Joe Manchin III, Governor Frank Jezioro, Director
News Release: June 28, 2010
Hoy Murphy, Public Information Officer (304) 558-2003 ext. 365 firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: Paul Johansen, Wildlife Resources Section 304-558-2771 email@example.com
W.Va. DNR Reports Results from Spring 2010 CWD Surveillance Efforts In Hampshire County; CWD Containment Area Expanded
HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, W.Va. – With the cooperation of local landowners, the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (DNR) tested 152 deer collected from within one to two miles of previously known locations of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) infected deer. Testing detected the CWD agent in a total of 12 white-tailed deer sampled during the 2010 spring collections in Hampshire County, according to the DNR.
The detection of 15 CWD positive deer during the fall 2009 hunting season, combined with this spring’s testing results, has required the expansion of the CWD Containment Area to include all of Hampshire County. Within the CWD Containment Area, supplemental feeding and baiting of deer is prohibited and there are transport restrictions for deer carcasses leaving the county.
The spring CWD monitoring of deer provides an incidence rate of infected CWD deer in the area of established infection and removes CWD positive deer from the landscape. In addition, wildlife biologists also use the information to monitor changes in age structure and reproduction in the deer herd within the established CWD infected area.
The first case of CWD in West Virginia was confirmed on September 2, 2005. Since that time, the DNR has been fully engaged in activities guided by its CWD Incident Response Plan, which is designed to accomplish the following objectives
•Determine the distribution and prevalence of CWD through enhanced surveillance efforts. •Communicate and coordinate with the public and other appropriate agencies on issues relating to CWD and the steps being taken to respond to this disease. •Initiate appropriate management actions necessary to control the spread of this disease and prevent further introduction of the disease. To date, CWD surveillance efforts conducted by the DNR have resulted in a total of 74 deer being confirmed positive for CWD in Hampshire County. Ongoing and extensive surveillance efforts being conducted by Wildlife Resources Section personnel throughout West Virginia has not detected CWD outside of Hampshire County.
CWD is a neurological disease found in deer and elk and belongs to a family of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The disease is currently accepted as being caused by abnormal, proteinaceous particles called prions that slowly attack the brain of infected deer and elk. Animals progressively become emaciated, display abnormal behavior and invariably die as a result of the disease. There is no known treatment for CWD and it is fatal for the infected deer or elk. It is important to note that currently, there is no evidence to suggest CWD poses a risk for humans or domestic animals.
“Landowner and hunter cooperation throughout this entire CWD response effort in Hampshire County continues to be excellent,” noted DNR Director Frank Jezioro. “As we strive to meet this wildlife disease challenge and implement appropriate management strategies, the support and involvement of landowners and hunters remains essential. The DNR is committed to keeping the public informed and involved in these wildlife disease management actions.”
Friday, January 15, 2010
Sixteen Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease In Hampshire County, West Virginia West Virginia Division of Natural Resources
Friday, May 29, 2009
Seven Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease During 2009 Spring Collections in Hampshire County, West Virginia Joe Manchin III, Governor Frank Jezioro, Director News Release : May 29, 2009
Thursday, May 08, 2008
Eleven Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease During Spring Collections in Hampshire County, West Virginia West Virginia Division of Natural Resources
Monday, December 17, 2007
Five Additional Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease In Hampshire County, West Virginia
Monday, June 14, 2010 A molecular switch controls interspecies prion disease transmission in mice J Clin Invest. doi:10.1172/JCI42051. Copyright © 2010, The American Society for Clinical Investigation.
Thursday, June 03, 2010 Prion Strain Mutation and Selection John Collinge MEDICINE
CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS
ALSO, NOTE MINERAL LICKS A POSSIBLE SOURCE AND TRANSMISSION MODE FOR CWD ;
2003D-0186 Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed
EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1
see my full text submission here ;
Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006
Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST
PRODUCT a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6; Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6; c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6; d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated,
Recall # V-103-6; e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend,
Recall # V-104-6; f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6; g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6; h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6; i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6; j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6; k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6; l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6; m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6 CODE Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.
