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Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) Proposes Modifications to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Brucellosis, and Other Rules

Posted Jun 01 2013 12:02pm
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)




May 31, 2013 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE




May 31, 2013





TAHC Proposes Modifications to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Brucellosis, and Other Rules





AUSTIN - The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) recently held a regularly scheduled meeting on May 21, 2013 at its Austin office. The TAHC proposed two amendments to the Brucellosis chapter (Section 35.4) concerning entry, movement and change of ownership of cattle.




The first proposed amendment would establish an entry permit and post entry test requirement for breeding cattle entering Texas from Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. The proposal would require all breeding bulls and sexually intact female cattle from the above mentioned states to be tested for brucellosis 60 to 120 days after arrival unless they are entering for immediate slaughter or feeding for slaughter in a feedlot. Heifers from those same states must be tested negative for brucellosis 30 to 90 days after their first calving. While Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming animal health officials have developed management plans to address the risk of brucellosis spread within their states, this amendment was proposed to further guard against the reintroduction of cattle brucellosis into Texas. Brucellosis has been found in cattle and domestic bison herds near Yellowstone National Park in the three states, and in wild elk and bison populations both in and outside of the park. All post entry testing will be conducted at the owner's expense.




The second amendment to Section 35.4 would remove the identification requirements at change of ownership for beef cattle from the brucellosis chapter. At the next Commission meeting, a new proposal will be made to place animal identification requirements for adult beef cattle in a new Animal Disease Traceability (Chapter 50). The existing dairy cattle ID requirements were not proposed for change.




The Commission also proposed amendments to Chapter 40, titled "Chronic Wasting Disease" (CWD). This chapter provides for a voluntary CWD Herd Certification Program within Texas for species that are susceptible to the disease. In December, 2012, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services (USDA-APHIS-VS) adopted an interim final rule establishing a national CWD Herd Certification Program with minimum requirements for interstate movement of deer, elk, and moose. As a result the Commission is making amendments to the Texas program to fully meet the federal program requirements. Passage of the proposal should allow the Texas cervid industry continued access to interstate markets, as regulated by USDA APHIS. Participation in the program remains voluntary.




Other rules proposed by the Commission during the meeting include:




Scabies Treatment (Chapter 39), to include new forms of acceptable treatment Cervid Tuberculosis (Chapter 43), recognizing a new blood test recently approved by USDA




Approved Tagging Facility (Chapter 50), establishing state standards for facilities that may identify livestock moving interstate as per a new USDA traceability rule The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) will be accepting comments on all rules proposed at the May 21, 2013 Commission meeting between June 14 and July 15. The TAHC encourages and appreciates all comments. Comments on the proposed regulations must be submitted in writing to Carol Pivonka, Texas Animal Health Commission, 2105 Kramer Lane, Austin, Texas 78758, by fax at (512) 719-0721, or by e-mail to comments@tahc.state.tx.us. A detailed explanation of each rule proposal, including can be found on the TAHC web site at http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/regs/proposals.html .




Rules that were adopted at the May 21 meeting included amendments to Chapter 40, titled "Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)", Chapter 41, titled "Fever Ticks", and Chapter 55, titled "Swine".






The amendment to Chapter 40 "Chronic Wasting Disease" repealed and replaced Section 40.5 "Elk Testing Requirements" with a new Section 40.5 "Movement Requirements for CWD Susceptible Species". This amended rule changes the current surveillance requirements for intrastate movement of elk, and adds surveillance requirements for red deer and Sika deer. The rule will require individuals wishing to move these CWD susceptible species to establish an inventory with the TAHC, test 20% of eligible mortalities, and submit a movement record that includes the official identification numbers of animals being moved. The test age for this program is set at 16 months, similar to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department's white-tail deer breeder program.




The amendment to Chapter 41 "Fever Ticks" was in Section 41.9, "Vacation and Inspection of a Premise". The amended rule will require that all cattle in the Permanent Quarantine Zone be identified with permanent official identification and be presented annually for inspection.




The amendment to Chapter 55 "Swine" was in Section 55.5, "Pseudorabies". This amended rule updates the testing timeframe for releasing swine that have been quarantined for exposure to Pseudorabies. This is in accordance with the USDA-APHIS-VS National Pseudorabies Eradication Program. The change to Section 55.5 will now allow swine to be released from quarantine with one negative herd test not less than 30 days from removal of the last reactor.




