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Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease

Posted Dec 14 2012 6:09pm
Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease



Candace K. Mathiason1,#, Amy V. Nalls1, Davis M. Seelig1, Susan L. Kraft2, Kevin Carnes2, Kelly R. Anderson1, Jeanette Hayes-Klug1 and Edward A. Hoover1



+ Author Affiliations



1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 2Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523



ABSTRACT



Domestic and non-domestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging non-domestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of n=5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months post inoculation, two IC-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors and ataxia, and progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by IC, PO, and IP/SQ (intraperitoneal/subcutaneous) routes. Upon sub-passage, feline CWD was transmitted to all IC-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23-27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was demonstrated in the brains of all the affected cats by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 FLAIR signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 IP/SQ and 2 of 4 PO secondary passage inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.



FOOTNOTES



↵# To whom correspondence should be addressed. candace.mathiason@colostate.edu, 1619 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619, 970 491-3975


Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.







DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability


Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 –0500


EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1





IN CONFIDENCE CJD TO CATS...


It should be noted that under experimental conditions cats succumb to an encephalopathy after intracerebral inoculation of material derived from patients affected with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.






FELINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY FSE








***Monday, March 26, 2012


CANINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: A NEW FORM OF ANIMAL PRION DISEASE








Monday, February 14, 2011


THE ROLE OF PREDATION IN DISEASE CONTROL: A COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE REMOVAL ON PRION DISEASE DYNAMICS IN DEER


NO, NO, NOT NO, BUT HELL NO !


Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(1), 2011, pp. 78-93 © Wildlife Disease Association 2011







Saturday, August 29, 2009


FOIA REQUEST FEED RECALL 2009 Product may have contained prohibited materials Bulk Whole Barley, Recall # V-256-2009






Thursday, September 3, 2009


429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009






Friday, September 4, 2009


FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT 429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009






Tuesday, November 3, 2009


re-FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009 and Recall # V-256-2009






From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. To: CVMHomeP@cvm.fda.gov


Cc: FOIASTAFF@oig.usda.gov ; paffairs@oig.hhs.gov ; HHSTips@oig.hhs.gov ; phyllis.fong@oig.usda.gov


FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT 429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009


September 4, 2009


TO:


Food and Drug Administration Division of Freedom of Information (HFI-35) Office of Shared Services Office of Public Information and Library Services 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 Or requests may be sent via fax to: fax number 301-443-1726 or 301-443-1719. If experience difficulty sending a fax, please call (301) 443-2414.


FROM: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518


Greetings FDA FOIE, and the Honorable Phyllis Fong et al @ OIG FOIA,


ANOTHER FOIA REQUEST PLEASE !


PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT ;


Canine Spongiform Encephalopathy CSE TSE


>>> Is anybody even looking at the dogs..especially with CWD now so widespread? <<<


NA, na, na........they know what they will find, Canine Spongiform Encephalopathy, and it was documented, but then they decided not to push the issue anymore, they had enough mad cow disease in different species to deal with. so they screwed the brains up with dogs and deer in the UK. then we took a page or two from the UKs testing protocols and USDA screwed the brains up with cattle, again, and again, and again. then played the stupid card. ya can't fix stupid. ... TSS


Monday, March 8, 2010


Canine Spongiform Encephalopathy aka MAD DOG DISEASE


Greetings,


Another Big Myth about Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy, is that TSE will not transmit to dogs. This is simply NOT TRUE. IT is perfectly legal to feed dogs and cats here in the USA bovine meat and bone meal. Canine dementia is real. how many dogs and cats here in the USA are tested for mad cow disease ? I just received this F.O.I.A. request, and thought I would post it here with a follow up on MAD DOG DISEASE. This is a follow up with additional data I just received on a FOIA request in 2009 ;



see full text, and be sure to read the BSE Inquiry documents toward the bottom ;







Monday, March 8, 2010


UPDATE 429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009






Monday, March 1, 2010


ANIMAL PROTEIN I.E. MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE A REVIEW 2010






Saturday, August 4, 2012


Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012






PET FOODS MAD CATS AND MAD DOGS BSE/TSEs


worse still, there is serious risk the media could get to hear of such a meeting...


snip...