REASON Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 tons DISTRIBUTION AL and FL
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006
NOW, let's look at oral transmission studies with CWD ;
Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein
Aru Balachandran, Noel P. Harrington, James Algire, Andrei Soutyrine, Terry R. Spraker, Martin Jeffrey, Lorenzo González, Katherine I. O’Rourke
Abstract — Chronic wasting disease (CWD), an important emerging prion disease of cervids, is readily transmitted by intracerebral or oral inoculation from deer-to-deer and elk-to-elk, suggesting the latter is a natural route of exposure. Studies of host range susceptibility to oral infection, particularly of those species found in habitats where CWD currently exists are imperative. This report describes the experimental transmission of CWD to red deer following oral inoculation with infectious CWD material of elk origin. At 18 to 20 months post-inoculation, mild to moderate neurological signs and weight loss were observed and animals were euthanized and tested using 3 conventional immunological assays. The data indicate that red deer are susceptible to oral challenge and that tissues currently used for CWD diagnosis show strong abnormal prion (PrPCWD) accumulation. Widespread peripheral PrPCWD deposition involves lymphoreticular tissues, endocrine tissues, and cardiac muscle and suggests a potential source of prion infectivity, a means of horizontal transmission and carrier state.
Can Vet J 2010;51:169–178
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), an important emerging prion disease of cervids, is readily transmitted by intracerebral or oral inoculation from deer-to-deer and elk-to-elk, suggesting the latter is a natural route of exposure.
Potential Venison Exposure Among FoodNet Population Survey Respondents, 2006-2007
Ryan A. Maddox1*, Joseph Y. Abrams1, Robert C. Holman1, Lawrence B. Schonberger1, Ermias D. Belay1 Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA *Corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans, resulting in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, indicates that humans can be susceptible to animal prion diseases. However, it is not known whether foodborne exposure to the agent causing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids can cause human disease. The United States Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts surveillance for foodborne diseases through an extensive survey administered to respondents in selected states. To describe the frequency of deer and elk hunting and venison consumption, five questions were included in the 2006-2007 FoodNet survey. This survey included 17,372 respondents in ten states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Of these respondents, 3,220 (18.5%) reported ever hunting deer or elk, with 217 (1.3%) reporting hunting in a CWD-endemic area (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming, and southwestern Nebraska). Of the 217 CWD-endemic area hunters, 74 (34.1%) were residents of Colorado. Respondents reporting hunting were significantly more likely to be male than female (prevalence ratio: 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.1-3.6) and, in general, older respondents were significantly more likely to report hunting than younger respondents. Venison consumption was reported by more than half (67.4%) of the study population, and most venison consumers (94.1%) reported that at least half of their venison came from the wild. However, more than half (59.1%) of the consumers reported eating venison only one to five times in their life or only once or twice a year. These findings indicate that a high percentage of the United States population engages in hunting and/or venison consumption. If CWD continues to spread to more areas across the country, a substantial number of people could potentially be exposed to the infectious agent.
Title: Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant protein (PrP-res)
Balachandran, A - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Harrington, Noel - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Algire, James - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Souyrine, Andre - CANADIAN FOOD INSPCTN AG Orourke, Katherine Spraker, Terry - COLORADO ST UNIV
Submitted to: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2008 Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Farmed cervids may be exposed to the prion disorder chronic wasting disease through contact with free ranging or farmed infected Rocky Mountain elk, white tailed deer, mule deer, or moose. This is the first report of experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer, an economically important agricultural commodity in parts of North America. Brain tissue from infected Rocky Mountain elk was administered by the oral route of red deer. Deer were examined at 18 months after infection for evidence of abnormal prion protein, the marker for the disease. The abnormal protein was found throughout the brain, spinal cord and lymphoid tissues, with variable distribution in other organ systems. This finding confirms the potential susceptibility of this species to disease under natural conditions and the reliability of the current testing format for identifying the abnormal protein in the tissues routinely collected in surveillance programs. The widespread distribution of the abnormal protein in red deer indicates the potential for shedding of the agent into the environment. Technical Abstract: Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data on the susceptibility of other farmed cervid species, the distribution of the abnormal prion protein marker in brain and lymphoid tissues collected in surveillance programs, and the role of prion genotype are necessary for design of control programs for CWD in farmed cervids. In this study, red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) were exposed to the prion agent by oral administration of brain homogenates from infected Rocky Mountain elk. Antemortem testing was performed at 7 months post infection and the deer were euthanized when clinical disease was observed at approximately 18 months after infection. The abnormal prion protein was assayed by immunohistochemistry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. Abnormal prion protein was found in the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, midbrain, thalamus, and cerebrum in all 4 infected red deer. Most of the lymph nodes throughout the body were positive for abnormal prion proteins. Abnromal prion protein was observed in some additional peripheral tissues in some but not all of the deer. In particular, most areas of the gastrointestinal tract were positive for abnormal prions, although the salivary glands were rarely positive. This study demonstrates the potential for oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer and confirms the usefulness of the current testing methods for post mortem diagnosis of the disease in this species.
Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus )
Christina J. Sigurdson1, Elizabeth S. Williams2, Michael W. Miller3, Terry R. Spraker1,4, Katherine I. O'Rourke5 and Edward A. Hoover1
Mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Fawns were necropsied and examined for PrP res, the abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days post-inoculation (p.i.) using an immunohistochemistry assay modified to enhance sensitivity. PrPres was detected in alimentary-tract-associated lymphoid tissues (one or more of the following: retropharyngeal lymph node, tonsil, Peyer's patch and ileocaecal lymph node) as early as 42 days p.i. and in all fawns examined thereafter (53 to 80 days p.i.). No PrPres staining was detected in lymphoid tissue of three control fawns receiving a control brain inoculum, nor was PrPres detectable in neural tissue of any fawn. PrPres-specific staining was markedly enhanced by sequential tissue treatment with formic acid, proteinase K and hydrated autoclaving prior to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5. These results indicate that CWD PrP res can be detected in lymphoid tissues draining the alimentary tract within a few weeks after oral exposure to infectious prions and may reflect the initial pathway of CWD infection in deer. The rapid infection of deer fawns following exposure by the most plausible natural route is consistent with the efficient horizontal transmission of CWD in nature and enables accelerated studies of transmission and pathogenesis in the native species.
These results indicate that mule deer fawns develop detectable PrP res after oral exposure to an inoculum containing CWD prions. In the earliest post-exposure period, CWD PrPres was traced to the lymphoid tissues draining the oral and intestinal mucosa (i.e. the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, tonsil, ileal Peyer's patches and ileocaecal lymph nodes), which probably received the highest initial exposure to the inoculum. Hadlow et al. (1982) demonstrated scrapie agent in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, ileum and spleen in a 10-month-old naturally infected lamb by mouse bioassay. Eight of nine sheep had infectivity in the retropharyngeal lymph node. He concluded that the tissue distribution suggested primary infection via the gastrointestinal tract. The tissue distribution of PrPres in the early stages of infection in the fawns is strikingly similar to that seen in naturally infected sheep with scrapie. These findings support oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies of CWD.
see full text ;
Sunday, December 06, 2009
Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay
Tuesday, June 16, 2009
Infectious Prions in Pre-Clinical Deer and Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Solely by Environmental Exposure
Wednesday, October 14, 2009
Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area
AS THE CROW FLIES, SO DOES CWD
Sunday, November 01, 2009
American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and potential spreading of CWD through feces of digested infectious carcases
Wednesday, January 07, 2009
CWD to tighten taxidermy rules Hunters need to understand regulations
Friday, February 20, 2009
Both Sides of the Fence: A Strategic Review of Chronic Wasting Disease
Saturday, September 06, 2008
Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm 79% INFECTION RATE
Contents: September 1 2008, Volume 20, Issue 5
snip...see full text ;
Tuesday, February 09, 2010
Chronic Wasting Disease: Surveillance Update North America: February 2010
>>> In addition, we documented horizontal transmission of CWD from inoculated mice and to un-inoculated cohabitant cage-mates. <<<
kind regards, terry
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518