For more information, visit www.tahc.texas.gov or call 1-800-550-8242.




Founded in 1893, the Texas Animal Health Commission works to protect the health of all Texas livestock, including: cattle, swine, poultry, sheep, goats, equine animals, and exotic livestock.




###




Yvonne "Bonnie" Ramirez, Director of Communications & Public Relations Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)











Chapter Chapter 40, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) - Create new section entitled Movement Requirements for CWD Susceptible Species




snip...




The commission proposes to modify the current CWD program to include red deer and Sika deer, and their hybrids, because of recent actions which have classified them as being a susceptible species for CWD. The purpose of the program was to establish testing surveillance for elk and now includes these added species. Based on the inclusion of red deer and Sika deer and other members of the cervid family as susceptible species, the commission is proposing this new section to be applicable to all cervid species known to be susceptible to CWD, excluding all mule deer, white-tailed deer, and native species under the jurisdiction of Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD).




As background, all breeders of white-tailed deer, through the direction of TPWD, participate in a CWD Monitoring program through either TPWD or the Commission. Because of this participation the state of Texas has done a significant amount of CWD surveillance testing of white-tailed deer without disclosing any positive deer. Surveillance testing is a key, critical competent to determine that if there is any disease present as well as helping to establish a prevalence number for how many animal maybe affected. This also helps to support our animal industries in having confidence in the health of their animals and makes them more marketable. Failure to perform adequate surveillance allows any disease to circulate unnoticed among animal host and spread the disease creating a greater disease problem and a far more difficult response task. In today’s current environment the mobility and transportation of agricultural animals throughout the state and country has greatly increased exposure to diseases and for the commission to not perform adequate disease surveillance for a disease that has national concerns would be inappropriate.




snip...










Chapter 40, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) - Proposed changes to current CWD requirements and add new ED Declaration of CWD Movement Restriction Zone section




snip...


The Commission currently provides a voluntary herd monitored status program for species that are susceptible to CWD. Currently, all breeders of white-tailed deer, through the direction of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD), participate in a CWD monitoring program through either TPWD or the Commission. The Commission is proposing to require additional cervid species to participate in surveillance for CWD. There have recently been two different CWD actions which greatly affected Texas. The TPWD recently harvested mule deer for CWD surveillance testing with the disclosure of two positive animals in Texas. The Commission acted on recommendations on a strategy to address the risk of exposure of CWD to susceptible species in Texas. The recommendations led to the creation of CWD Movement Restriction Zone(s) with restrictions put in place to protect against the exposure and spread of CWD into additional regions of Texas. These actions are being taken in a coordinated effort by both TPWD and the Commission.


Also, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) recently announced an interim final rule to establish a national CWD Herd Certification Program and minimum requirements for interstate movement of deer, elk and moose, or cervids, in the United States. Participation in the program will be voluntary. The interim final rule amends the USDA’s 2006 final rule which was never put into effect. The amendments to their CWD rule are intended to help control the spread of this disease by establishing acceptable program standards for interstate movement. The federal CWD Herd Certification Program is found in 9 CFR Subchapter B, Part 55. Also, the Commission announced in June that red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Sika deer (Cervus Nippon) must meet the same entry requirements as other cervid species regulated by the agency such as elk and moose because they were “susceptible species” for CWD. The new entry rules for red deer and Sika deer require they originate from herds with at least five years of participation in an approved CWD monitoring program.


The agency decision was based in part on the disclosure that a farmed red deer herd in Minnesota was confirmed positive for CWD in May of this year. Furthermore, the USDA released an interim final CWD rule on June 8, 2012, which designates Sika deer and red deer as susceptible species. The USDA rule is intended to establish minimum requirements for interstate movement of deer, elk, moose, and other susceptible cervids, and to also establish a national CWD certification program. Based on the inclusion of red deer and Sika deer as susceptible species, the Commission is also changing §40.5 entitled “Testing Requirements for Elk”. This section is being renamed “Requirements for CWD Susceptible Species” in order to be applicable to all cervid species known to be susceptible to CWD.




snip...







