West Virginia Ag Commissioner Pushing for Control of Deer Farming November 12, 2013
November 7, 2013
Ag commissioner pushing for control of deer farming, more home-grown food
By Brandi Underwood Register-Herald Reporter
BECKLEY — In a time of rapidly growing populations and increasing prices for food, food security has become an large issue looming over the Mountain State.
According to State Agriculture Commissioner Walt Helmick, West Virginia needs to make a shift toward growing its agricultural economy and capitalizing on its own resources, rather than importing so much food from other states.
He delivered that message at the West Virginia Food Policy Council meeting Wednesday at Tamarack.
“Here in West Virginia, we consume a little bit more than $7 billion worth of food product each year. However, we find ourselves in a position where we grow very little of that — less than $1 billion, in fact.
“That’s $6 billion that could very well be kept within West Virginia,” Helmick said. “What an opportunity we have.”
In an attempt to capitalize on the large opportunity, Helmick said that in 2013, the West Virginia Department of Agriculture is taking a new approach to the problem.
While 53 percent of the state’s food economy comes from poultry farming, Helmick explained that the rest of the food products grown in West Virginia — including beef, pork, fruits and vegetables — do not hold as significant of a bearing on our agricultural economy as they could.
“We are designing and developing a program that will address that deficiency,” Helmick said.
As part of that program, Helmick proposes that deer farming is an opportunity that has not yet been pursued in West Virginia, but could ultimately result in huge benefits.
Helmick explained that deer farming has been a neglected industry in the past “basically because of policy that’s been established by the administration over the years.”
Compared to our neighbor states, including Ohio and Pennsylvania which have 800 and 1,000 deer farms, respectively, West Virginia currently boasts around 40 deer farms.
Helmick said that Pennsylvania currently generates around $80 million a year from the deer farming industry. However, before West Virginia could see any numbers close to that, certain changes must be made to allow the vision to come to fruition.
“We have to change policy in West Virginia,” Helmick said.
The deer farming program currently falls under the umbrella of the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, but Helmick believes that the program would be more beneficial under the WVDA’s control.
In order for a change of propriety to take place, a new bill must be passed.
“We feel very strongly that we have the votes, and we know how to go about getting the votes,” Helmick said, explaining that about half of the process is political.
“We think we understand it well enough to get legislation passed that would allow us to have a significant number of deer farms in West Virginia, to do the things currently being done in Ohio and Pennsylvania, and to help the people of West Virginia.”
At the present time, deer meat is not legally allowed to be sold in stores in West Virginia, proving it difficult for local deer farms to prosper.
“We want to change that. We want to allow those people involved in the business to be able to sell it in West Virginia,” Helmick said.
“What we want, in order to accomplish our goals, is for the WVDA to have control of everything inside the fence,” Helmick said, explaining that to also include the regulation of cattle and hog products.
Helmick said that it should be the WVDA’s responsibility to set the rules and the guidelines of meat production to get that product out on the market for West Virginians to consume.
Not only will state revenue be created, but jobs will be created, too, Helmick said.
“We know that we can help move agriculture off the bubble and into the future for West Virginia, and this is just one of those components,” Helmick said.
— E-mail: email@example.com
Deer Farming Bill Hits a Snag
Wednesday, February 15, 2012
West Virginia Deer Farming Bill backed by deer farmers advances, why ? BE WARNED CWD OPPOSE Senate Bill 421 and this move to DE-REGULATE deer farms.
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...
PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD
Thursday, August 08, 2013
Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America
DIVISION OF NATURAL RESOURCES ANNUAL REPORT 2011-2012
West Virginia continues to be one of the favorite deer hunting grounds in the eastern United States. In 2011, deer hunters harvested a total of 135,696 deer in the combined deer seasons. This is a 27 percent increase from the 2010 harvest and 4 percent less than the previous five-year harvest average of 141,775. The combined deer season harvest for 2011 is the 21st largest total deer harvest on record for West Virginia. The 2011 total deer harvest represents one deer killed for every 108 acres of deer habitat in the state, and a 38 percent harvest decrease from that of 10 years ago. From 1945 through 2011, a total of 5,607,892 deer have been recorded as harvested in West Virginia. Sixty-four percent (3,606,825) of the total recorded deer harvest of the past 66 years has occurred in the past 20 years.
Hunters took 443 deer in the special urban deer season in 2011. This special archery deer hunting season is available to incorporated cities and homeowner associations, which may open 14 days prior to the opening of archery season and close December 31. In 2011, nine cities (Barboursville, Bethlehem, Bridgeport, Charleston, Parkersburg, Morgantown, Ronceverte, Weirton, and Wheeling) reported harvesting 337 deer. In addition, 106 deer were harvested during urban deer archery hunts conducted by seven homeowner associations.
