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The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery

Posted Jun 24 2013 4:31pm
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery

 

By

 

Maria Romano, Master of Public Health Candidate

 

June 2012

 

 A Community Based Master’s Project presented to the faculty of Drexel School of Public Health in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Public Health

 

 ABSTRACT

 

The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Following its Discovery

 

Maria Romano MPH1,Jana Mossey PhD MPH MSN1, Tony Grubesic PhD2David Zellner DVM DACVP3, Jennifer Miller PhD4 ,Gary Smith PhD5 and Sky Pellitier5

 

1Drexel University School of Public Health, 2Drexel University College of Information Science and Technology, 3Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Bureau of Animal Health,4Department of Geography and the Environment,University of Texas at Austin, 5New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

 

 Background: Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) affecting deer and Rocky Mountain elk. The disease affects the central nervous system resulting in brain lesions, and once infected, the disease has a 100% case fatality rate. CWD is a major concern for the state of Pennsylvania. The Commonwealth has the second largest domestic cervid industry in the country and is third in the country for the number of captive deer or elk.

 

 Objective: To predict, using captive cervid data, the probable spread and effects of a CWD epidemic within the deer industry

 

 Design: Computer simulated epidemic outbreaks of CWD using a deer movement network analysis and traditional gravity model were developed

 

 Setting: The Pennsylvania captive cervid industry, 1997-2011

 

 Data Sources: United States Animal Health Emergency Reporting Diagnostic System Database

 

 Results: 10,000 CWD simulations were 1108 farms, 65% of epidemics were relatively mild, (<14 121-259="" 14="" 159="" 48="" 571="" 620.5="" 666="" addition="" div="" epidemics="" farm.="" farm="" farms="" in="" included="" index="" infected="" length="" mean="" months="" of="" one="" only="" range="" severe="" the="" to="" was="">
 

 Conclusion: Despite the inherent limitations of the model, this study is the first of its kind to develop a potential spread of CWD using actual captive deer data before the introduction of the disease into a state. As a result, the findings of the study can be used as an instructional tool on the effects of CWD in the event of an outbreak.

 

 snip...

 

 IX. Conclusion and Recommendations

 

The study predicted the probable spread of CWD in PA using actual cervid movement data, GIS techniques and a simulation model derived from Foot and Mouth Disease in the U.K. The results indicate that, at least, entrance of an infected cervid will have a substantial, localized impact.

Otherwise, an infectious cervid entering the captive population could (over an extended number of years) devastate the commercial cervid industry in the Commonwealth.

 


 

 What are the affects to other states of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Cervid captive shooting pen, game farm, Industry Following its Discovery

 

 MORE BAD NEWS FOR TEXAS. if it were not bad enough that CWD has been waltzing across Texas from New Mexico since 2001 or earlier, and the shooting pen industry gone wild in Texas, we now have Louisiana cervids, 6 of which are does from the CWD index heard in Pennsylvania, right at our border in Lake Charles. are these CWD suspect cervids now waltzing into Texas from CWD index herd in Pennsylvania, via Louisiana, or via Missouri now ?

 

 Tuesday, May 28, 2013

 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013

 

6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.

 


 

 Tuesday, June 11, 2013

 

CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania

 


 

 Wednesday, June 12, 2013

 

CWD now waltzing into Texas from Pennsylvania CWD index herd, via Louisiana, or Missouri now ?

 


 

 Thursday, June 20, 2013

 

*** atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update

 


 

 Saturday, February 04, 2012

 

Wisconsin 16 MONTH age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised

 


 

 Monday, June 11, 2012

 

OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting

 


 

 Friday, September 28, 2012

 

Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota

 


 

 Thursday, June 13, 2013

 

WISCONSIN DEER FARMING Chronic Wasting Disease CWD DATCP

 


 

 Tuesday, June 11, 2013

 

CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania

 


 

 Sunday, June 09, 2013

 

Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD

 


 

 CWD mortality

 

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE: IMPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES FOR WILDLIFE MANAGERS

 

Excerpted and modified from a paper presented at the 67th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, April 2002. By Elizabeth S. Williams, Michael W. Miller and E. Tom Thorne. Original paper may be accessed through the Bibliography.