Crushed heads (which inevitably involve brain and spinal cord material) are used to a limited extent but will also form one of the constituent raw materials of meat and bone meal, which is used extensively in pet food manufacturer...






2. The Parliamentary Secretary said that he was concerned about the possibility that countries in which BSE had not yet been detected could be exporting raw meat materials (in particular crushed heads) contaminated with the disease to the UK for use in petfood manufacture...


snip...


YOU explained that imported crushed heads were extensively used in the petfood industry...






In particular I do not believe one can say that the levels of the scrapie agent in pet food are so low that domestic animals are not exposed...








some 100+ _documented_ TSE cats of all types later...tss


on occassions, materials obtained from slaughterhouses will be derived from sheep affected with scrapie or cattle that may be incubating BSE for use in petfood manufacture...






*** Meldrum's notes on pet foods and materials used






*** BSE & Pedigree Petfoods ***







FELINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY FSE













TSE & HOUNDS


GAH WELLS (very important statement here...TSS)


HOUND STUDY


AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that transmission of BSE to other species will invariably present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.


snip...







76 pages on hound study;


snip...







The spongiform changes were not pathognomonic (ie. conclusive proof) for prion disease, as they were atypical, being largely present in white matter rather than grey matter in the brain and spinal cord. However, Tony Scott, then head of electron microscopy work on TSEs, had no doubt that these SAFs were genuine and that these hounds therefore must have had a scrapie-like disease. I reviewed all the sections myself (original notes appended) and although the pathology was not typical, I could not exclude the possibility that this was a scrapie-like disorder, as white matter vacuolation is seen in TSEs and Wallerian degeneration was also present in the white matter of the hounds, another feature of scrapie.


38.I reviewed the literature on hound neuropathology, and discovered that micrographs and descriptive neuropathology from papers on 'hound ataxia' mirrored those in material from Robert Higgins' hound survey. Dr Tony Palmer (Cambridge) had done much of this work, and I obtained original sections from hound ataxia cases from him. This enabled me provisionally to conclude that Robert Higgins had in all probability detected hound ataxia, but also that hound ataxia itself was possibly a TSE. Gerald Wells confirmed in 'blind' examination of single restricted microscopic fields that there was no distinction between the white matter vacuolation present in BSE and scrapie cases, and that occurring in hound ataxia and the hound survey cases.


39.Hound ataxia had reportedly been occurring since the 1930's, and a known risk factor for its development was the feeding to hounds of downer cows, and particularly bovine offal. Circumstantial evidence suggests that bovine offal may also be causal in FSE, and TME in mink. Despite the inconclusive nature of the neuropathology, it was clearly evident that this putative canine spongiform encephalopathy merited further investigation.


40.The inconclusive results in hounds were never confirmed, nor was the link with hound ataxia pursued. I telephoned Robert Higgins six years after he first sent the slides to CVL. I was informed that despite his submitting a yearly report to the CVO including the suggestion that the hound work be continued, no further work had been done since 1991. This was surprising, to say the very least.


41.The hound work could have provided valuable evidence that a scrapie-like agent may have been present in cattle offal long before the BSE epidemic was recognised. The MAFF hound survey remains unpublished.


Histopathological support to various other published MAFF experiments


42.These included neuropathological examination of material from experiments studying the attempted transmission of BSE to chickens and pigs (CVL 1991) and to mice (RVC 1994).






It was thought likely that at least some, and probably all, of the cases in zoo animals were caused by the BSE agent. Strong support for this hypothesis came from the findings of Bruce and others (1994) ( Bruce, M.E., Chree, A., McConnell, I., Foster, J., Pearson, G. & Fraser, H. (1994) Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie to mice: strain variation and species barrier. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 343, 405-411: J/PTRSL/343/405 ), who demonstrated that the pattern of variation in incubation period and lesion profile in six strains of mice inoculated with brain homogenates from an affected kudu and the nyala, was similar to that seen when this panel of mouse strains was inoculated with brain from cattle with BSE. The affected zoo bovids were all from herds that were exposed to feeds that were likely to have contained contaminated ruminant-derived protein and the zoo felids had been exposed, if only occasionally in some cases, to tissues from cattle unfit for human consumption.


snip...





