epidemiological principles for disease detection, control and eradication.
IN my opinion, there has been no ‘sound epidemiological principles for disease detection, control and eradication’ in Texas for CWD, or any other TSE. It’s been just the opposite. NOT even speaking about all the risk factors from the cervid game ranch farms in Texas over the years, and trading, and the lax rules and enforcement of said rules there from, the fact that CWD infected deer have been waltzing across Texas for the past decade, in the exact spot I tried warning TAHC back in 2001-2002, i.e. the Texas, New Mexico border at the WSMR area, the complete state of Texas is at risk for CWD, and has been at risk for CWD for years.
*** I propose that Texas, and the Executive Director, should take that authority, and declare the complete state of Texas (not just a high risk area, where the State of New Mexico finally forced Texas to finally test, and finally embarrassed Texas enough to finally do CWD testing where it should have been done 10 years ago), but I believe the complete state of Texas should be declared a high risk area for CWD, until proper testing (in sufficient numbers, in all geographical regions), and tested 100% of all farmed cervids. ...TSS
see full text ;
Friday, October 12, 2012
 
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”
 
 
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
 
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose
 
A Rule by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service on 07/20/2012
 
This article has a comment period that ends in 20 days (08/13/2012)
 
Action
Interim Final Rule; Reopening Of Comment Period.
Summary
We are reopening the comment period for our interim final rule that will establish a herd certification program to control chronic wasting disease (CWD) in farmed or captive cervids in the United States. The interim final rule requested comment on our decision that our regulations will set minimum requirements for the interstate movement of farmed or captive cervids but not preempt State or local laws or regulations that are more restrictive than our regulations, except any such laws or regulations that prohibit or further restrict the transit through a State of deer, elk, and moose that are otherwise eligible for interstate movement. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit comments on our preemption policy with respect to CWD. This document also indicates that we will consider comments on issues other than our preemption policy for future rulemaking.Show citation box
Table of Contents DATES: ADDRESSES: FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
DATES: Back to Top
We will consider all comments that we receive on or before August 13, 2012.Show citation box
ADDRESSES: Back to Top
You may submit comments by either of the following methods:Show citation box Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=APHIS-2006-0118-0199.Show citation box Postal Mail/Commercial Delivery: Send your comment to Docket No. 00-108-8, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238.Show citation box Supporting documents and any comments we receive on this docket may be viewed at http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=APHIS-2006-0118 or in our reading room, which is located in room 1141 of the USDA South Building, 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to help you, please call (202) 799-7039 before coming.Show citation box
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Back to Top
Dr. Patrice Klein, Senior Staff Veterinarian, National Center for Animal Health Programs, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 851-3435.Show citation box
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Back to Top
On June 13, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 35542-35571, Docket No. 00-108-8) an interim final rule that will establish a herd certification program to control chronic wasting disease (CWD) in farmed or captive cervids in the United States. The interim final rule will be effective on August 13, 2012.Show citation box In the interim final rule, we requested comments specifically on our decision not to preempt State and local laws and regulations that are more restrictive than our regulations with respect to CWD, except any such laws or regulations that prohibit or further restrict the transit through a State of deer, elk, and moose that are otherwise eligible for interstate movement. That decision was discussed in section III of the Background section of the interim final rule, under the heading “APHIS' Decision Not to Preempt More Restrictive State Requirements on Farmed or Captive Cervids With Respect to CWD,” beginning on 77 FR 35545.Show citation box Comments on our decisions regarding preemption of State and local laws and regulations were required to be received on or before July 13, 2012. We are reopening the comment period on Docket No. 00-108-8 until August 13, 2012. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit comments. We will also consider all comments received between July 14, 2012, and the date of this notice.Show citation box The interim final rule indicated that we will publish another document in the Federal Register after the comment period closes that will include a discussion of any comments we receive on our preemption policy and any amendments we are making to the rule. We still plan to do this. However, we have received comments on aspects of the interim final rule other than our preemption policy. While we will not address these comments in our document discussing our preemption policy, we will consider these comments to determine whether future rulemaking may be necessary, and we encourage commenters to address any aspect of the interim final rule that they wish to.Show citation box
Authority: Back to Top
7 U.S.C. 8301-8317; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.4.Show citation box
Done in Washington, DC, this 16th day of July 2012. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2012-17726 Filed 7-19-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-34-P
 
