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Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management

Posted Mar 25 2014 2:31pm
Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management

 

Christopher S. Jennelle mail,

Viviane Henaux,

Gideon Wasserberg,

Bala Thiagarajan,

Robert E. Rolley,

Michael D. Samuel

 

Published: March 21, 2014 •DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091043

 

 

Abstract

 

Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

 

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Discussion

 

CWD Transmission

 

Using white-tailed deer harvest data from south-central Wisconsin, we show that FD CWD transmission is the best supported model for both sexes (with higher infection rates for males) at a broad spatial scale, whereas our earlier efforts to model this system could not discriminate between FD and DD transmission [18]. It has been suspected that FD was a dominant transmission mechanism in mule deer [5], [17]; [ but see 6], and more recently in white-tailed deer [28], [46]. Furthermore, our modeling results suggest a more recent and biologically plausible time since CWD introduction in south-central Wisconsin compared with earlier analysis [18]. As demonstrated in previous work in this CWD system [21], [22], [25] and in Colorado [7], [47], adult males have higher CWD infection rates than females. Although the mechanism for higher CWD infection and prevalence in males is unknown, these differences may be driven by sex-specific social behavior [7], [21]. Males typically have larger home ranges, longer dispersal distances, interactions with other males, or rut-related behavior [48] that could result in more contacts with infectious deer. In contrast, females generally interact within a much smaller matrilineal group [27], [28], [49], and only briefly with males during rut [47].

 

Given the simplicity of our model, our estimated infection coefficients are likely a function of several different (and largely unknown) mechanisms that may vary between/among sexes, seasons, and the environment. These infection rates represent a weighted average of many potential drivers as summarized by Potapov et al. [39]. Our models do not account explicitly for indirect transmission from the environment where prions can persist for years [50], [51], although our infection rates implicitly subsume both direct and indirect routes of infection. The importance of environmental transmission has been demonstrated in captive mule deer [52], [53] and theoretical modeling indicates that population impacts can be driven by the length of time that prions remain infectious in the environment [54]. In the long term, the potential accumulation of an environmental reservoir of infectious prions may become an increasingly important component of CWD transmission; however, the relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission in wild deer populations remains unknown and requires further research. Although we expect infectious contact likely varies by sex and season, harvest data were insufficient to account for intra-annual complexity in sex-specific transmission. Additional insights for CWD management given directional sex-specific transmission (i.e., female-to-male, female-to-female) may require focal research studies that determine differences in infectious contact between and among sexes [49], [55]–[57] and how these influence the risk of disease transmission [28]. In particular, understanding the mechanisms that lead to rates of male infection twice as high as females could provide crucial insights on management strategies designed to reduce male CWD prevalence as an alternative to high male harvest.

 

Assuming CWD originated in the core area and environmental accumulation of prions contributes significantly to transmission, we would expect higher infection rate estimates in the core compared with surrounding areas. We are uncertain why infection rate is apparently greater in males for some areas to the west and southwest of the core. These surrounding areas have similar habitat characteristics with the core, and we would not expect deer abundance to vary significantly prior to CWD discovery. Heterogeneous harvest management conducted among areas may be one potential explanation. However, this difference also suggests that unidentified environmental characteristics or management actions may influence the current and future trends in CWD prevalence. Regardless, these patterns suggest that our model predictions for the core area may underestimate the rate of CWD increase in other areas. Future research is needed to understand the drivers of CWD transmission, how these vary spatially, and their influence on future patterns of infection. The identification of potential environmental reservoirs (e.g., common feeding areas, mineral licks) and evaluation of the significance of indirect transmission in free-ranging deer populations would also enhance our ability to predict future trends in infection and allow a better evaluation of alternative control strategies.

 

In concept QAIC should help account for overdispersion in our data, which might result from missing covariates in the model and/or a lack of independence in the data (e.g., [58]). Such lack of independence may be due to spatial and/or temporal autocorrelation, and while we do not explicitly account for such effects, we rely on QAIC to generally accommodate a portion of these impacts. While we detected significant temporal autocorrelation in residuals for predicted female prevalence, other research in the same study area [44], [46] found no spatial autocorrelation in model residuals using a 93.6 km2 or 2.6 km2 spatial frame, respectively. We caution that despite use of QAIC, our model parameter estimates may still be overly precise.

 

Rate of spread

 

Several studies indicate that the southwestern core area of WI is the likely point of origin for CWD in our study area, with an inverse relationship between distance-to-core and prevalence as would be expected from an introduced disease spreading across the landscape [20], [22], [44]. To our knowledge, we present the first empirical estimate of CWD geographic spread, based on sex-specific FD transmission, which indicated a low average rate (1.13 km year−1) during initial phases of the epizootic. There is no current evidence to suggest that CWD spread in our study area was facilitated by humans (via movements of infectious animals between game farms or preserves); however, the anecdotal evidence of such events warrants further investigation. Though DD transmission was not supported by our data, the estimated rate of geographic spread was similar for this model structure. Our results suggest that in the south-central Wisconsin endemic area, CWD has slowly moved across the landscape and is probably not a recent development. Clearly this estimated rate of spread must be considered unique to the outbreak in south-central Wisconsin.

 

Rates of CWD spread in other regions are likely influenced by a number of factors including habitat features [44], [59], mode of disease transmission, host species (e.g., white-tailed or mule deer), population structure, host movements [60], dispersal [61], and possibly the environment [54]. For example, recent analyses [44] indicate that CWD may be spreading faster from the outbreak in eastern Wisconsin and northern Illinois than from south-central Wisconsin. Our simple estimate also assumes an average uniform diffusion from the point of origin and ignores potential disease movement via longer distance dispersal [60], although recent discovery of CWD in north-west Wisconsin does not appear to be linked to long-distance dispersal from southern Wisconsin based on genetic analysis (S. Robinson Pers. Comm.). In addition, our analysis does not account for habitat heterogeneity and physical barriers (natural or anthropogenic) that influence landscape scale movement and interaction of deer populations [62], [63] or CWD distribution [44], [63]. We also note that despite a highly significant R2 value, our simple regression utilizes only six data points (including the core, which we assume is the origin of the epizootic), with uncertainty that is not accounted for in the regression. As such, there is likely higher variance associated with our estimated rate of spread.