 

 Chronic wasting disease can reach remarkably high prevalence in captive cervid populations. In one infected research facility, more than 90% of mule deer resident for >2 years died or were euthanized while suffering from CWD. Recently, high CWD prevalence (about 50%) has been demonstrated via immunohistochemistry in white-tailed deer confined in association with an infected Nebraska elk farm. Among captive elk, CWD was the primary cause of adult mortality (five of seven, 71%; four of 23, 23%) in two research herds (Miller et al. 1998) and high prevalence (59%) was detected by immunohistochemistry in a group of 17 elk slaughtered from an infected farm herd.

 

To estimate prevalence in infected free-ranging populations, tissues from deer and elk harvested by hunters in CWD-endemic areas have been collected and examined at random. Within endemic areas, prevalence of preclinical CWD, based on immunohistochemistry for PrPCWD, has been estimated at <1-15 a="" achieve="" and="" cwd="" deer="" div="" elk.="" epidemics="" equilibrium="" extinctions="" failed="" if="" in="" infected="" lead="" left="" local="" may="" modeled="" mule="" of="" populations="" steady-state="" suggesting="" that="" to="" unmanaged.="">
 


 

 In most locations reporting CWD cases in free-ranging animals, the disease continues to emerge in wider geographic areas, and prevalence appears to be increasing in many disease-endemic areas. Areas of Wyoming now have an apparent CWD prevalence of near 50% in mule deer, and prevalence in areas of Colorado and Wisconsin is <15 0="" 10="" 5="" according="" agencies.="" and="" areas="" between="" but="" data="" deer.="" deer="" div="" elk="" from="" however="" in="" is="" lower="" many="" obtained="" of="" parts="" prevalence="" provincial="" reaches="" remains="" reports="" state="" than="" to="" wildlife="" wyoming.="">
 

Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).

 

 More than 1,060,000 free-ranging cervids have reportedly been tested for CWD (Figure 2, panel B) and ≈6,000 cases have been identified (Figure 2, panel C) according to data from state and provincial wildlife agencies.

 


 

 In addition to locations of known CWD-positive individuals, other spatial risk factors related to CWD exposure should be considered. For example, the risk of free-ranging animals being exposed to CWD is likely greater in areas where captive cervid facilities have or had CWD-positive animals. Current evidence indicates that CWD infection rates are much higher in captive facilities than in wild populations (Keane and others, 2008), and perhaps this is driven by environmental contamination (Miller and others, 2006). This higher rate of infection in captive animals can increase the risk of disease exposure to surrounding wild populations. Furthermore, movement of infectious animals, carcasses, or other materials across the landscape, naturally or with human assistance, likely increases the risk to uninfected populations. The frequent movement of farmed elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer between production facilities, the concentration of infected animals on some facilities, and the possibility of their escape into the wild increases the risk of spreading CWD to uninfected populations of free-ranging animals. Because the infectious prions may persist in the environment for long periods, the introduction of either captive or free-ranging uninfected animals into a contaminated environment could increase their risk of infection. For example, locations from which sheep have been removed may remain contaminated with scrapie agent for more than 15 years (Georgsson and others, 2006). In a similar manner, translocation of cervids from areas that have not been documented to be CWD-free could pose a risk of disease introduction. In this situation, the risk of introduction is likely related to the probability of infected animals being moved and their ability to spread CWD to other susceptible animals or into the environment. Thus, surveillance on and around cervid farms or free-ranging populations that have received animals from known CWD areas and bordering jurisdictions with CWD-positive animals can increase the likelihood of disease spread. Additional risk factors, such as the presence of scrapie in sheep populations that are sympatric with deer and elk (Greenlee and others, 2011), feeding of animal protein to cervids (Johnson, McKenzie, and others, 2011), baiting and feeding programs (Thompson and others, 2008), or other environmental factors also may be considered, although their roles in CWD epidemiology has not been clearly established.