Greetings TAHC,



please note, anything voluntary in the surveillance, testing, and reporting of the CWD, TSE, prion disease, will not work. again, I ask you to only look at the USDA mad cow follies of the past 15 years, and or since the voluntary feed ban, that went mandatory sometimes after 1997, thus in 2007, we still had 10,000,000 pounds of banned blood laced meat and bone meal going out into commerce, only to be fed out. 2006 was a banner year as well for 100s of tons of banned mad cow feed. my point again, we know from past practice this _voluntary_ stuff simply does not work with the TSE prion disease.





*** 10,000,000 lbs banned blood laced meat and bone meal mbm 2007 one decade post partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban was put in place ;







snip...see more here ;



Saturday, August 4, 2012



Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012








ALSO, under "Movement Requirements for CWD Susceptible Species", you seem to have missed some species that are susceptible to the CWD TSE prion. there are other species susceptible to the CWD TSE prion, and please be aware that scientists are not so sure that humans are not susceptible as well to the CWD TSE prion.




please see ;






Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species






Sunday, November 11, 2012


*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012






Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012






Saturday, March 09, 2013


Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases








pens, pens, PENS ??


*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.








now, decades later ;




2012


PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer


Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of these experiments was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to scrapie and to compare the resultant clinical signs, lesions, and molecular profiles of PrPSc to those of chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD intracranially (IC; n = 5) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (IN); n = 5) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer were inoculated with a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate from sheep with scrapie (1ml IC, 1 ml IN, 30 ml oral). All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc was detected in lymphoid tissues as early as 7 months-post-inoculation (PI) and a single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months had widespread distribution of PrPSc highlighting that PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues prior to the onset of clinical signs. IC inoculated deer necropsied after 20 months PI (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.








2011



*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.








Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)


Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.


Committee Business:


The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:


Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids


Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement


Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids










2011 Annual Report


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit


2011 Annual Report


In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.


snip...


4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.









White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection


Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.



see full text ;









how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??


? game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??


how many game farms, are too many game farms ?


when you have states handing out shooting pen permits like candy on halloween, just to advance their coffers, then other states wanting to do the same thing, with most all of them ignoring the science on shooting pens and cwd, what do you expect is going to happen.


when is enough, enough ?


Tuesday, December 20, 2011


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.


Form 1100-001


(R 2/11)


NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM


SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update


FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING


TUESDAY


TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief



SUMMARY:












SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS















Wednesday, November 14, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA








***SEE UPDATE !



Tuesday, May 28, 2013



Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013




6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.











Thursday, March 14, 2013


TEXAS DEER BREEDERS CHEER TWO NEW BILLS SB 1444 AND HB 2092 THAT COULD HELP POTENTIALLY ENHANCE CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD







Thursday, May 02, 2013


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Texas Important Update on OBEX ONLY TEXTING








Friday, October 12, 2012


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”


TO: comments@tahc.state.tx.us;


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)








Wednesday, June 13, 2012


TAHC Modifies Entry Requirements Effective Immediately for Cervids DUE TO CWD


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE








Monday, March 26, 2012


Texas Prepares for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Possibility in Far West Texas








Monday, March 26, 2012


3 CASES OF CWD FOUND NEW MEXICO MULE DEER SEVERAL MILS FROM TEXAS BORDER








Thursday, March 29, 2012


TEXAS DEER CZAR SAYS WISCONSIN DNR NOT DOING ENOUGH ABOUT CWD LIKE POT CALLING KETTLE BLACK








Friday, June 01, 2012


TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS








Saturday, June 09, 2012


USDA Establishes a Herd Certification Program for Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States








Thursday, July 12, 2012


CWD aka MAD DEER, ELK DISEASE TEXAS HOUSTON CHRONICLE


Wednesday, July 11, 2012 Brain-eating disease found in Texas deer








Wednesday, October 03, 2012


TAHC Chronic Wasting Disease Rule What you need to know








Wednesday, September 26, 2012


TPWD Gearing Up for CWD Response during Deer Season







Monday, September 17, 2012


New Mexico DGF EXPANDS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CONTROL AREAS, while Texas flounders








Friday, September 07, 2012


Texas Wildlife Officials Considering New Deer Movement Rules in Response to CWD









please see what the U.K. DEFRA recently said ABOUT CWD RISK FACTORS ;





Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012


snip...


In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.


Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:


1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and


2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.


Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.


The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.


Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.


There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.


snip...


36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).


The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).


Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.


snip...


The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).


snip...