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was discovered in Hampshire County in September 2005. Efforts to control the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging deer in Hampshire County by DNR, landowners, and hunters are ongoing. During this report period the abnormal prion associated with CWD was detected in 17 additional deer in Hampshire County, nine of 1,134 hunter harvested deer tested positive, seven deer collected in the spring of 2012 by WVDNR sharpshooters tested positive, and one road kill deer tested positive. The abnormal prion associated with CWD has now been found in 117 deer within West Virginia: three road-killed deer, four deer collected by the DNR in 2005, five deer collected by the DNR in 2006, one hunter-harvested deer during the 2006 deer season, three deer collected by the DNR in 2007, six hunter-harvested deer during the 2007 deer season, 11 deer collected by the DNR in 2008, six hunterharvested deer during the 2008 deer season, nine deer collected by the DNR in 2009, 15 hunterharvested deer during the 2009 deer season, 12 deer collected by WVDNR in 2010, 10 hunter-harvested deer during the 2010 deer season, 16 deer collected by the WV DNR in 2011, nine hunter-harvested deer during the 2011 deer season, and seven deer collected by the WVDNR in 2012. One of the positive hunter-harvested deer from 2010 deer season was from northern Hardy County. As of June 30, 2012, the prevalence of CWD in a 39-square mile intensively monitored area in central Hampshire County falls within a 95 percent confidence interval of nine to 22 percent. All tissue samples during this report period were tested for the abnormal prion associated with CWD at the SCWDS, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. Efforts to control the spread of CWD in freeranging deer in Hampshire and Hardy counties by WVDNR, landowners, and hunters are ongoing and the containment area currently includes all of Hampshire County, northern Hardy County north of Corridor H and WV Route 55, and west of US Route 522 in Morgan County. More than 4,400 samples collected by the DNR since 2002 from principally road-killed deer in the remainder of the state have not exhibited the abnormal prion of CWD in any county other than Hampshire and northern Hardy County.
A bowhunter survey has been conducted annually since 1995. This cooperative venture with the West Virginia Bowhunters Association is an excellent means of monitoring populations of game animals and furbearers as well as providing a method for bowhunters to report their observations. The wild turkey fall harvest has been measured accurately by the survey.
An elk management plan was implemented and an active elk population monitoring plan was developed using salt blocks and trail cameras. Monitoring stations in the elk management area were randomly selected from the best elk habitat available. Best available habitat was determined through GIS analysis based in part on Kentucky elk habitat use.
Where in West Virginia?
CWD has been found in 131 white-tailed deer in Hampshire County and two deer in Hardy County. Two of the positive deer were road-killed, the first CWD positive deer in WV detected in 2005 and another in 2008. Sixty-three (63) positive deer were hunter-harvested, one in 2006, six in 2007, six in 2008, 15 in 2009, 10 in 2010, 9 in 2011 and 16 in 2012. The remaining 68 positives were collected by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) personnel in cooperation with local Hampshire County landowners to monitor the disease. Since 2002, the WVDNR, Wildlife Resources Section, in cooperation with the SE Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study at the University of Georgia and the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has tested 14,432 deer from West Virginia for CWD and as of March. 2013, the 133 deer are the only animals found thus far to have the abnormal prion associated with CWD. The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries has detected 5 positive deer in Frederick County just east of the Hampshire County line and Maryland Department of Natural Resources has detected one positive deer in Allegany County just north of the Hampshire County line.
Where has it been found? As of June 2013, CWD has been detected in free-ranging deer and elk in portions of Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, and Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. In addition, CWD has been found in captive/farmed elk and white-tailed deer in Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada.
In West Virginia, CWD has been found in 133 white-tailed deer. Testing of road-kill deer in all WV counties has been continuous since 2002. The WVDNR, Wildlife Resources Section, in cooperation with the SE Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study at the University of Georgia and the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, has tested over 14,432 deer from West Virginia for CWD and as of June 2013, the 131 Hampshire County deer and two Hardy County deer are the only animals found thus far to have the abnormal prion associated with CWD.
WEST VIRGINIA Chronic Wasting Disease Containment Area: Includes all of Hampshire County, that portion of Hardy County north of Corridor H (US Rt. 48) and/or east of State Rt. 259 to the Virginia state line and that portion of Morgan County which lies west of US Rt. 522. It is illegal to bait or feed deer or other wildlife in the “Containment Area” (see baiting and feeding regulations on page 12). Hunters are prohibited from transporting dead cervids (deer, elk, etc.) or their parts beyond the boundary of the containment area except for the following: meat that has been boned out, quarters or other portions of meat with no part of the spinal column or head attached, cleaned hide with no head attached, clean skull plate (no meat or tissue attached) with antlers attached, antlers with no meat or tissue attached, and finished taxidermy mounts. Hunters may transport cervid carcasses that were not killed inside the containment area through the containment area.