 

Despite these limitations, our estimate provides a starting place to conceptualize early CWD spread across the southern Wisconsin landscape. In the context of CWD, we believe the areas surrounding the core are currently in relatively early stages of the epizootic with low, but increasing prevalence. Under FD transmission and barring effective management efforts, CWD prevalence is predicted to increase over time, and we suspect that the rate of spread may also increase because more young males will become infected prior to dispersal [46]. As such, we consider our spread estimate as a lower bound that is likely to increase as the epizootic progresses.

 

Harvest strategies

 

As a consequence of FD transmission, our simulations predict that in the next decade CWD prevalence can increase to relatively high levels (25% in females and 50% in males) in the absence of significant management actions to reduce infection rates. Of the three harvest strategies we evaluated, only male-focused harvest succeeded in reducing CWD prevalence below current levels. Prevalence is reduced because this strategy removes animals from the highest prevalence class (reducing infection rates), while allowing dilution of population-level CWD prevalence by recruitment of more females [64]. In contrast, CWD increased under female-focused and herd-control harvest strategies. By focusing harvest on the portion of the population with highest prevalence and infection rates, our simulation suggests that harvest management can effectively reduce prevalence despite FD disease transmission. Although disease eradication may not be possible, prevalence reduction (especially in higher risk groups), which reduces force of infection, is the key to mediating disease impacts on host populations in the long term. Effective disease management by sex-specific differential harvest has also been explored for bovine tuberculosis in deer [55].

 

The density-dependent harvest structure we imposed produced much lower average realized harvest (RH) rates for the female-focused and herd-control strategies, compared with male-focused harvest. High female harvest reduces population size, which requires lower realized harvest rates to maintain stable population goals (based on societal tolerance for deer). While this density-dependent harvest structure is artificial, it is intended to represent hunter effort in response to perceived deer densities. In the absence of such a mechanism, static harvest rates over the simulated time frame of 50 years resulted in host and disease extinction, as predicted in theoretical models of FD disease transmission [14]. In addition, our results show that deer demography and CWD dynamics are sensitive to changes in harvest. Estimation of unbiased harvest rates requires accurate information on both the distribution of harvested animals and the distribution of the underlying population. Although harvest-based estimates for deer populations have various limitations [9], [65], the importance of this parameter for monitoring the performance of CWD management programs suggests future research to improve estimation procedures should be considered.

 

The demographic implications of alternative harvest strategies for disease management are also important as they affect deer densities, recreational opportunities (e.g., hunting or observation), and potential disease spread. While male-focused harvest reduces CWD prevalence in the long term, it results in lower densities of adult males (compared with herd-control), which are usually of primary interest to deer hunters. For the herd-control harvest strategy (current deer management goals) nearly 50% of adult males and 25% of adult females are expected to become infected within another decade. Even worse, for female-focused harvest not only are deer densities expected to be low, but more than 50% of surviving adult males and 30% of adult females would be infected. In general, these harvest strategies are characterized by accelerating rates of infection in all deer, and higher prevalence, particularly in males. Considering the constraints of our model the tradeoff between strategies is clear; CWD can eventually be reduced with fewer opportunities to harvest healthy adult bucks, or more adult bucks may be available for harvest, but with higher rates of CWD infection. Given that quality deer management practices focus on production of older bucks with large antlers, management agencies could face difficult alternatives from these competing interests. However, if an efficacious CWD vaccine was available and cost-effectively distributed to broad segments of a deer population (particularly males), managers would have more flexibility to employ a disease control strategy combining harvest and vaccination to provide adequate recreational opportunities to harvest CWD-free deer.

 

The mechanism for density-dependent population regulation in deer is not well known, but one hypothesis is that deer reduce body size and maintain survival rates while lowering reproduction [66]. Therefore, we used density-dependent fecundity to regulate population size in our no-harvest simulations. The goal of these simulations was to illustrate the rapid increase in CWD prevalence and eventual impact on deer populations in the absence of harvest or other factors that remove infected animals prior to mortality from CWD. Such situations might be likely in high density urban deer populations, national parks, captive deer farms, or other areas where deer harvest or removal is limited. This simulation is not designed to represent current conditions in Wisconsin, and we consider this a worst-case disease scenario in areas without harvest.

 

*** However, we also note that CWD transmission rates and prevalence are much higher in captive deer farms than has been reported in wild populations [67].

 

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Conclusions

 

Given our model structure and data, our results provide strong support for FD transmission of CWD with the force of infection driven by changes in prevalence, which we suggest is a vital metric for focused control efforts. Generally as prevalence increases, as found in Wisconsin, infection rate also increases in the absence of intervention, producing an accelerating pattern of infection. Assuming that frequency-dependent transmission predominates (as our evaluation indicates), management to reduce prevalence will mediate potential CWD population impacts. The higher rate of infection and prevalence in males, thus, provides the basis for effective CWD management using deer harvest focused on this sex. Management to reduce prevalence might be accomplished through the synergistic effects of targeted harvest and vaccination of males. Unfortunately, we know little about the mechanisms for male infection and further research is needed before alternative management strategies to reduce male infection rates can be developed. Spatial differences in CWD infection rates, despite similar habitat and pre-CWD deer abundance, suggest that unidentified environmental or management factors may also influence disease dynamics and future trends in prevalence. Future research to understand the drivers of CWD transmission, how these vary spatially, and the relative importance of environmental and direct transmission is critical to understanding future CWD dynamics in wild deer.

 

Our results also indicate that even with high deer densities CWD has been spreading at a relatively slow rate across the landscape; in agreement with larger scale spatial patterns for prevalence [44]. However, as disease prevalence continues to increase, the rate of infection in yearling bucks will also increase [46]. Because dispersing bucks may be an important source of disease spread, these patterns suggest that CWD prevalence outside the core area will continue to grow and the disease may spread at an increasing rate. Although the drivers of CWD spatial spread are not generally known (see [44] for identification of landscape features that affect spread), management efforts to reduce both local prevalence and deer abundance will likely reduce dispersal of infected yearling bucks. However, the relative impact of reducing deer abundance versus prevalence in lowering the number of infected yearling bucks likely depends on disease prevalence and deer density [46]. Further research is needed to determine the factors that affect spatial spread and develop effective management strategies.