 


 

 considering the high usage of animal protein in captive farms for enhancement of growth of cervids, and considering, it’s still o.k. to feed cervids from high risk CWD areas, back to cervids in the form of a by-product in animal feed, I would say this is another vector of transmission of CWD and risk factor due to shooting pens. now, I am sure there are a few wild cervid hunters (not livestock shooters), that also bait cervids with the same type animal protein, but the shooting pens are the ones that continue to use this in mass...tss

 

 DEFRA

 

 What is the risk of chronic wasting disease being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012

 

Several different animal feed products are imported into GB from North America.

 

These include processed pet foods and consignments of unfinished feed ingredients for use in animal feed. The amount of imported feed, including pet food, that contains cervid protein is unknown and identified as a significant data gap.

 

As non-ruminant animal feed may be produced with cervid protein (but not from positive CWD animals) in the United States (US), there is a greater than negligible risk that feed with cervid protein is imported from North America into GB. There is, however, uncertainty associated with this estimate.

 

 snip...

 

 For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA _recommends_ that these animals do not enter the animal feed system.

 

However, this recommendation is guidance and _not_ a requirement by law.

 

Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:

 

 1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and

 

2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.

 

 Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants. The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.

 

 Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a greater than negligible risk that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB. There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.

 

 snip...

 

 This more widespread distribution may be due to enhanced surveillance but also to natural migration of cervids and translocation of infected animals by humans (EFSA, 2011). Within affected areas, the prevalence varies. In the endemic area of Wyoming, for example, the prevalence of CWD in mule deer has increased from approximately 11% in 1997 to 36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).

 

 snip...

 

 The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008). The efficiency of CWD transmission is unparalleled among TSE diseases (EFSA, 2011). Trifilo et al., (2007), using a murine tg mouse model, established that CWD can be transmitted via the oral route.

 


 

 Tuesday, June 11, 2013

 

Weld County Bi-Products dba Fort Morgan Pet Foods 6/1/12 significant deviations from requirements in FDA regulations that are intended to reduce the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) within the United States

 


 

 Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006

 

Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST PRODUCT

 

 a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;

 

 b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;

 

 c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;

 

 d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6;

 

 ==========================================

 

 e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;

 

 =================================

 

 SNIP...please see full text ;

 

 Thursday, June 6, 2013

 

BSE TSE PRION USDA FDA MAD COW FEED COMPLIANCE REPORT and NAI, OAI, and VAI ratings as at June 5, 2013

 


 

 

 

DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 -0500 EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1

 


 


 

 

 

-------- Original Message --------

 

 Subject: DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

 

Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 –0500

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: fdadockets@oc.fda.gov

 

Greetings FDA,

 

i would kindly like to comment on;

 

Docket 03D-0186

 

FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

 

Several factors on this apparent voluntary proposal disturbs me greatly, please allow me to point them out;

 

1. MY first point is the failure of the partial ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban of 8/4/97. this partial and voluntary feed ban of some ruminant materials being fed back to cattle is terribly flawed. without the _total_ and _mandatory_ ban of all ruminant materials being fed back to ruminants including cattle, sheep, goat, deer, elk and mink, chickens, fish (all farmed animals for human/animal consumption), this half ass measure will fail terribly, as in the past decades...

 

2. WHAT about sub-clinical TSE in deer and elk? with the recent findings of deer fawns being infected with CWD, how many could possibly be sub-clinically infected. until we have a rapid TSE test to assure us that all deer/elk are free of disease (clinical and sub-clinical), we must ban not only documented CWD infected deer/elk, but healthy ones as well. it this is not done, they system will fail...

 

3. WE must ban not only CNS (SRMs specified risk materials), but ALL tissues. recent new and old findings support infectivity in the rump or ass muscle. wether it be low or high, accumulation will play a crucial role in TSEs.

 

4. THERE are and have been for some time many TSEs in the USA. TME in mink, Scrapie in Sheep and Goats, and unidentified TSE in USA cattle. all this has been proven, but the TSE in USA cattle has been totally ignored for decades. i will document this data below in my references.