In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.


snip...


In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.


snip...


Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.


snip... see full text report here ;





Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012








Research Article



Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay



Tracy A. Nichols mail, Terry R. Spraker, Tara D. Rigg, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Clare Hoover, Brady Michel, Jifeng Bian, Edward Hoover, Thomas Gidlewski, Aru Balachandran, Katherine O'Rourke, Glenn C. Telling, Richard Bowen, [ ... ], Kurt C. VerCauteren equal contributor



Abstract



Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.



snip...



The results of this study confirm that CWD can be successfully transmitted IN as a lyophilized prion particulate adsorbed to Mte and that genotype at codon 96 affects the lymphoid distribution of CWD within the body. Additionally, two novel intranasal tracking methods were employed that provided insight into CWD translocation within the nasal cavity. The data collected in this study may also shed light on why there is a higher prevalence of CWD in males, as males participate in more behaviors that generate dust. We propose chronic, long-term exposure to CWD prions adsorbed to dust particles to be a natural CWD infection route in addition to chronic oral and nasal contact exposure.



Citation: Nichols TA, Spraker TR, Rigg TD, Meyerett-Reid C, Hoover C, et al. (2013) Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay. PLoS ONE 8(5): e62455. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062455


Editor: Anthony E. Kincaid, Creighton University, United States of America


Received: November 30, 2012; Accepted: March 21, 2013; Published: May 9, 2013


This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


Funding: Funding was provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services (VS). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.



see full text ;








Thanks again to PLOS et al for full text access to this scientific research on the CWD TSE prion disease...tss




see more here ;




Wednesday, May 15, 2013


Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay


Research Article








The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.









Wednesday, April 24, 2013


Dissociation between Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) Infectivity and Proteinase K-Resistant PrPSc Levels in Peripheral Tissue from a Murine Transgenic Model of TSE Disease








shooting pens still in a state of cwd denial ;





Tuesday, April 16, 2013


Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease








Monday, February 11, 2013


TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD Four New Positives Found in Trans Pecos








see history of CWD waltzing into Texas since 2001 – 2002




2001 - 2002


Subject: Texas Borders Reopened for Importing Black-Tailed Deer & Elk New Entry Regulations in Effect $ CWD TESTING STATISTICS ?


Date: Fri, 6 Sep 2002 17:18:16 –0700


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de


######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########


NEWS RELEASE


Texas Animal Health Commission


Box l2966 * Austin, Texas 78711 * (800) 550-8242 * FAX (512) 719-0719


Linda Logan, DVM, PhD * Executive Director


For info, contact Carla Everett, information officer, at 1-800-550-8242, ext. 710, or ceverett@tahc.state.tx.us


snip...


TEXAS OLD STATISTICS BELOW FOR PAST CWD TESTING;


Subject: CWD testing in Texas


Date: Sun, 25 Aug 2002 19:45:14 –0500


From: Kenneth Waldrup


To: flounder@wt.net


CC: mcoats@tahc.state.tx.us


Dear Dr. Singletary,


In Fiscal Year 2001, seven deer from Texas were tested by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) for CWD (5 fallow deer and 2 white-tailed deer). In Fiscal Year 2002, seven elk from Texas were tested at NVSL (no deer). During these two years, an additional six elk and one white-tailed deer were tested at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL). In Fiscal Year 2002, four white-tailed deer (free-ranging clinical suspects) and at least eight other white-tailed deer have been tested at TVMDL. One elk has been tested at NVSL. All of these animals have been found negative for CWD. Dr. Jerry Cooke of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department also has records of 601 clinically ill white-tailed deer which were necropsied at Texas A&M during the late 1960's and early 1970's, and no spongiform encepalopathies were noted.


Thank you for your consideration.


Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD Texas Animal Health Commission




========================




TEXAS CWD STATUS


Captive Cervids


There have been no reported CWD infections of captive elk or deer in Texas. There is currently no mandatory surveillance program for susceptible cervids kept on game farms, although, there has been voluntary surveillance since 1999, which requires owners of participating herds to maintain an annual herd inventory and submit samples for all mortalities of animals over 16 months of age.


snip...