What can hunters do? If you kill or observe a severely emaciated (very skinny) deer or a deer that is obviously sick, or a deer with an ear tag, contact the WV DNR Wildlife Resources Section office nearest you.
Do not feed or bait deer. These practices concentrate deer, increase the likelihood of spread of any disease present in the deer herd, and may introduce foreign contaminates via the feed or bait.
Harvest adequate numbers of antlerless deer to maintain deer populations in balance with natural food supplies. A deer population in balance with available habitat is healthier and better able to fight diseases.
Use caution using urine based lures in the environment and avoid placing deer lures on the ground or on vegetation where deer can reach them. Placing them out of reach of deer still allows air circulation to disperse the scent.
If you plan to hunt deer or elk in a state known or suspected to harbor CWD, follow that state’s rules on removing animals from the area. Bring back only boned out meat or quarters and thoroughly cleaned skull plates and antlers. This applies to Virginia’s CWD containment area and Maryland’s and Pennsylvania’s CWD disease management areas.
If you hunt in Hampshire, Hardy, or Morgan counties, see special regulations regarding carcass transport and disposal, and baiting and feeding on page 12. Also, please cooperate with WVDNR requests for information and samples needed for CWD testing.
If you observe live deer or elk being transported in a truck or trailer, notify your local DNR office as soon as possible. Only boned out meat or quarters and thoroughly cleaned skull plates and antlers of any cervid killed in a fenced enclosure may be transported into the state.
Deer - General Regulations 2013-2014 Hunting Regulations
News Release : September 2, 2005
Hoy Murphy , Public Information Officer (304) 558-3380 firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact: Paul Johansen , Wildlife Resources Section
(304) 558-2771 or (304) 389-5077 email@example.com
Chronic Wasting Disease Found in Hampshire County Deer
The West Virginia Division of Natural Resources announced today it has received confirmation that a road-killed deer in Hampshire County tested positive for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). “This is the first known occurrence of CWD in West Virginia ,” said Director Frank Jezioro . “Upon receiving this confirmation, we initiated our CWD Response Plan which is designed to effectively address this important wildlife disease issue.”
Joe Manchin III, Governor
Frank Jezioro, Director
News Release : May 11, 2007
Hoy Murphy , Public Information Officer (304) 558-3381 firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: Paul Johansen, Wildlife Resources Section (304) 558-2771 email@example.com
Three Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease In Hampshire County, West Virginia
Monday, January 17, 2011
Ten Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease in West Virginia
Tuesday, June 29, 2010
W.Va. DNR Reports Results from Spring 2010 CWD Surveillance Efforts In Hampshire County; CWD Containment Area Expanded
Friday, January 15, 2010
Sixteen Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease In Hampshire County, West Virginia
Friday, May 29, 2009
Seven Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease During 2009 Spring Collections in Hampshire County, West Virginia
The following was excerpted from a press release issued by the West Virginia DNR on December 22, 2008:
Five Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease in Hampshire County, West Virginia
Preliminary test results indicate the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) agent was present in five hunter-harvested deer collected in Hampshire County during the 2008 deer firearms hunting season.
“As part of our agency’s ongoing and intensive CWD monitoring effort, samples were collected from 1,355 hunter-harvested deer brought to game checking stations in Hampshire County and one station near the southern Hampshire County line in Hardy County,” noted Frank Jezioro, director for the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (DNR).
The five CWD positive deer included one 4.5 year-old doe, two 2.5 year-old bucks, one 4.5 yearold buck and one 1.5 year-old buck. All five of the latest positive deer were harvested within the Hampshire County CWD Containment Area (i.e., that portion of Hampshire County located North of U.S. Route 50). However, the CWD agent previously has been detected outside the containment area but still within Hampshire County. The area in Hampshire County appears to continue to expand as one of the most recent infected deer was approximately five miles northeast of any previous known infected deer location.
CWD has now been detected in a total of 37 deer in Hampshire County (i.e., two road-killed deer - one in 2005 and one in 2008, four deer collected by the DNR in 2005, five deer collected by the DNR in 2006, one hunter-harvest deer taken during the 2006 deer season, three deer collected by the DNR in 2007, six hunter-harvested deer taken during the 2007 deer season, 11 deer collected by the DNR in 2008, and five hunter-harvested deer taken during the 2008 deer season). The DNR will continue to update management actions designed to control the spread of this disease, prevent further introduction of the disease, and possibly eliminate the disease from the state as information from deer testing within West Virginia is gathered and scientists across the country provide more information on how to combat CWD in white-tailed deer.