 

5. UNTIL we ban all ruminant by-products from being fed back to ALL ruminants, until we rapid TSE test (not only deer/elk) but cattle in sufficient numbers to find (1 million rapid TSE test in USA cattle annually for 5 years), any partial measures such as the ones proposed while ignoring sub-clinical TSEs and not rapid TSE testing cattle, not closing down feed mills that continue to violate the FDA's BSE feed regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) and not making freely available those violations, will only continue to spread these TSE mad cow agents in the USA. I am curious what we will call a phenotype in a species that is mixed with who knows how many strains of scrapie, who knows what strain or how many strains of TSE in USA cattle, and the CWD in deer and elk (no telling how many strains there), but all of this has been rendered for animal feeds in the USA for decades. it will get interesting once someone starts looking in all species, including humans here in the USA, but this has yet to happen...

 

6. IT is paramount that CJD be made reportable in every state (especially ''sporadic'' cjd), and that a CJD Questionnaire must be issued to every family of a victim of TSE. only checking death certificates will not be sufficient. this has been proven as well (see below HISTORY OF CJD -- CJD QUESTIONNAIRE)

 

7. WE must learn from our past mistakes, not continue to make the same mistakes...

 

 REFERENCES

 

 >>> These findings support oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies of CWD.

 

 snip...

 


 

 PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT SUBMISSION ;

 

 Subject: DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

 

Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 -0500

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

 

To: fdadockets@oc.fda.gov

 


 

 Dear Fellow Hunters, Sportsman, livestock producers and their clients, politicians and their corporate lobbyist,

 

do these owners of these shooting pens then have insurance to cover the cost to the state and taxpayers for each one of these game farms that come up positive for CWD, and the cost there after for 5 or 10 years for one cwd infected farm ?

 

if not, why not ?

 

how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ?

 

(how many?) game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ?

 

 Tuesday, December 20, 2011

 

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011

 

The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.

 

RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.

 

Form 1100-001

 

(R 2/11)

 

NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM

 

SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update

 

FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING

 

TUESDAY

 

TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief

 

 SUMMARY:

 


 


 

 NOW, what about the OTHER SIDE OF THE STORY ON SHOOTING PENS GAME FARMS, livestock there from, AND CWD. ...

 

 2012 CDC REPORT ON CWD

 

Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012 Synopsis Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease

 

snip...

 

Prevalence and Surveillance

 

Originally recognized only in southeastern Wyoming and northeastern Colorado, USA, CWD was reported in Canada in 1996 and Wisconsin in 2001 and continues to be identified in new geographic locations (Figure 1, panel A). CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).

 

snip...

 

CWD surveillance programs are now in place in almost all US states and Canadian provinces (Figure 2, panel A). More than 1,060,000 free-ranging cervids have reportedly been tested for CWD (Figure 2, panel B) and ≈6,000 cases have been identified (Figure 2, panel C) according to data from state and provincial wildlife agencies.

 

snip...

 

Testing of captive cervids is routine in most states and provinces, but varies considerably in scope from mandatory testing of all dead animals to voluntary herd certification programs or mandatory testing of only animals suspected of dying of CWD.

 

snip...

 

Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5). In addition, CWD-infected deer are selectively preyed upon by mountain lions (5), and may also be more vulnerable to vehicle collisions (10). Long-term effects of the disease may vary considerably geographically, not only because of local hunting policies, predator populations, and human density (e.g., vehicular collisions) but also because of local environmental factors such as soil type (11) and local cervid population factors, such as genetics and movement patterns (S.E. Saunders, unpub. data).

 

snip...

 

Controlling the spread of CWD, especially by human action, is a more attainable goal than eradication. Human movement of cervids has likely led to spread of CWD in facilities for captive animals, which has most likely contributed to establishment of new disease foci in free-ranging populations (Figure 1, panel A). Thus, restrictions on human movement of cervids from disease-endemic areas or herds continue to be warranted. Anthropogenic factors that increase cervid congregation such as baiting and feeding should also be restricted to reduce CWD transmission. Appropriate disposal of carcasses of animals with suspected CWD is necessary to limit environmental contamination (20), and attractive onsite disposal options such as composting and burial require further investigation to determine contamination risks. The best options for lowering the risk for recurrence in facilities for captive animals with outbreaks are complete depopulation, stringent exclusion of free-ranging cervids, and disinfection of all exposed surfaces. However, even the most extensive decontamination measures may not be sufficient to eliminate the risk for disease recurrence (20; S.E. Saunders et al. unpub. data)

 


 


 