SO, i thought i would just see where these Ecoregions were, and just how the CWD testing was distributed. YOU would think that with the cluster of CWD bordering TEXAS at the WPMR in NM, you would have thought this would be where the major CWD testing samples were to have been taken? wrong! let's have a look at the sample testing. here is map of CWD in NM WPMR bordering TEXAS;




NEW MEXICO 7 POSITIVE CWD WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE MAP










CWD TEXAS TAHC OLD FILE HISTORY




updated from some of my old files. ...




Subject: CWD SURVEILLANCE STATISTICS TEXAS (total testing figures less than 50 in two years)


Date: Sun, 25 Aug 2002 21:06:49 –0700


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de


######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########


greetings list members,


here are some figures on CWD testing in TEXAS...TSS


Dear Dr. Singletary,


In Fiscal Year 2001, seven deer from Texas were tested by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) for CWD (5 fallow deer and 2 white-tailed deer). In Fiscal Year 2002, seven elk from Texas were tested at NVSL (no deer). During these two years, an additional six elk and one white-tailed deer were tested at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL). In Fiscal Year 2002, four white-tailed deer (free-ranging clinical suspects) and at least eight other white-tailed deer have been tested at TVMDL. One elk has been tested at NVSL. All of these animals have been found negative for CWD. Dr. Jerry Cooke of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department also has records of 601 clinically ill white-tailed deer which were necropsied at Texas A&M during the late 1960's and early 1970's, and no spongiform encepalopathies were noted. Thank you for your consideration.


xxxxxxx


Texas Animal Health Commission


(personal communication...TSS)


Austin 8 news


snip...


"There's about 4 million deer in the state of Texas, and as a resource I think we need to be doing as much as we can to look for these diseases," said Doug Humphreys with Texas Parks and Wildlife. "Right now Texas is clear. We haven't found any, but that doesn't mean we don't look."










With approximately 4 million animals, Texas has the largest population of white-tailed deer in the nation. In addition, about 19,000 white-tailed deer and 17,000 elk are being held in private facilities. To know if CWD is present in captive herds, TPWD and Texas Animal Health Commission are working with breeders to monitor their herds.









How is it spread?


It is not known exactly how CWD is spread. It is believed that the agent responsible for the disease may be spread both directly (animal to animal contact) and indirectly (soil or other surface to animal). It is thought that the most common mode of transmission from an infected animal is via saliva, feces, and urine.







some surveillance?




beyond the _potential_ methods of transmissions above, why, not a single word of SRM of various TSE species in feed as a source?


it's a known fact they have been feeding the deer/elk the same stuff as cows here in USA.


and the oral route has been documented of CWD to mule deer fawns in lab studies.


not to say that other _potential_ transmission mechanisms are possible, but why over look the obvious?




TSS










From: Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD (host25-207.tahc.state.tx.us)


Subject: Re: CWD SAMPLING TEXAS (but NOT in the obvious place, the NM, TEXAS border)


Date: December 15, 2003 at 3:43 pm PST


In Reply to: CWD SAMPLING TEXAS (but NOT in the obvious place, the NM, TEXAS border) posted by TSS on December 12, 2003 at 2:15 pm:


Dear sirs:




With regard to your comment about Texas NOT looking for CWD along the New Mexico border, it is painfully obvious that you do not know or understand the natural distribution of mule deer out there or the rights of the land owners in this state. As of 15 December 2003, a total of 42 deer had been sampled from what we call "Trans-Pecos", beyond the Pecos River. Mule deer are very widely dispersed through this area, sometimes at densities of one animal per 6 square miles. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department does not have the legal authority to trepass on private property to collect deer. Some landowners are cooperative. Some are not. Franklin State Park is at the very tip of Texas, and deer from the park have been tested (all negative). One of the single largest land owners along the border is the National Park Service. Deer and elk from the Guadalupe Peak National Park cannot be collected with federal permission. The sampling throughout the state is based on the deer populations by eco-region and is dictated by the availability of funds. I am concerned about your insinuation that CWD is a human health risk. We are at a stand-off - you have no proof that it is and I have no definitive proof that it isn't. However I would say that the inferred evidence from Colorado, Wyoming and Wisconsin suggests that CWD is not a human health concern (i.e. no evidence of an increased incidence of human brain disorders within the CWD "endemic" areas of these states). From my professional interactions with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, I can definitely say that they want to do a thorough and sound survey throughout the state, not willy-nilly "look here, look there". There are limitations of manpower, finances and, in some places, deer populations. I would congratulate TPWD for doing the best job with the limitations at hand rather than trying to browbeat them when you obviously do not understand the ecology of West Texas. Thank you for your consideration.