The entire press release can be viewed at:
SEE REPORT HERE ;
Thursday, May 08, 2008
Eleven Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease During Spring Collections in Hampshire County, West Virginia
The following press release (shortened for inclusion on this update) was issued by the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources on December 17, 2007: Five Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease in Hampshire County, West Virginia. Preliminary test results have detected the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) agent in five hunter-harvested deer collected in Hampshire County during the 2007 deer firearms hunting season. “As part of our agency’s ongoing and intensive CWD surveillance effort, samples were collected from 1,285 hunter-harvested deer brought to game checking stations in Hampshire County,” noted Frank Jezioro, Director for the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (DNR). The five CWD positive deer included one 2.5 year-old doe, two 2.5 year-old bucks, one 3.5 year-old buck, and one 4.5 year-old buck. Four of the five deer were harvested within the Hampshire County CWD Containment Area (i.e., that portion of Hampshire County located North of U.S. Route 50). The fifth deer was also harvested in Hampshire County, but it was killed outside the CWD Containment Area near Yellow Springs, West Virginia. CWD has now been detected in a total of 19 deer in Hampshire County (i.e., one road-killed deer confirmed in 2005, four deer collected by the DNR in 2005, five deer collected by the DNR in 2006, one hunter-harvest deer taken during the 2006 deer season, three deer collected by the DNR in 2007 and five hunter-harvested deer taken during the 2007 deer season). Operating within guidelines established by its CWD – Incident Response Plan, the DNR has taken the steps necessary to implement appropriate management actions designed to control the spread of this disease, prevent further introduction of the disease, and possibly eliminate the disease from the state. Full text of the press release is at:
West Virginia DNR CWD information is available at:
FULL REPORT ;
Monday, December 17, 2007
Five Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease In Hampshire County, West Virginia
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was discovered in Hampshire County in September 2005. The Wildlife Resources Section initiated a response plan to address the disease and conducted extensive sampling efforts which included 1,404 deer tested for the disease. Only nine of the tests were positive for the disease, indicating the disease is not wide spread nor is at a low prevalence. Management efforts to reduce the prevalence and/or slow the rate of spread of the disease have been initiated.
Monday, October 21, 2013
Current CWD Status WHHCC Meeting – 5-6 February 2013
Tuesday, September 10, 2013
Review and Updates of the USDA-APHIS Veterinary Services (VS) National Chronice Wasting Disease (CWD) Program 2012-2013
Sunday, November 3, 2013
*** Environmental Impact Statements; Availability, etc.: Animal Carcass Management [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0044]
Wednesday, September 25, 2013
USDA Officials: CWD Standards Going to Public Comment Soon
Tuesday, September 17, 2013
USAHA 116TH ANNUAL MEETING October 18 – 24, 2012 CWD, Scrapie, BSE, TSE prion (September 17, 2013)
Sunday, September 01, 2013
*** hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
Monday, October 07, 2013
The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
Sunday, January 06, 2013
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE
*** "it‘s no longer its business.”
Saturday, June 29, 2013
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
Monday, June 24, 2013
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
Saturday, February 04, 2012
Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised
Monday, June 11, 2012
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting
Sunday, January 27, 2013
Indiana 6 deer missing from farm pose health risk to state herds INDIANA
Wisconsin : 436 Deer Have Escaped From Farms to Wild
Date: March 18, 2003 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Contacts: LEE BERGQUIST firstname.lastname@example.org
State finds violations, lax record keeping at many sites, report says
A state inspection of private deer farms, prompted by the discovery of chronic wasting disease, found that 436 white-tailed deer escaped into the wild, officials said Tuesday
The Department of Natural Resources found that captive deer have escaped from one-third of the state's 550 deer farms over the lifetime of the operations. The agency also uncovered hundreds of violations and has sought a total of 60 citations or charges against deer farm operators.
These and other findings come as state officials say they are still no closer to understanding how the fatal deer disease got to Wisconsin.
Since the discovery a little more than a year ago, chronic wasting disease has thrown both deer hunting and management of Wisconsin's 1.4 million deer herd into tumult. Fewer hunters went into the woods last year, and a booming deer population has the DNR worried that the number of whitetails could grow out of control.
Tuesday's findings were presented to the state Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection. The DNR had regulated deer farms, but the authority was transferred to the Agriculture Department on Jan. 1. Now agriculture regulators oversee elk, deer and other captive cervids.
Solving the problem
Stricter regulations - and closer attention to the operations of game farms - should cut down on future violations, officials from the two agencies said. Tougher reporting requirements also will help authorities keep better track of the movement of animals, they said.