 

 


123

Citation: Jennelle CS, Henaux V, Wasserberg G, Thiagarajan B, Rolley RE, et al. (2014) Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management. PLoS ONE 9(3): e91043. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091043
Editor: Roy Martin Roop II, East Carolina University School of Medicine, United States of America
Received: July 27, 2012; Accepted: February 7, 2014; Published: March 21, 2014
Copyright: © 2014 Jennelle et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: Funding was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and U.S. Geological Survey. The University of Wisconsin Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology provided assistance with publication costs. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0091043#close


ONCE AGAIN, MANY THANKS TO PLOS ET AL FOR FULL TEXT TO LAYPERSON WITH NO PHD...TSS

*** However, we also note that CWD transmission rates and prevalence are much higher in captive deer farms than has been reported in wild populations [67].
 
Saturday, March 15, 2014
 
Potential role of soil properties in the spread of CWD in western Canada
 
 
Friday, February 08, 2013
 
*** Behavior of Prions in the Environment: Implications for Prion Biology
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
snip...
 
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
 
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
 
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
 
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
 
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
 
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
 
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.
 
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
 
snip...
 
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).
 
The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
 
Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.
 
snip...
 
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
 
snip...
 
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.
 
snip...
 
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.
 
snip...
 
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.
 
snip...
 
 
 
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep. ...
 
also, see where even decades back, the USDA had the same thought as they do today with CWD, not their problem...see page 27 below as well, where USDA stated back then, the same thing they stated in the state of Pennsylvania, not their damn business, once they escape, and they said the same thing about CWD in general back then ;
 
”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” ...page 26.
 
 
”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” ...page 26.
 
sound familiar $$$
 
Sunday, January 06, 2013
 
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE
 
*** "it‘s no longer its business.”
 
 
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
 
*** cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild
 
 
how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??
 
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
 
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.
 
RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
 
SUMMARY:
 
 
 
 SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 11, 2014
 
Wisconsin tracks 81 deer from game farm with CWD buck to seven other states
 
 
Friday, March 07, 2014
 
37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia (CWD TSE Prion abstracts)
 
 
Tuesday, February 25, 2014
 
*** Test results provide current snapshot of CWD in south-central Wisconsin Dane and Eastern Iowa counties Prevalence has increased in all categories
 
 
Monday, March 10, 2014
 
Docket No. 00-108-10 Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose; Program Standards
 
Singeltary Submission
 
 
$$$
 
Monday, March 03, 2014
 
APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities ??
 
 
Sunday, March 02, 2014
 
BIG WIN FOR SHOOTING PENS FROM BRAKKE BLUNDER THANKS TO JUDGE, BIG LOSS FOR WILD CERVIDS AND POSSIBLE HUMANS FROM CWD
 
 
Wednesday, March 05, 2014
 
Iowa Brakke Family Wins DNR Legal Case
 
 
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
 
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
 
snip...
 
5. On July 16, 2012, DNR received a notice from the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab ("Texas Vet Lab”) that a sample from an adult male deer killed at Pine Ridge tested presumptively positive for CWD. (DNR has an agreement with the Texas Vet Lab to run these preliminary tests.) Because the Texas Vet Lab found this presumptive positive result, protocols required the sample to be sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory ("National Lab”) in Ames, Iowa for final confirmation. On July 18, 2012, the National Lab confirmed the positive CWD result in the deer.
 
6. On July 19, 2012, DNR notified the Brakkes of the positive test by phone. Mr. Brakke was out of state.
 
snip...
 
12. The Brakkes depopulated the Hunting Preserve, as specified in the Agreement, from September 10, 2012 to January 31, 2013. As part of this effort, the Brakkes, the staff and their customers killed 199 captive deer and nine captive elk. The DNR obtained 170 CWD samples. (Samples were not taken from fawns and one adult female who was killed in a manner that made sampling impossible.) Of these 199 deer, two additional adult male deer tested positive for CWD. Information provided by the Brakkes confirmed that these two additional deer originated from the Brakke Breeding Facility.
 
13. DNR installed, with the Brakke's permission, an interior electric fence on October 1 and 2, 2012.
 
14. The Brakkes cleaned and disinfected, under DNR supervision, the feeders and ground surrounding the feeders on April 5, 2013.
 
15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013 letter.
 
16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all, of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.
 
17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.
 
18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.
 
IV. CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
 
snip...
 
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
 
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
 
 
Thursday, October 03, 2013
 
TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments REMOVE the requirement for a specific fence height for captives
 
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) ANNOUNCEMENT October 3, 2013
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 04, 2014
 
Indiana Hunting preserves Sen. Carlin Yoder Senate Bill 404 and Rep. William Friend House Bill 1154 DEAD IN THE WATER ?
 
 
Saturday, June 29, 2013
 
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
 
 
Monday, June 24, 2013
 
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
 
 
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
 
CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania
 
 
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
 
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
 
 
Sunday, March 09, 2014
 
Lesion Profiling and Subcellular Prion Localization of Cervid Chronic Wasting Disease in Domestic Cats
 
 
Monday, December 02, 2013
 
WISCONSIN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD DISCOVERED MARATHON COUNTY HUNTING PRESERVE
 
 
Tuesday, December 17, 2013
 
Wisconsin Second CWD positive deer found in Grant County Second CWD positive deer found in Grant County
 
News Release Published: December 16, 2013 by the South Central Region
 
Contact(s): Tami Ryan, DNR wildlife health, 608-266-3143 Don Bates, CWD operations. 608- 935-1947 Bob Manwell DNR communications, 608-275-3317
 
MADISON, Wis. -- A second deer in Grant County from outside the current chronic wasting disease management zone has tested positive for the disease. The 1.5-year-old buck was killed and registered Nov. 24.
 
The most recent CWD-positive deer was harvested near the center of the county about 7.5 miles from the border of the CWD management zone and about four miles from the first positive which was buck shot during the 2012 season.
 