 

 Wednesday, January 02, 2013

 

Iowa Third Deer Positive CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen

 


 

 Tuesday, March 26, 2013

 

CWD Missouri remains confined to Linn-Macon-County Core Area with four new cases

 


 

 Tuesday, November 13, 2012

 

ILLINOIS CWD UPDATE NOVEMBER 2012

 


 

 Wednesday, January 16, 2013

 

Illinois DuPage county deer found with Chronic Wasting Disease CWD

 


 

 Tuesday, April 16, 2013

 

Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease

 


 

 Saturday, April 13, 2013

 

Tennessee Launches CWD Herd Certification Program in the wake of legislation for game farms

 


 

 Tuesday, April 02, 2013

 

IMPORTANT: Cervid Industry and State Veterinarians on Rewriting Chronic Wasting Disease Rule

 


 

 Wednesday, November 14, 2012

 

PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA

 


 

 Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought

 

Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM

 


 

 Tuesday, October 23, 2012

 

PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free

 


 

 HERE, we see why these shooting pen owners some much like the USDA oversight of these game farms ;

 

 USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”

 

 problem solved $$$...TSS

 

 Sunday, January 06, 2013

 

USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”

 


 

 what happened to the PA deer from the CWD index heard that went to Louisiana ??

 

or Indiana ??

 

 Monday, April 15, 2013

 

Deer farmers in the state of Louisiana are under a quarantine due to Chronic Wasting Disease CWD

 


 

 Monday, June 11, 2012

 

OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting

 


 

 pens, PENS, PENS ??

 

 *** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.

 


 

 now, decades later ;

 

 2012

 

PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

 

Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA

 

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of these experiments was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to scrapie and to compare the resultant clinical signs, lesions, and molecular profiles of PrPSc to those of chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD intracranially (IC; n = 5) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (IN); n = 5) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer were inoculated with a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate from sheep with scrapie (1ml IC, 1 ml IN, 30 ml oral). All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc was detected in lymphoid tissues as early as 7 months-post-inoculation (PI) and a single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months had widespread distribution of PrPSc highlighting that PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues prior to the onset of clinical signs. IC inoculated deer necropsied after 20 months PI (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.

 


 

 2011

 

*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.

 


 

 Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

 

Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.

 

Committee Business:

 

The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:

 

Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids

 

Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement

 

Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids

 


 

 2011 Annual Report

 

Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit

 

2011 Annual Report

 

In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.

 

snip...

 

4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.

 


 

 White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection

 

Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS

 

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.

 

see full text ;

 


 

 *** NEED TO KNOW ***

 

 i have included in this report, SOME HISTORY ON CAPTIVE SHOOTING PENS IN NORTH AMERICA, AND CWD THERE FROM...

 

 Elk & game farming in other states Utah Fish and Game Dept

 

The state of Utah has little experience with big game farming. In an effort to understand elk and game farming, the Division has contacted other states that allow elk farming. The following are some of the problems other states associate with elk farming reported to the Division:

 

MONTANA Karen Zachiem with Montana Parks and Wildlife reported that Montana allows game farming. Initial regulations were inadequate to protect the state's wildlife resources. The state has tried to tighten up regulations related to game farming, resulting in a series of lawsuits against the state from elk ranchers. Zachiem reported that the tightening of regulations was in response to the discovery of TB in wildlife (elk, deer, and coyotes) surrounding a TB infected game farm. TB has been found on several game farms in Montana. Also, they have had problems with wildlife entering game farms as well as game farm animals escaping the farms. Finally, there has been a growth in shooting ranches in Montana. Game farmers allow hunters to come into enclosures to kill trophy game farm animals, raising the issues of fair chase and hunting ethics.

 

WASHINGTON Rolph Johnson with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, reported that Washington allows game farming, but it is strictly regulated to safeguard wildlife. Washington opposed the law when first proposed for the following reasons: introduction of disease and parasites; hybridization of wildlife species; habitat loss; health risks to humans, wildlife, and livestock; and state responsibility to recover or destroy escaped elk. Game farming is not cost effective due to the restrictions needed to prevent these problems.