Permanent rules take effect in June, and include tighter controls on moving animals and requiring the reporting of escaped animals within 48 hours. There will be mandatory testing of every deer age 16 months or older that dies.
Almost from the start of the state's battle against chronic wasting disease, game farm operators came under scrutiny because their business involves the buying and selling of captive deer and elk across state lines. When the disease was first discovered here Feb. 28, 2002, Wisconsin became the first state to have the disease east of the Mississippi River.
A representative of the deer industry said Tuesday that the DNR is trying to shift blame for chronic wasting disease to his industry.
"The state of Wisconsin has spent a year chasing chronic wasting disease, and they have made zero progress," said Gary Nelson, president of Whitetails of Wisconsin. "In the past, they have essentially collected our fees and ignored us. Now that they have discovered CWD, they are looking for someone to blame."
A DNR representative agreed that the agency could have done a better job keeping tabs on deer farms.
"We're not pointing fingers," said Karl Brooks, a conservation warden with the DNR. "But two things that we know for sure is that there is CWD in the wild deer population, and we have found CWD on game farms."
CWD found on 2 farms
Seven deer have tested positive for the disease on game farms - one on a Portage County farm and six on a Walworth County farm - since the disease was discovered in three wild deer killed near Mount Horeb in western Dane County. One deer that tested positive on the Walworth County farm escaped and roamed free for six months.
Regulations have only begun to catch up to the captive deer industry, and "unfortunately, it took CWD to get us there," said agriculture secretary Rod Nilsestuen at a news briefing in Madison.
As the DNR prepared to hand over authority for overseeing game farms to the agriculture department, it sent 209 conservation wardens to 550 farms to collect information, attempt to pinpoint the source of the disease and to learn whether other deer had been exposed to it.
The audit found that most farms were in compliance, but the DNR found many violations and instances of poor record keeping. Also in numerous instances, fences did not stop wild and captive deer from intermingling.
At least 227 farms conducted part of their business on a cash basis, making it hard to track animal movement with financial records.
For example, both the Internal Revenue Service and the state Department of Revenue have been contacted about a deer farm near Wild Rose in Waushara County that is suspected of selling six large bucks for $45,000 in cash and not using live deer shipping tags as required.
The DNR found that game farm operators have more deer in captivity than their records show, which is "due in part because the owners of a number of large deer farm operations were unable to accurately count the number of deer within their fences," the audit found.
Hundreds of deer escape
The DNR found a total of 671 deer that escaped farms - 436 of which were never found - because of storm-damaged fences, gates being left open or the animals jumping over or through fences.
In one example in Kewaunee County, a deer farmer's fence was knocked down in a summer storm. Ten deer escaped, and the farmer told the DNR he had no intention of trying to reclaim them. The DNR found five of the deer, killed them and cited the farmer for violation of a regulation related to fencing.
Another deer farmer near Mishicot, in Manitowoc County, released all nine of his whitetails last summer after he believed the discovery of chronic wasting disease was going to drive down the market for captive deer.
The DNR found 24 instances of unlicensed deer farms and issued 19 citations.
Journal Sentinel correspondent Kevin Murphy contributed to this report.
Game Farms Inspected
A summary of the findings of the Department of Natural Resources' inspection of 550 private white-tailed deer farms in the state: The deer farms contained at least 16,070 deer, but the DNR believes there are more deer in captivity than that because large deer farms are unable to accurately count their deer. 671 deer had escaped from game farms, including 436 that were never found.
24 farmers were unlicensed. One had been operating illegally since 1999 after he was denied a license because his deer fence did not meet minimum specifications.
Records maintained by operators ranged from "meticulous documentation to relying on memory." At least 227 farms conducted various portions of their deer farm business with cash. Over the last three years, 1,222 deer died on farms for various reasons. Disease testing was not performed nor required on the majority of deer. Farmers reported doing business with people in 22 other states and one Canadian province.
Click these links for more information
National News Alabama Alberta Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana International Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Manitoba Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Ontario Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island Saskatchewan South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
© Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance
Web site development by Pyron Technologies, Inc.
in my great state of Texas, there is now NO fencing requirements for shooting pens.
amazing what money can buy$
Thursday, October 03, 2013
TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments remove the requirement for a specific fence height for captives
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
October 3, 2013
CWD TO HUMANS ?
hunters and those that consume the venison, should have all the scientific facts, personally, I don’t care what you eat, but if it effects me and my family down the road, it should then concern everyone, and the potential of iatrogenic transmission of the TSE prion is real i.e. ‘friendly fire’, medical, surgical, dental, blood, tissue, and or products there from...like deer antler velvet and TSE prions and nutritional supplements there from, all a potential risk factor that should not be ignored or silenced. ...
the prion gods at the cdc state that there is ;
''no strong evidence''
but let's see exactly what the authors of this cwd to human at the cdc state ;
now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ??
“Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”
From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)
Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??
Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST
From: "Belay, Ermias"
Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"
Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM
Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.
That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.
Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM
To: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; ebb8@CDC.GOV
Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS
Thursday, April 03, 2008
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
full text ;
Thursday, May 26, 2011
Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.
Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey
Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, Ryan A. Maddox, MPH , Alexis R. Harvey, MPH , Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD , Ermias D. Belay, MD
Accepted 15 November 2010. Abstract Full Text PDF References .
The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to human beings and the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among cervids have prompted concerns about zoonotic transmission of prion diseases. Travel to the United Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption could result in the exposure of US residents to the agents that cause BSE and CWD. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network 2006-2007 population survey was used to assess the prevalence of these behaviors among residents of 10 catchment areas across the United States. Of 17,372 survey respondents, 19.4% reported travel to the United Kingdom since 1980, and 29.5% reported travel to any of the nine European countries considered to be BSE-endemic since 1980. The proportion of respondents who had ever hunted deer or elk was 18.5%, and 1.2% had hunted deer or elk in a CWD–endemic area. More than two thirds (67.4%) reported having ever eaten deer or elk meat. Respondents who traveled spent more time in the United Kingdom (median 14 days) than in any other BSE-endemic country. Of the 11,635 respondents who had consumed venison, 59.8% ate venison at most one to two times during their year of highest consumption, and 88.6% had obtained all of their meat from the wild. The survey results were useful in determining the prevalence and frequency of behaviors that could be important factors for foodborne prion transmission.
"These findings indicate that a high percentage of the United States population engages in hunting and/or venison consumption. If CWD continues to spread to more areas across the country, a substantial number of people could potentially be exposed to the infectious agent."
Potential Venison Exposure Among FoodNet Population Survey Respondents, 2006-2007
Ryan A. Maddox1*, Joseph Y. Abrams1, Robert C. Holman1, Lawrence B. Schonberger1, Ermias D. Belay1 Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA *Corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com
The foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans, resulting in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, indicates that humans can be susceptible to animal prion diseases. However, it is not known whether foodborne exposure to the agent causing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids can cause human disease. The United States Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts surveillance for foodborne diseases through an extensive survey administered to respondents in selected states. To describe the frequency of deer and elk hunting and venison consumption, five questions were included in the 2006-2007 FoodNet survey. This survey included 17,372 respondents in ten states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Of these respondents, 3,220 (18.5%) reported ever hunting deer or elk, with 217 (1.3%) reporting hunting in a CWD-endemic area (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming, and southwestern Nebraska). Of the 217 CWD-endemic area hunters, 74 (34.1%) were residents of Colorado. Respondents reporting hunting were significantly more likely to be male than female (prevalence ratio: 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.1-3.6) and, in general, older respondents were significantly more likely to report hunting than younger respondents. Venison consumption was reported by more than half (67.4%) of the study population, and most venison consumers (94.1%) reported that at least half of their venison came from the wild. However, more than half (59.1%) of the consumers reported eating venison only one to five times in their life or only once or twice a year. These findings indicate that a high percentage of the United States population engages in hunting and/or venison consumption. If CWD continues to spread to more areas across the country, a substantial number of people could potentially be exposed to the infectious agent.
Monday, May 23, 2011 CDC
Assesses Potential Human Exposure to Prion Diseases Travel Warning
Public release date: 23-May-2011
Contact: Francesca Costanzo firstname.lastname@example.org 215-239-3249 Elsevier Health Sciences
CDC assesses potential human exposure to prion diseases Study results reported in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association Philadelphia, PA, May 23, 2011 – Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have examined the potential for human exposure to prion diseases, looking at hunting, venison consumption, and travel to areas in which prion diseases have been reported in animals. Three prion diseases in particular – bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "Mad Cow Disease"), variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and chronic wasting disease (CWD) – were specified in the investigation. The results of this investigation are published in the June issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.
"While prion diseases are rare, they are generally fatal for anyone who becomes infected. More than anything else, the results of this study support the need for continued surveillance of prion diseases," commented lead investigator Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta."But it's also important that people know the facts about these diseases, especially since this study shows that a good number of people have participated in activities that may expose them to infection-causing agents."
Although rare, human prion diseases such as CJD may be related to BSE. Prion (proteinaceous infectious particles) diseases are a group of rare brain diseases that affect humans and animals. When a person gets a prion disease, brain function is impaired. This causes memory and personality changes, dementia, and problems with movement. All of these worsen over time. These diseases are invariably fatal. Since these diseases may take years to manifest, knowing the extent of human exposure to possible prion diseases could become important in the event of an outbreak.