“This is why we have focused surveillance around the fringes of the CWD management zone, to better understand the distribution of the disease and identify the presence of the disease in periphery areas,” said Don Bates, DNR CWD operations supervisor. “Based on the 2012 positive deer, and what is known about the disease and how it spreads, finding another CWD-positive outside the current zone boundary was not unexpected.”
 
This is the third year that DNR has focused surveillance around the boundaries of the existing CWD management zone. Sampling of deer is voluntary in these areas and in Grant County, DNR partners with private businesses to collect samples.
 
“We thank all hunters who brought in deer for voluntary CWD testing during the nine-day gun season and the businesses that helped us collect samples,” Bates said. “This cooperation is essential to achieving our goal of detecting trends in prevalence and distribution of the disease.”
 
This second positive does not change any remaining hunting seasons nor does it change the current CWD management zone boundary. Baiting and feeding of deer is already banned in the county and will continue to be illegal.
 
For more information on CWD in Wisconsin, and to view CWD management zone maps, please visit dnr.wi.gov and search keyword “CWD.”
 
-30-
 
 
 Tuesday, December 17, 2013
 
Wisconsin Second CWD positive deer found in Grant County
 
 
Monday, December 02, 2013
 
WISCONSIN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD DISCOVERED MARATHON COUNTY HUNTING PRESERVE
 
CWD-positive White-tailed Deer Found on Marathon County Hunting Preserve
 
Date: December 2, 2013 Contact: Raechelle Cline, 608-224-5005 or Jim Dick, Communications Director, 608-224-5020
 
MADISON – For the first time in five years, a white-tailed deer on a hunting preserve has tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), State Veterinarian Dr. Paul McGraw announced today. This latest case was found in Marathon County.
 
The National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa, reported the final test results back to the state. The animal was a 5-year-old male and was one of about 370 deer in the 351-acre preserve.
 
The deer was killed on November 4. Samples were taken on November 7 in accordance with Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection’s (DATCP’s) rules, which require testing of farm-raised deer and elk when they die, go to slaughter or are killed. The sample originally tested positive at a regional laboratory and required a confirmatory test at the NVSL. The DATCP Animal Health Division’s investigation will look at the animal’s history and trace movements of deer onto and off the property to determine whether other herds may have been exposed to the CWD test-positive deer.
 
McGraw quarantined the preserve and the other three registered farms owned by the same entity immediately, which stops movement of live deer from the property, except to slaughter or to their hunting preserves. The business will be allowed to conduct hunts on the quarantined preserves, because properly handled dead animals leaving the premises do not pose a disease risk.
 
This is the first new CWD test-positive deer on a Wisconsin farm since October 2008.
 
Since CWD was discovered in Wisconsin in February 2002, there were eighty-two cases from a single Portage county farm that was depopulated in 2006. The remaining 15 cases were discovered over a six-year period from 2002 to 2008 on eight farms and hunting preserves. One of the infected animals was an elk; the rest have been white-tailed deer. Since 1998, more than 35,700 farm-raised deer and elk have been tested for CWD.
 
###
 
12.02.13CWDPositiveMarathon.pdf
 
 
UPDATE DECEMBER 3, 2013
 
The 5-year-old buck was killed Nov. 4 at the Wilderness Game Farm Inc., a hunting ranch in the Eland area, said Raechelle Cline, public information officer for the state Division of Animal Health.
 
The buck was one of about 370 deer in the 351-acre preserve, said State Veterinarian Dr. Paul McGraw.
 
Chronic wasting disease, or CWD, is considered a major threat to Wisconsin’s hunting industry because it can spread from animal to animal and has been known to devastate herds in other states. In Wisconsin, CWD is confirmed to have killed fewer than 100 deer, almost all of them on game farms.
 
 
Monday, December 02, 2013
 
WISCONSIN CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD DISCOVERED MARATHON COUNTY HUNTING PRESERVE
 
 
Sunday, November 03, 2013
 
Wisconsin Second CWD deer found in Portage County
 
 
Wisconsin : 436 Deer Have Escaped From Farms to Wild
 
Date: March 18, 2003 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel snip...
 
Sunday, November 03, 2013
 
Wisconsin Second CWD deer found in Portage County
 
Second CWD deer found in Portage County
 
News Release
 
Published: November 1, 2013 by the Northwest Region Contact(s): Kris Johansen, DNR area wildlife supervisor, 715-284-1430; Ed Culhane,
 
DNR communications, 715-781-1683 WISCONSIN RAPIDS – A deer harvested by a bow hunter in southeast Portage County has tested positive for chronic wasting disease, the state Department of Natural Resources reports. This is the second CWD-positive wild deer found in the county. Wildlife biologists in central Wisconsin now are asking bow hunters to assist with increased surveillance for the disease in four separate areas where positives have been confirmed outside the CWD management zone.
 
CWD is contagious and fatal for deer, elk and moose. “Last fall CWD was discovered for the first time in three wild, white-tailed deer in Adams, Juneau and Portage counties” said DNR area wildlife supervisor Kris Johansen. “Now we have a second positive in a different area of Portage County. To better define the geographic extent of CWD in central Wisconsin, we are focusing additional surveillance around each of these four locations.”
 
The latest CWD positive deer was harvested Oct. 6 just northwest of Almond in Portage County.
 
To view where the surveillance focus areas are located, hunters can go to the DNR website and enter “CWD registration” in the key word search, then click on “CWD registration and sampling.” On this page – http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/wildlifehabitat/registersample.html – detailed maps show the precise location of these surveillance circles for the first three positives, the ones in Adams and Juneau counties and the first find in Portage County, located in the northwest corner of the county.
 
There is also a map showing the two Portage County locations. A new map, showing the precise surveillance area for the fourth positive, in southeast Portage County, will be added to the web page as soon as it is prepared. This page also links to a list of cooperating taxidermists and meat processors where samples can be collected.
 
The DNR is asking hunters to work with these cooperators to have head and lymph node samples from adult deer – harvested within the four focus areas – removed for testing. To have the sample removed, the hunter can bring the whole deer to one of the listed cooperators or just remove the head with at least three inches of neck attached and bring that in for sampling.
 