 
Comment from Terry Singeltary
 
 
 
 
Document ID: APHIS-2011-0032-0002 Document Type: Public Submission This is comment on Notice: Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program Docket ID: APHIS-2011-0032 RIN:
 
 
Topics: No Topics associated with this document View Document: More
Document Subtype: Public Comment Status: Posted Received Date: January 24 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Date Posted: January 25 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Comment Start Date: January 24 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Comment Due Date: March 26 2012, at 11:59 PM Eastern Daylight Time Tracking Number: 80fa2c68 First Name: Terry Middle Name: S. Last Name: Singeltary City: Bacliff Country: United States State or Province: TX Organization Name: LAYPERSON Submitter's Representative: CJD TSE PRION VICTIMS
Comment:
Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program (Document ID APHIS-2011-0032-0001)
I believe that any voluntary program for CWD free herd certification from game farms will be futile, as was the partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban of August 4, 1997. That failed terribly, with some 10,000,000 of banned blood laced MBM being fed out in 2007, a decade post August 4, 1997 partial and voluntary ban. Game farms are a petri dish for CWD TSE Prion disease, with Wisconsin having documented 9 CWD infected game farms, with one having the highest CWD infection rate in the world, 80% CWD infection rate. I believe that all game farms should be SHUT DOWN PERMANENTLY. CWD TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit. you cannot cook the CWD TSE prion disease out of meat. you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE. Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well. the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes. IN fact, you should also know that the CWD TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades. you can bury it and it will not go away. CWD TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area. it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
 
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
 
 
 
 
Saturday, June 09, 2012
USDA Establishes a Herd Certification Program for Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States
 
 
 
DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability
 
Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 –0500
EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1
 
 
 
SNIP...
Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus )
Christina J. Sigurdson1, Elizabeth S. Williams2, Michael W. Miller3, Terry R. Spraker1,4, Katherine I. O'Rourke5 and Edward A. Hoover1
Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523- 1671, USA1 Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA 2 Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, USA3 Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1671, USA4 Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 337 Bustad Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7030, USA5
Author for correspondence: Edward Hoover.Fax +1 970 491 0523. e-mail ehoover@lamar.colostate.edu
Mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Fawns were necropsied and examined for PrP res, the abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days post-inoculation (p.i.) using an immunohistochemistry assay modified to enhance sensitivity. PrPres was detected in alimentary-tract-associated lymphoid tissues (one or more of the following: retropharyngeal lymph node, tonsil, Peyer's patch and ileocaecal lymph node) as early as 42 days p.i. and in all fawns examined thereafter (53 to 80 days p.i.). No PrPres staining was detected in lymphoid tissue of three control fawns receiving a control brain inoculum, nor was PrPres detectable in neural tissue of any fawn. PrPres-specific staining was markedly enhanced by sequential tissue treatment with formic acid, proteinase K and hydrated autoclaving prior to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5. These results indicate that CWD PrP res can be detected in lymphoid tissues draining the alimentary tract within a few weeks after oral exposure to infectious prions and may reflect the initial pathway of CWD infection in deer. The rapid infection of deer fawns following exposure by the most plausible natural route is consistent with the efficient horizontal transmission of CWD in nature and enables accelerated studies of transmission and pathogenesis in the native species.
snip...
These results indicate that mule deer fawns develop detectable PrP res after oral exposure to an inoculum containing CWD prions. In the earliest post-exposure period, CWD PrPres was traced to the lymphoid tissues draining the oral and intestinal mucosa (i.e. the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, tonsil, ileal Peyer's patches and ileocaecal lymph nodes), which probably received the highest initial exposure to the inoculum. Hadlow et al. (1982) demonstrated scrapie agent in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, ileum and spleen in a 10-month-old naturally infected lamb by mouse bioassay. Eight of nine sheep had infectivity in the retropharyngeal lymph node. He concluded that the tissue distribution suggested primary infection via the gastrointestinal tract. The tissue distribution of PrPres in the early stages of infection in the fawns is strikingly similar to that seen in naturally infected sheep with scrapie. These findings support oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies of CWD.
snip...
 