CDC investigators evaluated the results of the 2006-2007 population survey conducted by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). This survey collects information on food consumption practices, health outcomes, and demographic characteristics of residents of the participating Emerging Infections Program sites. The survey was conducted in Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee, as well as five counties in the San Francisco Bay area, seven counties in the Greater Denver area, and 34 counties in western and northeastern New York.
Survey participants were asked about behaviors that could be associated with exposure to the agents causing BSE and CWD, including travel to the nine countries considered to be BSE-endemic (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, France, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain) and the cumulative length of stay in each of those countries. Respondents were asked if they ever had hunted for deer or elk, and if that hunting had taken place in areas considered to be CWD-endemic (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming or southwestern Nebraska). They were also asked if they had ever consumed venison, the frequency of consumption, and whether the meat came from the wild.
The proportion of survey respondents who reported travel to at least one of the nine BSE endemic countries since 1980 was 29.5%. Travel to the United Kingdom was reported by 19.4% of respondents, higher than to any other BSE-endemic country. Among those who traveled, the median duration of travel to the United Kingdom (14 days) was longer than that of any other BSE-endemic country. Travelers to the UK were more likely to have spent at least 30 days in the country (24.9%) compared to travelers to any other BSE endemic country. The prevalence and extent of travel to the UK indicate that health concerns in the UK may also become issues for US residents.
The proportion of survey respondents reporting having hunted for deer or elk was 18.5% and 1.2% reported having hunted for deer or elk in CWD-endemic areas. Venison consumption was reported by 67.4% of FoodNet respondents, and 88.6% of those reporting venison consumption had obtained all of their meat from the wild. These findings reinforce the importance of CWD surveillance and control programs for wild deer and elk to reduce human exposure to the CWD agent. Hunters in CWD-endemic areas are advised to take simple precautions such as: avoiding consuming meat from sickly deer or elk, avoiding consuming brain or spinal cord tissues, minimizing the handling of brain and spinal cord tissues, and wearing gloves when field-dressing carcasses.
According to Abrams, "The 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey provides useful information should foodborne prion infection become an increasing public health concern in the future. The data presented describe the prevalence of important behaviors and their associations with demographic characteristics. Surveillance of BSE, CWD, and human prion diseases are critical aspects of addressing the burden of these diseases in animal populations and how that may relate to human health."
The article is "Travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey" by Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH; Ryan A. Maddox, MPH; Alexis R Harvey, MPH; Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD; and Ermias D. Belay, MD. It appears in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 111, Issue 6 (June 2011) published by Elsevier.
In an accompanying podcast CDC's Joseph Y. Abrams discusses travel, hunting, and eating venison in relation to prion diseases. It is available at http://adajournal.org/content/podcast .
also, they did not call this CWD postive meat back for the well being of the ELK ;
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II
a) Elk Meat, Elk Tenderloin, Frozen in plastic vacuum packaging. Each package is approximately 2 lbs., and each case is approximately 16 lbs.; Item number 755125, Recall # F-129-9;
b) Elk Meat, Elk Trim, Frozen; Item number 755155, Recall # F-130-9;
c) Elk Meat, French Rack, Chilled. Item number 755132, Recall # F-131-9;
d) Elk Meat, Nude Denver Leg. Item number 755122, Recall # F-132-9;
e) Elk Meat, New York Strip Steak, Chilled. Item number 755128, Recall # F-133-9;
f) Elk Meat, Flank Steak Frozen. Item number 755131, Recall # F-134-9;
Elk Meats with production dates of December 29, 30, and 31
Recalling Firm: Sierra Meats, Reno, NV, by telephone on January 29, 2009 and press release on February 9, 2009.
Manufacturer: Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK
CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb
CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE SURVEILLANCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM THIRD ANNUAL REPORT AUGUST 1994
Consumption of venison and veal was much less widespread among both cases and controls. For both of these meats there was evidence of a trend with increasing frequency of consumption being associated with increasing risk of CJD. (not nvCJD, but sporadic CJD...tss)
These associations were largely unchanged when attention was restricted to pairs with data obtained from relatives. ...
Table 9 presents the results of an analysis of these data.
There is STRONG evidence of an association between ‘’regular’’ veal eating and risk of CJD (p = .0.01).
Individuals reported to eat veal on average at least once a year appear to be at 13 TIMES THE RISK of individuals who have never eaten veal.
There is, however, a very wide confidence interval around this estimate. There is no strong evidence that eating veal less than once per year is associated with increased risk of CJD (p = 0.51).
The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).
There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).
The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).
It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).
In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...
In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (??...TSS)
snip...see full report ;
Thursday, October 10, 2013
CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb
Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ
Dear Mr Elmhirst,
CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT
Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.
The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.
The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.
The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.
I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.