======================




From: TSS (216-119-139-126.ipset19.wt.net)


Subject: Re: CWD SAMPLING TEXAS (but NOT in the obvious place, the NM, TEXAS border)


Date: December 16, 2003 at 11:03 am PST


In Reply to: Re: CWD SAMPLING TEXAS (but NOT in the obvious place, the NM, TEXAS border) posted by Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD on December 15, 2003 at 3:43 pm:


HEllo Dr. Waldrup,


thank you for your comments and time to come to this board.


Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD states;



> it is painfully obvious that you do not know or understand the natural distribution of mule deer out there or the rights of the land owners in this state...



TSS states;


I am concerned about all deer/elk not just mule deer, and the rights of land owners (in the case with human/animal TSEs) well i am not sure of the correct terminology, but when the States deer/elk/cattle/sheep/humans are at risk, there should be no rights for land owners in this case. the state should have the right to test those animals. there are too many folks out there that are just plain ignorant about this agent. with an agent such as this, you cannot let landowners (and i am one) dictate human/animal health, especially when you cannot regulate the movement of such animals...


Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD states;



> Deer and elk from the Guadalupe Peak National Park cannot be collected with federal permission.



TSS states;


I do not understand this? so there is no recourse of action even if every deer/elk was contaminated with CWD in this area (hypothetical)?


Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD states;



> I am concerned about your insinuation that CWD is a human health risk. We are at a stand-off - you have no proof that it is and I have no definitive proof that it isn't. However I would say that the inferred evidence from Colorado, Wyoming and Wisconsin suggests that CWD is not a human health concern (i.e. no evidence of an increased incidence of human brain disorders within the CWD "endemic" areas of these states)...



TSS states;




NEXT, let's have a look at the overall distribution of CWD in Free-Ranging Cervids and see where the CWD cluster in NM WSMR borders TEXAS;



Current Distribution of Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Cervids






NOW, the MAP of the Exoregion where the samples were taken to test for CWD;


CWD SURVEILLANCE SAMPLE SUBMISSIONS TEXAS






Ecoregions of TEXAS






IF you look at the area around the NM WSMR where the CWD cluster was and where it borders TEXAS, that ecoregion is called Trans Pecos region. Seems if my Geography and my Ciphering is correct ;-) that region only tested 55% of it's goal. THE most important area on the MAP and they only test some 96 samples, this in an area that has found some 7 positive animals? NOW if we look at the only other border where these deer from NM could cross the border into TEXAS, this area is called the High Plains ecoregion, and again, we find that the sampling for CWD was pathetic. HERE we find that only 9% of it's goal of CWD sampling was met, only 16 samples were tested from some 175 that were suppose to be sampled.




AS i said before;




> SADLY, they have not tested enough from the total population to



> know if CWD is in Texas or not.





BUT now, I will go one step further and state categorically that they are not trying to find it. just the opposite it seems, they are waiting for CWD to find them, as with BSE/TSE in cattle, and it will eventually...




snip...end...TSS




===============================




2005



SEE MAP OF CWD ON THE BORDER OF NEW MEXICO VERY CLOSE TO TEXAS ;










NO update on CWD testing in Texas, New Mexico that i could find. I have inquired about it though, no reply yet...






-------- Original Message --------


Subject: CWD testing to date TEXAS ?


Date: Mon, 09 May 2005 12:26:20 –0500


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


To: kristen.everett@tpwd.state.tx.us



Hello Mrs. Everett,



I am most curious about the current status on CWD testing in Texas. could you please tell me what the current and past testing figures are to date and what geographical locations these tests have been in. good bust on the illegal deer trapping case. keep up the good work there.........


thank you, with kindest regards,


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518




-------- Original Message --------


Subject: CWD testing in New Mexico


Date: Mon, 09 May 2005 14:39:18 –0500


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


To: ispa@state.nm.us


Greetings,


I am most curious of the current and past CWD testing in New Mexico, and there geographical locations...


thank you,


Terry S. Singeltary SR. CJD Watch






#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################



2006


----- Original Message -----


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." flounder9@VERIZON.NET


To: BSE-L@aegee.org


Sent: Saturday, December 23, 2006 1:47 PM



Subject: CWD in New Mexico 35 MILES FROM TEXAS BORDER and low testing sampling figures -- what gives TAHC ??