 

NEW MEXICO Jerry Macacchini, with New Mexico Game and Fish, reported that New Mexico has problems with game farming and a moratorium on elk and game farming has been imposed by the state at the request of its citizens. Problems identified in the moratorium were: escaped game farm animals; theft of native elk herds; and disease.

 

OREGON Dan Edwards, with Oregon Fish and Wildlife, reported that Oregon has very little elk farming and is now prohibited by regulation. The elk farms that are in operation existed prior to the adoption of game farm regulations. Individuals who want to elk farm, must buy out an existing elk farm owner. Elk farms are no longer permitted due to, "...current and imminent threats to Oregon's native deer and elk herds and social and economic values.'' Oregon has documented numerous game farm animals that have escapeed from private game farms. Concerns about elk farming arose during public elk management meetings. The impacts of privately held cervids on publicly owned wildlife were a recurring issue throughout the elk management process. Key issues included: disease and parasites; escape and interbreeding of domestic animals with native wildlife; illegal kills for meat; and theft of public wildlife.

 

WYOMING Harry Harju, assistant wildlife chief with Wyoming Fish and Game, reported that elk or game farming is now prohibited in Wyoming. Only one game ranch exists in Wyoming, which was operating before the passage of the law. The state of Wyoming was sued by several game breeders associations for not allowing elk farming. The game breeders lost their suit in the United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit. The court maintained that the state had authority to regulate commerce and protect wildlife. Wyoming has had problems with big game farming originating in surrounding states. Wyoming has documented the harvest of red deer and their hybrids during elk hunts on the Snowy Mountain range that borders Colorado. Wyoming speculates that the red deer were escapees from Colorado game farms. Hybridization is viewed as threat to the genetic integrity of Wyoming's wild elk population. In a public hearing, the public voted against game farms in the state of Wyoming. Wyoming's Cattlemen's Association and Department of Agriculture opposed elk and big game farms, as well, particularly due to disease risks. Brucellosis is a major problem for wildlife and livestock in the Yellowstone Basin.

 

NEVADA Nevada reports that big game farms are allowed in Nevada. Nevada has not had any problems as a result of big game farms. However, Nevada has only one big game farm in the entire state and it is a reindeer farm. IDAHO Wildlife Chief Tom Rienecker reported that Idaho Fish and Game once regulated elk farming in their state, but lost jurisdiction of elk farming to the Department of Agriculture as a result of pressure from elk farmers. Idaho has 20-30 big game ranches. Idaho has had problems with escapes and several law enforcement cases have been filed against suspects who have taken calves out of the wild for elk farming purposes. Disease has not been a problem for Idaho.

 

COLORADO John Seidel, with Colorado Division of Wildlife, reported that the Division used to regulate big game farming until the big game breeders association petitioned for the Department of Agriculture to assume authority over big game farming because too many citations were issued to elk farms for violations. Colorado experienced numerous poaching incidents with elk calves from the wild and theft of whole herds of wild elk captured in private farms. Seidel reported that some of the larger "elk shooting ranches" have been investigated and charged with capturing wild herds of elk within the shooting preserve fences. Seidel reported that there have been documented problems with disease (TB); escaped hybrids and exotics; intrusion of rutting wild elk into game farms; massive recapture efforts for escapees and intruders; and loss of huge tracts of land fenced for shooting preserves/ranches. Based on their experiences, the Colorado Division of Wildlife wishes they did not have big game farms in Colorado. Seidel believes that CEBA would fight hard to open Utah to elk farming to provide a market for breeding stock in Utah ($3,000 & up for a bull and $8,000 & up for a breeding cow).

 

ARIZONA The Arizona Game and Fish Department reports that elk farming is legal in Arizona but the agency would not allow it if they had to do it all over again. Arizona reported the loss of huge blocks of land to fencing and some disease problems. ALBERTA, CANADA Alberta has allowed elk farming for a number of years. To date, Alberta has spent $10,000,000 and destroyed 2,000 elk in an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of tuberculosis. Based upon the game farming experiences of these states, their recommendation to Utah was not to allow elk farming.