CWD transmission to humans.
never say never with the TSE prion.
PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD
Sunday, August 25, 2013
HD.13: CWD infection in the spleen of humanized transgenic mice
Liuting Qing and Qingzhong Kong
Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America, and there is evidence suggesting the existence of multiple CWD strains. The susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to the various CWD prion strains remains largely unclear. Current literature suggests that the classical CWD strain is unlikely to infect human brain, but the potential for peripheral infection by CWD in humans is unknown. We detected protease-resistant PrpSc in the spleens of a few humanized transgenic mice that were intracerebrally inoculated with natural CWD isolates, but PrpSc was not detected in the brains of any of the CWD-inoculated mice. Our ongoing bioassays in humanized Tg mice indicate that intracerebral challenge with such PrpSc-positive humanized mouse spleen already led to prion disease in most animals. ***These results indicate that the CWD prion may have the potential to infect human peripheral lymphoid tissues.
Oral.15: Molecular barriers to zoonotic prion transmission: Comparison of the ability of sheep, cattle and deer prion disease isolates to convert normal human prion protein to its pathological isoform in a cell-free system
Marcelo A.Barria,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Masanori Morita,3 Tetsuyuki Kitamoto,4 Rona Barron,5 Jean Manson,5 Richard Kniqht,1 James W. lronside1 and Mark W. Head1
1National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences; School of Clinical Sciences; The University of Edinburgh; Edinburgh, UK; 2National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD; Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa Laboratory; Fallowfield. ON Canada; 3Infectious Pathogen Research Section; Central Research Laboratory; Japan Blood Products Organization; Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Neurological Science; Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine; Sendai. Japan; 5Neurobiology Division; The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS; University of Edinburgh; Easter Bush; Midlothian; Edinburgh, UK
Background. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a known zoonotic prion disease, resulting in variant Creurzfeldt- Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. In contrast, classical scrapie in sheep is thought to offer little or no danger to human health. However, a widening range of prion diseases have been recognized in cattle, sheep and deer. The risks posed by individual animal prion diseases to human health cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to assess empirically. The fundamemal event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) to its pathological isoform (PrPSc). Here we report the use of a rapid molecular conversion assay to test whether brain specimens from different animal prion diseases are capable of seeding the conversion of human PrPC ro PrPSc.
Material and Methods. Classical BSE (C-type BSE), H-type BSE, L-type BSE, classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, chronic wasting disease and vCJD brain homogenates were tested for their ability to seed conversion of human PrPC to PrPSc in protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reactions. Newly formed human PrPSc was detected by protease digestion and western blotting using the antibody 3F4.
Results. C-type BSE and vCJD were found to efficiently convert PrPC to PrPSc. Scrapie failed to convert human PrPC to PrPSc. Of the other animal prion diseases tested only chronic wasting disease appeared to have the capability ro convert human PrPC to PrPSc. The results were consistent whether the human PrPC came from human brain, humanised transgenic mouse brain or from cultured human cells and the effect was more pronounced for PrPC with methionine at codon 129 compared with that with valine.
Conclusion. Our results show that none of the tested animal prion disease isolates are as efficient as C-type BSE and vCJD in converting human prion protein in this in vitro assay. ***However, they also show that there is no absolute barrier ro conversion of human prion protein in the case of chronic wasting disease.
PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD
Sunday, August 25, 2013
***Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission
Sunday, July 21, 2013
*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?
Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease
Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany †Presenting author; Email: email@example.com
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. ***The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.
The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection) increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of having CWD in free-ranging herds: We’ve got this infectious agent out there that we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic livestock.”
ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD
Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5
The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN
Wednesday, September 08, 2010
CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...
Saturday, October 19, 2013
ACA Council Meets to Endorse Several Proposed USAHA Resolutions (CWD TSE PRION DISEASE)
*** Uptake of Prions into Plants
Friday, August 09, 2013
***CWD TSE prion, plants, vegetables, and the potential for environmental contamination
Sunday, November 10, 2013
LARGE CJD TSE PRION POTENTIAL CASE STUDY AMONG HUMANS WHO TAKE DEER ANTLER VELVET WILL BE ONGOING FOR YEARS IF NOT DECADES, but who's cares $
WHAT about the sporadic CJD TSE proteins ?
WE now know that some cases of sporadic CJD are linked to atypical BSE and atypical Scrapie, so why are not MORE concerned about the sporadic CJD, and all it’s sub-types $$$
Sunday, August 11, 2013
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013
*** Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010
Sunday, October 13, 2013
CJD TSE Prion Disease Cases in Texas by Year, 2003-2012
Tuesday, October 29, 2013
*** VARIANT CJD PRESENTS DIFFERENTLY IN OLDER PATIENTS
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.