“Please call ahead to set up an appointment,” Johansen said. “These are private business operators who are helping us out, and we want to respect their time and their schedules.” This list will be updated online as new cooperators join the surveillance effort:
 
• Wisconsin River Meats, N5340 County HH, Mauston 608-847-7413
 
• A&B Butchering, 6971 Hwy 34, Rudolph 715-435-3893
 
• Strickly Wild Processing, 140 Buffalo St, Wisconsin Rapids 715-421-0587
 
• Hartnell's Wild Game Processing, 1925 Cypress Ave., Arkdale 608-339-7288
 
• Trevor Athens Taxidermy, 982 15th Ave., Arkdale 608-547-6117
 
• Tall Tines Taxidermy, N2621 Cassidy Road, Mauston 608-547-0818
 
• Todd's Wildlife Taxidermy, N2148 State 58, Mauston 608-847-7693
 
• Vollmer Taxidermy, 3631 Plover Road, Plover 715-345-1934
 
• Field and Stream Taxidermy, 217 S. Front St., Coloma 608-547-1565
 
• DNR Service Center, 473 Griffith Ave., Wisconsin Rapids 715-421-7813
 
• Mead Wildlife Area, S2148 County S, Milladore 715-457-6771
 
• Adams Ranger Station, 532 N. Adams St., Adams 608-339-4819
 
• Almond Market, 111 Main St., Almond 715-366-2002
 
Hunters may also have deer from any of the four focus areas tested for CWD by contacting one of these DNR offices:
 
• Mead Wildlife Area headquarters, S2148 County S, Milladore – 715-457-6771
 
• WI Rapids Service Center, 473 Griffith Avenue, Wisconsin Rapids – 715-421-7813
 
• Adams-Friendship Ranger Station, 532 N. Main Street, Adams – 608-339-4819
 
On the weekends or during warm periods, hunters should remove the deer head with at least three inches of neck attached, freeze the head and then contact the DNR to arrange a drop off. DNR staff will also collect samples from hunter-harvested deer on the opening weekend of the gun deer season. Collection stations and hours will be published prior to the gun deer season. The CWD tests are free to hunters. Each person who submits a head for testing will receive lab results within three or four weeks. http://dnr.wi.gov/news/BreakingNews_Lookup.asp?id=2996
 
 
14 YEARS AGO
 
THE YEAR 2000
 
Stop the madness: CWD threatens Wisconsin's elk, deer and, ultimately, people.
 
15 July 00
 
The Isthmus magazine By BRIAN McCOMBIE
 
Imagine a disease worse than AIDS rippling through Wisconsin's deer herd. One that's always fatal, cannot be tested for in live animals, and has the chance of spreading to anyone who eats the infected venison. Sound like the premise for Michael Crichton's next apocalyptic thriller?
 
Unfortunately, such a disease already exists in epidemic levels in the wilds of Colorado and Wyoming. It's infected some game farms, too, and Wisconsin game farmers have imported more than 350 elk with the potential for this disease, including elk from farms known to be infected.
 
"If most people knew what kind of risk this disease poses to free-ranging deer in the state, they'd be very concerned," says Dr. Sarah Hurley, Lands Division administrator for the Department of Natural Resources. The DNR is now testing free-ranging deer around these game farms for the disease: "We're focusing our energies on those areas where we think there's the greatest possibility of transmission."
 
The malady the DNR's looking for is chronic wasting disease (CWD)--better known, to the extent it is known at all, as mad elk disease. It's a form of the mad cow disease that devastated Britain's cattle industry in the 1980s, scared the bejesus out of the populace, and is believed to have killed at least 70 people to date. An elk or deer with CWD can be listless, may walk in circles, will lose weight and interact progressively less with fellow animals.
 
The corresponding human affliction is called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (pronounced Croytz-feld Yawkob) or CJD. People with CJD experience symptoms similar to Alzheimer's, including memory loss and depression, followed by rapidly progressive dementia and death, usually within one year. While CJD is rare (literally one in a million odds of getting it), over the last few years at least three deer hunters have died of it. There is no proof either way whether they contracted the disease from CWD-infected venison, but new research says it is possible.
 
All three varieties--mad cow, mad elk and CJD--belong to a family of diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. These diseases alter the conformation of proteins in the brain called prions; after-death brain samples usually show a series of microscopic holes in and around brain cells.
 
No one is exactly sure how mad elk disease spreads. At first, transmittal through blood seemed likely, as from mother to fawn. But CWD has moved between adult animals at game farms, leading scientists to conclude that it can be spread through saliva or simple contact. Also, the rates of transmission are higher in areas where animals have the most opportunities for contact. Wisconsin's concentrated population of 1.7 million deer interact freely with each other, and scientific modeling suggests CWD could tear through our deer herd devastatingly fast. Despite the danger, Wisconsin and other states are relying on only sporadic testing and a system of voluntary compliance. It's a system that some say has more holes in it than a CWD-infected brain.
 
At present, Wisconsin game farm owners, even those harboring elk and deer brought in from farms with known cases of CWD, do not have to call a veterinarian if a deer or elk suddenly dies or acts strange. They're also not required to inform the state Department of Natural Resources (DNR) or the Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) if animals escape into the wild.
 
"The lax attitude is pretty shocking," says John Stauber, a Madison activist and co-author of Mad Cow U.S.A. To protect people and deer, Stauber argues for an immediate importation ban for game farms, plus programs of testing and surveillance. He suggests both DATCP and DNR aren't taking such measures because, as the regulators in charge, they don't want to find the CWD he thinks is likely already in state. "It's in their bureaucratic interest to not [actively] look for CWD in the game farms," says Stauber. "Because if they find it, who's to blame?"
 
In the wild and especially out west, chronic wasting disease is spreading fast. Northeastern Colorado documented its first case in 1981. By the mid-1990s, samplings of mule deer brains showed 3% to 4% testing positive for CWD. Within a few years, the rate was 8%, and now Larimer County, the center of the endemic area, has a 15% rate of infection among mule deer. It's also being found in deer and elk in Wyoming.
 
"Fifteen percent of a wild population of animals with this disease is staggering," says Dr. Thomas Pringle, who tracks CWD-type diseases for the Sperling Biomedical Foundation in Eugene, Ore. "It's basically unheard of. This appears to be an unusually virulent strain. with highly efficient horizontal transmission mechanisms."
 