 

OTHER The Division has contacted several state and federal veterinarians. The opinions of some agricultural veterinarians differed from wildlife veterinarians. Some veterinarians endorsed elk farming with the right regulatory safeguards. Other veterinarians opposed elk farming due to the risks to wildlife and livestock. This issue needs a more comprehensive review. The Division also contacted a Special Agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who conducted a covert investigation in Colorado to gather intelligence on elk farming and detect poaching activity of wild elk. Although poaching was not detected, the agent described his experience with pyramid schemes in elk sales; lack of a meat market; falsification of veterinarian records for farmed elk; escapes and intrusions between wild and captive elk; inadequate inspections by brand inspectors; transportation of TB infected elk; and the temperament of the elk themselves. The Colorado Elk Breeders Association (CEBA) told the Division that CEBA did not approve of elk poaching and has turned in fellow elk farmers for poaching live elk calves from the wild.

 

CEBA told Utah legislators that the Colorado Division of Wildlife did not like elk ranching at first, but has come to see that elk farming is not as bad as they originally thought it would be. The Colorado Division of Wildlife disagreed with CEBA's perception of their relationship.

 

Keep 'em wild: Montana should ban canned hunts. Whitefish elk farm draws fire from hunters, biologists By STEVE THOMPSON Missoula Independent, also the Whitefish Pilot 13 Sep 1998 Ph: 406/862-3795 Fax: 406/862-5344

 

 snip...

 


 

 snip...

 

see more here;

 


 

 CWD policies in various states SCWDS BRIEFS April 1998 Issue State Fish & Game Departments: all 50 states

 

Nebraska Dept of Agriculture and Game and Parks

 

On April 9, 1998, chronic wasting disease (CWD) was diagnosed in a captive elk in Nebraska.

 

� This discovery follows the confirmation of CWD in two captive elk herds in South Dakota earlier this year.

 

� The Nebraska elk was a 4 1/2-year old male that was among a privately owned herd of approximately 150 elk.

 

� The health of the animal had deteriorated for about 2 months before it died.

 

� Confirmation of CWD was made by the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa. The case history revealed that the affected elk was born on a farm on the Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, but it was on two additional Colorado farms before it arrived in Nebraska at 2 to 2 1/2 years of age.

 

� One of the Colorado premises was in the known CWD-endemic region along the Eastern Slope of the Rocky Mountains in northcentral Colorado.

 

snip...

 


 

 CWD News: Under-diagnosis in elk: 10/17 prove positive with better method 21 Jan 99 -- Utah hunter: CWD blood recall? 20 Dec 98 -- Bad news on game farm elk CWD 12 Nov 98 --Colorado CJD tragedy and CWD concerns 11 Oct 98 -- Nevada testing deer and elk for CWD 23 Jun 98 -- Elk CWD spreading on game farms 19 Mar 98 -- BSE Inquiry: Day 6 -- Mink and CWD misinformation 19 Mar 98 -- CWD: spreading it around 19 Mar 98 -- CWD: failed eradication attempts 19 Mar 98 -- CWD in Estes Park: what goes on at Lexington Lane? 19 Mar 98 -- 14 facilities where CWD has been found 19 Mar 98 -- How did CWD get started and spread? 19 Mar 98 -- Elk growers ask for surveillance in N. Dakota 19 Mar 98 -- Ban on elk antlers in human food rejected 19 Mar 98 -- CWD in High Country News 19 Mar 98 -- CWD Web Resources 14 Feb 98 -- Colorado's dementia experiment in humans 24 Feb 98 -- Feds need to take control over Colorado CWD 14 Feb 98 -- Surveillance for chronic wasting disease in Colorado 14 Feb 98 -- CWD by river drainage 14 Feb 98 -- Some early history of CWD 10 Jul 97 -- Chronic Wasting Disease in Canada23 Jul 98 -- Saskatchewan elk disease waning? 14 Feb 98 -- More chronic wasting disease news: 1, 2 14 Feb 98 -- Welcome to Stetsonville 07 Feb 98 -- Deer in three Wyoming counties infected with chronic wasting disease 07 Feb 98 -- Chronic wasting disease: deer-to-cattle shown 07 Feb 98 -- Worry over CWD hazards 05 Feb 98 -- Canada reports CWD in mule deer on game farms 07 Feb 98 -- Dr. Steven Dealler on CWD risks 27 Jan 98 -- Concerned rancher writes in about deer feeding habits 03 Feb 98 -- To eat or not to eat is the hunter's question 01 Mar 97 -- CWD and hunters square off in Colorado 01 Apr 97 -- CWD: lab progress is slow 01 Mar 97 -- Mystery of CWD in US deer, elk explained? Chronic wasting disease update

 

CWD Science:

 

snip...see ;

 


 

 Thursday, February 09, 2012

 

50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

 


 

 Friday, February 03, 2012

 

Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al

 


 

 These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.