 
 
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now, just what is in that deer feed? _ANIMAL PROTEIN_
Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES Date: Sat, 25 May 2002 18:41:46 -0700 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." Reply-To: BSE-L To: BSE-L
8420-20.5% Antler Developer For Deer and Game in the wild Guaranteed Analysis Ingredients / Products Feeding Directions
snip...
_animal protein_
BODE'S GAME FEED SUPPLEMENT #400 A RATION FOR DEER NET WEIGHT 50 POUNDS 22.6 KG.
snip...
_animal protein_
Ingredients
Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products 15%, Molasses Products, __Animal Protein Products__, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Pyosphate, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol (source of Vitamin D3), Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Panothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Soduim Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine Hydorchloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, d-Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried Sacchoromyces Berevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum, Artificial Flavors added.
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MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN PRODUCTS FOR DEER
Bode's #1 Game Pellets A RATION FOR DEER F3153
GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Crude Protein (Min) 16% Crude Fat (Min) 2.0% Crude Fiber (Max) 19% Calcium (Ca) (Min) 1.25% Calcium (Ca) (Max) 1.75% Phosphorus (P) (Min) 1.0% Salt (Min) .30% Salt (Max) .70%
Ingredients
Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products, 15% Molasses Products, __Animal Protein Products__, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol (source of Vitamin D3) Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Roboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, e - Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried Saccharyomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum, Artificial Flavors added.
FEEDING DIRECTIONS Feed as Creep Feed with Normal Diet
INGREDIENTS
Grain Products, Roughage Products (not more than 35%), Processed Grain By-Products, Plant Protein Products, Forage Products, __Animal Protein Products__, L-Lysine, Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Monocalcium/Dicalcium Phosphate, Yeast Culture, Magnesium Oxide, Cobalt Carbonate, Basic Copper Chloride, Manganese Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Sodium Selenite, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Sodium Selenite, Potassium Iodide, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Mineral Oil, Mold Inhibitor, Calcium Lignin Sulfonate, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic Acid, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Mineral Oil, Chromium Tripicolinate
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Deer Builder Pellets is designed to be fed to deer under range conditions or deer that require higher levels of protein. Feed to deer during gestation, fawning, lactation, antler growth and pre-rut, all phases which require a higher level of nutrition. Provide adequate amounts of good quality roughage and fresh water at all times.
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DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
April 9, 2001 WARNING LETTER
01-PHI-12 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED
Brian J. Raymond, Owner Sandy Lake Mills 26 Mill Street P.O. Box 117 Sandy Lake, PA 16145 PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT
Tel: 215-597-4390
Dear Mr. Raymond:
Food and Drug Administration Investigator Gregory E. Beichner conducted an inspection of your animal feed manufacturing operation, located in Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania, on March 23, 2001, and determined that your firm manufactures animal feeds including feeds containing prohibited materials. The inspection found significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, code of Federal Regulations, part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. The regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) . Such deviations cause products being manufactured at this facility to be misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(f), of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).
Our investigation found failure to label your swine feed with the required cautionary statement "Do Not Feed to cattle or other Ruminants" The FDA suggests that the statement be distinguished by different type-size or color or other means of highlighting the statement so that it is easily noticed by a purchaser.
In addition, we note that you are using approximately 140 pounds of cracked corn to flush your mixer used in the manufacture of animal feeds containing prohibited material. This flushed material is fed to wild game including deer, a ruminant animal. Feed material which may potentially contain prohibited material should not be fed to ruminant animals which may become part of the food chain.
The above is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deviations from the regulations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law. We have enclosed a copy of FDA's Small Entity Compliance Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation... blah, blah, blah...
SNIP...
 
PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT SUBMISSION ;
 
 
 
Thursday, June 6, 2013
BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013
Greetings,
since our fine federal friends have decided not to give out any more reports on the USA breaches of the feed ban and surveillance etc. for the BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease in the USDA livestock, I thought I might attempt it. I swear, I just don’t understand the logic of the SSS policy, and that includes all of it. I assure you, it would be much easier, and probably better for the FDA and the USDA INC., if they would simply put some kind of report out for Pete’s sake, instead of me doing it after I get mad, because I am going to put it all out there. the truth.
PLEASE BE ADVISED, any breach of any of the above classifications OAI, VAI, RTS, CAN lead to breaches into the feed BSE TSE prion protocols, and CAN lead to the eventual suspect tainted feed reaching livestock. please, if any USDA official out there disputes this, please explain then how they could not. paperwork errors can eventually lead to breaches of the BSE TSE prion mad cow feed ban reaching livestock, or contamination and exposure there from, as well.
I would sure like to see the full reports of just these ;
4018 CHI-DO 3007091297 Rancho Cantera 2866 N Sunnyside Rd Kent IL 61044-9605 OPR FR, OF HP 11/26/2012 OAI Y
9367 3008575486 Rocky Ford Pet Foods 21693 Highway 50 East Rocky Ford CO 81067 OPR RE, TH HP 2/27/2013 OAI N
9446 DEN-DO 1713202 Weld County Bi Products, Inc. 1138 N 11th Ave Greeley CO 80631-9501 OPR RE, TH HP 10/12/2012 OAI N
9447 DEN-DO 3002857110 Weld County Bi-Products dba Fort Morgan Pet Foods 13553 County Road 19 Fort Morgan CO 80701-7506 OPR RE HP 12/7/2011 OAI N
see full list of the fda mad cow bse feed follies, toward the bottom, after a short brief update on the mad cow bse follies, and our good friend Lester Crawford that was at the FDA.
ALSO, I would kindly like to comment on this FDA BSE/Ruminant Feed Inspections Firms Inventory (excel format)4 format, for reporting these breaches of BSE TSE prion protocols, from the extensive mad cow feed ban warning letters the fda use to put out for each violations. simply put, this excel format sucks, and the FDA et al intentionally made it this difficult to follow the usda fda mad cow follies. this is an intentional format to make it as difficult as possible to follow these breaches of the mad cow TSE prion safety feed protocols. to have absolutely no chronological or numerical order, and to format such violations in a way that they are almost impossible to find, says a lot about just how far the FDA and our fine federal friends will go through to hide these continued violations of the BSE TSE prion mad cow feed ban, and any breaches of protocols there from. once again, the wolf guarding the henhouse $$$
NAI = NO ACTION INDICATED
OAI = OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED
VAI = VOLUNTARY ACTION INDICATED
RTS = REFERRED TO STATE
Inspections conducted by State and FDA investigators are classified to reflect the compliance status at the time of the inspection, based upon whether objectionable conditions were documented. Based on the conditions found, inspection results are recorded in one of three classifications:
OAI (Official Action Indicated) when inspectors find significant objectionable conditions or practices and believe that regulatory sanctions are warranted to address the establishment’s lack of compliance with the regulation. An example of an OAI classification would be findings of manufacturing procedures insufficient to ensure that ruminant feed is not contaminated with prohibited material. Inspectors will promptly re-inspect facilities classified OAI after regulatory sanctions have been applied to determine whether the corrective actions are adequate to address the objectionable conditions.
VAI (Voluntary Action Indicated) when inspectors find objectionable conditions or practices that do not meet the threshold of regulatory significance, but warrant an advisory to inform the establishment that inspectors found conditions or practices that should be voluntarily corrected. VAI violations are typically technical violations of the 1997 BSE Feed Rule. These violations include minor recordkeeping lapses or conditions involving non-ruminant feeds.
NAI (No Action Indicated) when inspectors find no objectionable conditions or practices or, if they find objectionable conditions, those conditions are of a minor nature and do not justify further actions.
when sound science was bought off by junk science, in regards to the BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease, by the USDA, CFIA, WHO, OIE, et al. $$$
when the infamous, and fraudulently USDA, FSIS, APHIS, FDA, gold card was taken away that infamous day in December of 2003, all cards were off the table, it was time to change the science, and change they did. ...tss
snip. ...please see full text ;
 
 
Thursday, June 6, 2013
BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013
 
 
 
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
Weld County Bi-Products dba Fort Morgan Pet Foods 6/1/12 significant deviations from requirements in FDA regulations that are intended to reduce the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) within the United States
 
 
 
TSS
 
 
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