CWD could eventually spread to Wisconsin on its own, animal to animal. But that would take decades. Game farms, though, provide a mechanism to cut through all that time and distance and drop CWD smack in the middle of the state.
 
An open-records search by Isthmus reveals that the first shipment of farm elk from areas with CWD in the wild occurred in 1992, with 66 Colorado elk going to a game farm in Plymouth. In April 1998, DATCP was informed that a Bloomer game farm had purchased one elk from a Nebraska farm later found to be CWD-infected. This prompted a Sept. 15, 1998, memo from Steven Miller, head of the DNR's Lands Division, to Secretary George Meyer, with copies to DATCP chief Ben Brancel and Gov. Tommy Thompson. In it, Miller recommends that Wisconsin follow the lead of Montana (which found CWD on two game farms) and place "a moratorium on the importation of all game farm animals.... At present it appears the only way to help assure the disease does not spread into Wisconsin."
 
But the moratorium was never put in place, so it's possible that even more elk potentially carrying CWD are now in state.
 
Instead of a moratorium, Wisconsin has opted for testing. It is among 12 states and two Canadian provinces that currently test deer for CWD. Last year, the Wisconsin DNR began testing road- and hunter-killed deer in 1999 within a five-mile radius of game farms that have brought in elk from CWD-infected areas. Test areas include all or part of Fond du Lac, Dodge, Jefferson, Sheboygan and Washington counties. All of the approximately 250 brains examined in 1999 came back negative; this year, 500 to 600 deer will be tested.
 
Meanwhile, DATCP is asking owners of game farms that have animals from herds known to have cases of CWD infection to voluntarily enter a surveillance program. The agency's top veterinarian, Dr. Clarence Siroky, argues that voluntary compliance makes more sense than a moratorium because, ban or no ban, game farm operators "are going to find a way to bring these animals into the state. We don't have police patrols and impregnable borders to keep anything in or out."
 
With voluntary compliance, Siroky says, at least there are records of animals entering the state. So if CWD or other diseases are discovered, the animals can be traced back to their original herds and other farms they may have been at. "It's better to know where the animals are coming in from," he insists.
 
Siroky may be right that an importation ban would result in some game farms smuggling in animals. But currently, game farmers can bring in any deer or elk, even those from known CWD-infected areas, so long as they can produce a health certificate showing the animal's been tested. The problem is that no test exists to find CWD in live animals. Animals can carry CWD for years and still look healthy, so some of the 370 elk shipped into Wisconsin between 1996 and 1999 from CWD areas could have the disease. The odds are even higher for animals purchased from farms later found to have CWD.
 
Wisconsin has approximately 100 deer or elk farms and they're big business. On the Internet, prices for elk calves start at $1,500, and breeding bulls go for up to $20,000. Some farms sell venison and the velvet that peels from new elk antlers (considered an aphrodisiac in Asia). Others offer "hunts" costing between $1,000 and $5,000 for trophy deer, to more than $10,000 for bull elk with massive antlers.
 
Given these economics, it's reasonable to question why anyone with a suspicion of CWD in his or her herd would call in state regulators or a vet. A farm with a proven CWD case, confirms Dr. Robert Ehlenfeldt, DATCP's director of Animal Disease Control, would be shut down indefinitely.
 
And if a problem develops on a Wisconsin game farm, there's no guarantee that's where it will stay. Dr. Hurley says even fenced-in animals have easy nose-to-nose contact with wild and other farmed animals. Besides, as the DNR's chief of special operations Thomas Solin has documented, many game farms are not secure. Gates are sometimes left open. Fences rust and break, rot and topple, get crushed by fallen trees. Even if game farm animals don't escape, such breaches allow wild deer to get in, mingle with the farmed deer and elk, then leave.
 
Unlike other diseases, there's no test for CWD in living animals because it doesn't create an immune system counter-response, detectable through blood analysis. You can't kill CWD and related diseases by cooking the meat. One test Stauber recounts in Mad Cow U.S.A. found that scrapie, a sheep form of CWD, stayed viable after a full hour at 680 degrees Fahrenheit. Most disinfectants don't kill these diseases, either, and they can exist in the soil for years.
 
And while diseases like mad cow and mad elk do have some trouble jumping from species to species, it can happen. This May, Byron Caughey of the National Institutes of Health announced that he had converted human brain materials with mad-elk-contaminated brain matter at rates roughly equal to the transfer between mad cow and humans.
 
Says Dr. Pringle, referring to Caughey's work, "CWD may not transmit that easily, but the rate isn't zero." Pringle notes that the test Caughey used has been a very reliable proxy in the past in determining transmission possibilities for other diseases, including mad cow.
 
Once they jump the species barrier, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases adapt to fit the new host and are then passed on rather easily within that species. Unfortunately, says Pringle, no one is trying to determine if CWD has jumped into people as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Making matters more difficult is the fact that the disease can incubate for decades before symptoms are seen.
 
In states with CWD-infected deer, thousands of people have undoubtedly been exposed to CWD-infected venison. A February 1998 Denver Post article tells of one hunter who's venison tested positive for CWD. By the time he was notified, his meat had already been ground up and mixed with meat from hundreds of other deer for venison sausage.
 
With AIDS, Pringle notes, there was a definite overreaction, with people initially afraid to even shake hands with people infected with the virus. Looking at the CWD situation in Colorado, he says there's been complete underreaction. "It's like, oh, what the hell. Nobody's died yet--so keep eating the venison!'" Pringle worries that if the disease is found in humans, it will be so only after years of spreading through the human community.
 
Looking over documents obtained by Isthmus through its open-records request, Stauber says DATCP is behaving more like a lobbyist for the game farm industry than an agency bent on protecting Wisconsin's people from CWD. He points to DATCP's Cervidae Advisory Committee as a prime example. In a Nov. 11, 1998, memo from Siroky to DATCP secretary Ben Brancel, Siroky notes that the committee is needed to "obtain information from the public concerning disease regulation" of farmed deer and elk, and "to help formulate action plans for importation requirements, prevention and control" of CWD. But of the 12 people Siroky nominates, one's a DNR warden, one's a DATCP employee, and the other 10 are game farm owners. And two of these owners were among those DATCP knew had purchased elk from farms at high risk of having CWD.
 