 


 

 UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;

 

 ----- Original Message -----

 

From: David Colby

 

To: flounder9@verizon.net

 

Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX

 

Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM

 

Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations

 

Dear Terry Singeltary,

 

Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.

 

Warm Regards, David Colby

 

--

 

David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware

 

 ====================END...TSS==============

 

 SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;

 


 

 UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN

 

Wednesday, September 08, 2010

 

CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010

 


 

 Monday, February 14, 2011

 

THE ROLE OF PREDATION IN DISEASE CONTROL: A COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE REMOVAL ON PRION DISEASE DYNAMICS IN DEER

 

NO, NO, NOT NO, BUT HELL NO !

 

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(1), 2011, pp. 78-93 © Wildlife Disease Association 2011

 


 


 

 Monday, January 05, 2009

 

CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS

 


 


 

 Saturday, March 10, 2012

 

*** CWD, GAME FARMS, urine, feces, soil, lichens, and banned mad cow protein feed CUSTOM MADE for deer and elk

 


 

 Wednesday, May 15, 2013

 

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay

 

Research Article

 


 

 CJD9/10022

 

October 1994

 

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

 

Dear Mr Elmhirst,

 

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT

 

Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

 

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

 

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

 

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

 

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.

 


 

 now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ??

 

 “Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”

 

 From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)

 

Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??

 

Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

 

From: "Belay, Ermias"

 

To:

 

Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

 

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

 

Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

 

Dear Sir/Madam,

 

In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.

 

That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

 

Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

 

 -----Original Message-----

 

From:

 

Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

 

To: rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV

 

Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

 

Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS

 

Thursday, April 03, 2008

 

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

 

2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41

 

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

 

Sigurdson CJ.

 

 snip...

 

*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,

 

snip...

 

 full text ;

 


 


 

 Friday, November 09, 2012

 

*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species

 


 

 Sunday, November 11, 2012

 

*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012

 


 

 Friday, December 14, 2012

 

Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012

 


 

 Saturday, March 09, 2013

 

Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases

 


 

 *** NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;

 

 Wednesday, March 18, 2009 Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II

 

___________________________________

 

PRODUCT

 

a) Elk Meat, Elk Tenderloin, Frozen in plastic vacuum packaging. Each package is approximately 2 lbs., and each case is approximately 16 lbs.; Item number 755125, Recall # F-129-9;

 

b) Elk Meat, Elk Trim, Frozen; Item number 755155, Recall # F-130-9;

 

c) Elk Meat, French Rack, Chilled. Item number 755132, Recall # F-131-9;

 

d) Elk Meat, Nude Denver Leg. Item number 755122, Recall # F-132-9;

 

e) Elk Meat, New York Strip Steak, Chilled. Item number 755128, Recall # F-133-9;

 

f) Elk Meat, Flank Steak Frozen. Item number 755131, Recall # F-134-9;

 

CODE

 

Elk Meats with production dates of December 29, 30, and 31

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Recalling Firm: Sierra Meats, Reno, NV, by telephone on January 29, 2009 and press release on February 9, 2009.

 

Manufacturer: Noah’s Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

Unknown

 

DISTRIBUTION

 

NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK

 

___________________________________

 


 

 Monday, February 09, 2009

 

Exotic Meats USA Announces Urgent Statewide Recall of Elk Tenderloin Because It May Contain Meat Derived From An Elk Confirmed To Have CWD

 

snip...

 

Cross-sequence transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease creates a new prion strain

 

Date: August 25, 2007 at 12:42 pm PST

 

our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions.

 


 

 Wednesday, March 18, 2009

 

Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II

 


 

 *** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.

 


 

 TSS



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