Subject: CWD in New Mexico 35 MILES FROM TEXAS BORDER and low testing sampling figures -- what gives TAHC ??



Date: December 23, 2006 at 11:25 am PST



Greetings BSE-L members,




i never know if i am going crazy or just more of the same BSe. several years ago i brought up the fact to the TAHC that CWD was literally at the Texas borders and that the sample size for cwd testing was no where near enough in the location of that zone bordering NM. well, i just wrote them another letter questioning this again on Dec. 14, 2006 (see below) and showed them two different pdf maps, one referencing this url, which both worked just fine then. since then, i have NOT received a letter from them answering my question, and the url for the map i used as reference is no longer working? i had reference this map several times from the hunter-kill cwd sampling as of 31 August 2005 pdf which NO longer works now?? but here are those figures for that zone bordering NM, for those that were questioning the url. the testing samples elsewhere across Texas where much much more than that figure in the zone bordering NM where CWD has been documented bordering TEXAS, near the White Sands Missile Range. SO, why was the Texas hunter-kill cwd sampling as of 31 August 2005 document removed from the internet?? you know, this reminds me of the infamous TEXAS MAD COW that i documented some 7 or 8 months before USDA et al documented it, when the TAHC accidentally started ramping up for the announcement on there web site, then removed it (see history at bottom). i am not screaming conspiracy here, but confusious is confused again on the ciphering there using for geographical distribution of cwd tissue sample size survey, IF they are serious about finding CWD in TEXAS. common sense would tell you if cwd is 35 miles from the border, you would not run across state and have your larger samples there, and least samples 35 miles from where is what found..........daaa..........TSS





THEN NOTICE CWD sample along that border in TEXAS, Three Year Summary of Hunter-Kill CWD sampling as of 31 August 2005 of only 191 samples, then compare to the other sample locations ;












TPWD has been conducting surveys of hunter-kill animals since 2002 and has collected more than 7300 samples (as of 31 August 2005). In total, there have been over 9400 samples, both hunter-kill and private samples, tested in Texas to date, and no positives have been found.









SO, out of a total of 9,400 samples taken for CWD surveillance in TEXAS since 2002 of both hunter-kill and private kill, ONLY 191 samples have been taken in the most likely place one would find CWD i.e. the border where CWD has been documented at TEXAS and New Mexico



latest map NM cwd old data














CWD in New Mexico ;


What is the Department doing to prevent the spread of CWD?


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was recently detected in a mule deer from Unit 34. Until 2005, CWD had only been found in Unit 19. With this discovery, the Department will increase its surveillance of deer and elk harvested in Units 29, 30 and 34.


Lymph nodes and/or brain stems from every harvested deer and brain stems from all elk taken in Unit 34 will be sampled.




snip...
























CWD SURVEILLANCE TEXAS







SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;




2011 – 2012


Friday, October 28, 2011


CWD Herd Monitoring Program to be Enforced Jan. 2012 TEXAS


Greetings TAHC et al,


A kind greetings from Bacliff, Texas.


In reply to ;


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) Announcement October 27, 2011


I kindly submit the following ;













snip...see full text ;




2011 – 2012



Friday, October 28, 2011


CWD Herd Monitoring Program to be Enforced Jan. 2012 TEXAS


Greetings TAHC et al,


A kind greetings from Bacliff, Texas.


In reply to ;


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) Announcement October 27, 2011


I kindly submit the following ;







CWD, Houston Chronicle, and CWD reporting, what happened ??



Thursday, December 27, 2012


CWD TSE PRION, dr. deer, shooting pen type game farms and ranchers, Texas, TAHC, Houston Chronicle, all silent about disease ?






Thursday, December 13, 2012


HUNTERS FEELING THE HEAT Houston Chronicle December 13, 2012 OUTDOORS not talking about CWD in Texas






Wednesday, November 07, 2012 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, Texas, Houston Chronicle Shannon Thomkins 1998 - 2012 what happened ??






Thursday, July 12, 2012


CWD aka MAD DEER, ELK DISEASE TEXAS HOUSTON CHRONICLE Wednesday, July 11, 2012












TSS
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