"There's no significant input from anyone else," says Stauber. "Farmers, deer hunters and consumers are all left out. Meanwhile, the government's failing to take all necessary precautions to alert the public to this potential health threat."
 
 
Friday, February 03, 2012
 
Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al
 
 
*** PRICE OF CWD TSE PRION POKER GOES UP 2014 ***
 
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION update January 2, 2014
 
*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.
 
*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.
 
 
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
 
 
 The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection) increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of having CWD in free-ranging herds: We’ve got this infectious agent out there that we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic livestock.”
 
 
Thursday, March 20, 2014
 
*** CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION OF CERVID AND THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN TRANSMISSION THEREFROM 2014 ***
 
 
 Friday, November 09, 2012
 
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
 
 
 Sunday, November 11, 2012
 
*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012
 
 
 Friday, December 14, 2012
 
Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012
 
 
 Saturday, March 09, 2013
 
Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases
 
 
Thursday, January 2, 2014
 
*** CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ?? ***
 

 

WHAT about the sporadic CJD TSE proteins ?

 

WE now know that some cases of sporadic CJD are linked to atypical BSE and atypical Scrapie, so why are not MORE concerned about the sporadic CJD, and all it’s sub-types $$$

 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013

 

*** Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010 ***

 


 

Sunday, October 13, 2013

 

*** CJD TSE Prion Disease Cases in Texas by Year, 2003-2012

 


 

Sunday, March 09, 2014

 

A Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Lookback Study: Assessing the Risk of Blood Borne Transmission of Classic Forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

 

FDA TSEAC CIRCUS AND TRAVELING ROAD SHOW FOR THE TSE PRION DISEASES

 


 

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

 

*** Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease ***

 


 

Monday, February 10, 2014

 

18 Forsyth Medical Center patients exposed to CJD; apology issued...OOOPS, SORRY, TOO BAD $$$

 


 

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

 

Novant Health Forsyth Medical Center Information on potential CJD exposure

 


 

Monday, February 3, 2014

 

*** Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy TSE Prion disease

 

Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

 


 

Sunday, March 23, 2014

 

APHIS USDA National Scrapie Eradication Program February 2014 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2014

 


 

Monday, March 3, 2014

 

*** Gov. C.L. "Butch" Otter of Idaho signs bill that will force consumers to eat dead stock downers and whatever else the industry decides

 

see updated Rancho CLASS 1 HIGH RISK dead stock cancer downer recall for IDAHO

 


 


 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OIA UPDATE DECEMBER 2013 UPDATE

 

OAI 2012-2013

 

OAI (Official Action Indicated) when inspectors find significant objectionable conditions or practices and believe that regulatory sanctions are warranted to address the establishment’s lack of compliance with the regulation. An example of an OAI classification would be findings of manufacturing procedures insufficient to ensure that ruminant feed is not contaminated with prohibited material. Inspectors will promptly re-inspect facilities classified OAI after regulatory sanctions have been applied to determine whether the corrective actions are adequate to address the objectionable conditions.

 

ATL-DO 1035703 Newberry Feed & Farm Ctr, Inc. 2431 Vincent St. Newberry SC 29108-0714 OPR DR, FL, FR, TH HP 9/9/2013 OAI Y

 

DET-DO 1824979 Hubbard Feeds, Inc. 135 Main, P.O. Box 156 Shipshewana IN 46565-0156 OPR DR, FL, OF DP 8/29/2013 OAI Y

 

ATL-DO 3001460882 Talley Farms Feed Mill Inc 6309 Talley Rd Stanfield NC 28163-7617 OPR FL, TH NP 7/17/2013 OAI N

 

NYK-DO 3010260624 Sherry Sammons 612 Stoner Trail Rd Fonda NY 12068-5007 OPR FR, OF NP 7/16/2013 OAI Y

 

DEN-DO 3008575486 Rocky Ford Pet Foods 21693 Highway 50 East Rocky Ford CO 81067 OPR RE, TH HP 2/27/2013 OAI N

 

CHI-DO 3007091297 Rancho Cantera 2866 N Sunnyside Rd Kent IL 61044-9605 OPR FR, OF HP 11/26/2012 OAI Y

 

*** DEN-DO 1713202 Weld County Bi Products, Inc. 1138 N 11th Ave Greeley CO 80631-9501 OPR RE, TH HP 10/12/2012 OAI N

 

Ruminant Feed Inspections Firms Inventory (excel format)

 


 

PLEASE NOTE, the VAI violations were so numerous, and unorganized in dates posted, as in numerical order, you will have to sift through them for yourselves. ...tss

 

snip...see full text ;

 

Sunday, December 15, 2013

 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OIA UPDATE DECEMBER 2013 UPDATE

 


 

Saturday, December 15, 2012

 

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle -- an update 5 December 2012

 


 

Sunday, February 2, 2014

 

The Presence of Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Skeletal Muscle of Cattle Infected with Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

 

NOTE Pathology

 


 

Saturday, December 21, 2013

 

**** Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle ****

 


 

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

 

*** Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 233 /

 

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

 


 

Saturday, November 2, 2013

 

*** APHIS Finalizes Bovine Import Regulations in Line with International Animal Health Standards while enhancing the spread of BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease around the Globe

 


 

 

 

*** Because typical clinical signs of BSE cannot always be observed in nonambulatory disabled cattle, and because evidence has indicated these cattle are more likely to have BSE than apparently healthy cattle, FDA is designating material from nonambulatory disabled cattle as prohibited cattle materials.

 


 


 


 


 

 

Friday, March 21, 2014

 

Rancho Dead Stock Cancer Downers Recall Explained FSIS March 20 2014 ?

 

“As of March 20, 2014, FSIS has completed all checks (effectiveness checks and disposition verification checks) for recalls 002-2014 and 013-2014 regarding Rancho Feeding Corporation. FSIS has determined that based on the number of successful checks (see Directive 8080.1, Attachment 1, Table 3) where businesses were notified of the recall and removed affected products from commerce that the recall activities were effective.”

 

say what $$$

 


 

Monday, December 1, 2008

 

When Atypical Scrapie cross species barriers

 


 

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

 

snip...

 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

 

snip...

 

R. BRADLEY

 


 

1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

 

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

 

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

 

snip...

 

The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

 

PMID: 6997404

 


 

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"

 

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.

 

snip...

 

76/10.12/4.6

 


 

Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.

 

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.

 

Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0

 

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

 

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK

 

National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

 

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).

 


 


 

 Re: vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S. 15 November 1999 Terry S Singeltary, NA

 

CWD is just a small piece of a very big puzzle. I have seen while deer hunting, deer, squirrels and birds, eating from cattle feed troughs where they feed cattle, the high protein cattle by products, at least up until Aug. 4, 1997. So why would it be so hard to believe that this is how they might become infected with a TSE. Or, even by potentially infected land. It's been well documented that it could be possible, from scrapie.

 

It was proven in Oprah Winfrey's trial, that Cactus Cattle feeders, sent neurologically ill cattle, some with encephalopathy stamped on the dead slips, were picked up and sent to the renders, along with sheep carcasses.

 


 

U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well...

 

2 January 2000 Terry S Singeltary

 

The exact same recipe for B.S.E. existed in the U.S. for years and years. In reading over the Qualitative Analysis of BSE Risk Factors-1, this is a 25 page report by the USDA:APHIS:VS. It could have been done in one page. The first page, fourth paragraph says it all;

 

"Similarities exist in the two countries usage of continuous rendering technology and the lack of usage of solvents, however, large differences still remain with other risk factors which greatly reduce the potential risk at the national level."

 

Then, the next 24 pages tries to down-play the high risks of B.S.E. in the U.S., with nothing more than the cattle to sheep ratio count, and the geographical locations of herds and flocks. That's all the evidence they can come up with, in the next 24 pages.

 

Something else I find odd, page 16;

 

"In the United Kingdom there is much concern for a specific continuous rendering technology which uses lower temperatures and accounts for 25 percent of total output. This technology was _originally_ designed and imported from the United States. However, the specific application in the production process is _believed_ to be different in the two countries."

 

A few more factors to consider, page 15;

 

"Figure 26 compares animal protein production for the two countries. The calculations are based on slaughter numbers, fallen stock estimates, and product yield coefficients. This approach is used due to variation of up to 80 percent from different reported sources. At 3.6 million tons, the United States produces 8 times more animal rendered product than the United Kingdom."

 

"The risk of introducing the BSE agent through sheep meat and bone meal is more acute in both relative and absolute terms in the United Kingdom (Figures 27 and 28). Note that sheep meat and bone meal accounts for 14 percent, or 61 thousand tons, in the United Kingdom versus 0.6 percent or 22 thousand tons in the United States. For sheep greater than 1 year, this is less than one-tenth of one percent of the United States supply."

 

"The potential risk of amplification of the BSE agent through cattle meat and bone meal is much greater in the United States where it accounts for 59 percent of total product or almost 5 times more than the total amount of rendered product in the United Kingdom."

 

Considering, it would only take _one_ scrapie infected sheep to contaminate the feed. Considering Scrapie has run rampant in the U.S. for years, as of Aug. 1999, 950 scrapie infected flocks. Also, Considering only one quarter spoonful of scrapie infected material is lethal to a cow. Considering all this, the sheep to cow ration is meaningless. As I said, it's 24 pages of B.S.e.

 

To be continued...

 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA

 

Competing interests: None declared

 


 

Letters

 

JAMA. 2001;285(6):733-734. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.6.733

 

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

 

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

 

Since this article does not have an abstract, we have provided the first 150 words of the full text.

 

KEYWORDS: creutzfeldt-jakob disease, diagnosis. To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.

 

References 1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323.

 


 

Published March 26, 2003

 

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

 

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically)

 

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

 

Published March 26, 2003

 


 

14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure - Final Abstract Number: ISE.114

 

Session: International Scientific Exchange

 

Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

 

T. Singeltary Bacliff, TX, USA

 

Background: An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.

 

Methods: 12 years independent research of available data

 

Results: I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.

 

Conclusion: I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.

 


 

The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 3, Issue 8, Page 463, August 2003 doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00715-1Cite or Link Using DOI

 

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

 

Original

 

Xavier Bosch

 

“My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.” 49-year—old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt—Jakob ...

 


 


 

SEE FULL TEXT ;

 

-------- Original Message --------

 

Subject: Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003

 

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 2003 17:35:30 –0500

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

 

To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de

 

Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003

 

Previous

 

Next

 

Newsdesk

 

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

 

Xavier Bosch

 

My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.

 

49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.

 

Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.

 

Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle.

 

To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.

 

Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD. Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk.

 

Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the UK and Europe regarding BSE.

 

Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have.

 

Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that current surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings; adding that, the cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion disease cases we will not know for sure. The USA should develop a system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.

 

Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently reported the cases of three hunterstwo of whom were friendswho died from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that at present there are insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans; adding that [only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the plausibility of transmission further. Samii argues that by making both doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients will know to ask whether they ate venison.

 

CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC will not be investigating the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate CWD-infected meat. He notes that although the likelihood of CWD jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100% and that [we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans& the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very limited.

 


 

LANCET SINGELTARY ET AL CWD TSE PRION NORTH AMERICA

 


 

Singeltary submission to PLOS ;

 

No competing interests declared.

 

see full text ;

 


 

Owens, Julie

 

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [flounder9@verizon.net]

 

Sent: Monday, July 24, 2006 1:09 PM

 

To: FSIS RegulationsComments

 

Subject: [Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Page 1 of 98

 


 

FSIS, USDA, REPLY TO SINGELTARY

 


 

Sunday, August 09, 2009

 

CJD...Straight talk with...James Ironside...and...Terry Singeltary... 2009

 


 

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

 

* BSE-The Untold Story - joe gibbs and singeltary 1999 - 2009

 


 

Monday, March 10, 2014

 

Investigators study silent variant of mad cow disease Galveston Daily News March 4, 2014

 


 

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

 

*** Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?

 

Proposal ID: 29403

 


 

CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA

 


 


 

CJD VOICE

 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 

 

never break a promise to your mom. DOD 12/14/97 CONFIRMED hvCJD...

 

layperson

 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net

 

 

 
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