SEE NEW URL ;






DEFRA LETTER TO SINGELTARY ON THE HOUND STUDY 2005



2005


DEFRA Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs


Area 307, London, SW1P 4PQ Telephone: 0207 904 6000 Direct line: 0207 904 6287 E-mail: h.mcdonagh.defra.gsi.gov.uk


GTN: FAX:


Mr T S Singeltary P.O. Box 42 Bacliff Texas USA 77518


21 November 2001


Dear Mr Singeltary


TSE IN HOUNDS


Thank you for e-mail regarding the hounds survey. I am sorry for the long delay in responding.


As you note, the hound survey remains unpublished. However the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC), the UK Government's independent Advisory Committee on all aspects related to BSE-like disease, gave the hound study detailed consideration at their meeting in January 1994. As a summary of this meeting published in the BSE inquiry noted, the Committee were clearly concerned about the work that had been carried out, concluding that there had clearly been problems with it, particularly the control on the histology, and that it was more or less inconclusive. However was agreed that there should be a re-evaluation of the pathological material in the study.


Later, at their meeting in June 95, The Committee re-evaluated the hound study to see if any useful results could be gained from it. The Chairman concluded that there were varying opinions within the Committee on further work. It did not suggest any further transmission studies and thought that the lack of clinical data was a major weakness.


Overall, it is clear that SEAC had major concerns about the survey as conducted. As a result it is likely that the authors felt that it would not stand up to r~eer review and hence it was never published. As noted above, and in the detailed minutes of the SEAC meeting in June 95, SEAC considered whether additional work should be performed to examine dogs for evidence of TSE infection. Although the Committee had mixed views about the merits of conducting further work, the Chairman noted that when the Southwood Committee made their recommendation to complete an assessment of possible spongiform disease in dogs, no TSEs had been identified in other species and hence dogs were perceived as a high risk population and worthy of study. However subsequent to the original recommendation, made in 1990, a number of other species had been identified with TSE ( e.g. cats) so a study in hounds was less




As this study remains unpublished, my understanding is that the ownership of the data essentially remains with the original researchers. Thus unfortunately, I am unable to help with your request to supply information on the hound survey directly. My only suggestion is that you contact one of the researchers originally involved in the project, such as Gerald Wells. He can be contacted at the following address.


Dr Gerald Wells, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT 15 3NB, UK


You may also wish to be aware that since November 1994 all suspected cases of spongiform encephalopathy in animals and poultry were made notifiable. Hence since that date there has been a requirement for vets to report any suspect SE in dogs for further investigation. To date there has never been positive identification of a TSE in a dog.


I hope this is helpful


Yours sincerely 4


HUGH MCDONAGH BSE CORRESPONDENCE SECTION



======================================



HOUND SURVEY


I am sorry, but I really could have been a co-signatory of Gerald's minute.


I do NOT think that we can justify devoting any resources to this study, especially as larger and more important projects such as the pathogenesis study will be quite demanding.


If there is a POLITICAL need to continue with the examination of hound brains then it should be passed entirely to the VI Service.


J W WILESMITH Epidemiology Unit 18 October 1991


Mr. R Bradley


cc: Mr. G A H Wells







3.3. Mr R J Higgins in conjunction with Mr G A Wells and Mr A C Scott would by the end of the year, indentify the three brains that were from the ''POSITIVE'' end of the lesion spectrum.






LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL


Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003


Newsdesk


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America


Xavier Bosch


My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.


49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.


Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.


Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle.


To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.


Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have.



SNIP...FULL TEXT ;







Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Public Health Crisis












full text with source references ;







SUMMARY REPORT CALIFORNIA BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY CASE INVESTIGATION JULY 2012 Summary Report BSE 2012 Executive Summary






Wednesday, November 14, 2012


Prionics: New test to combat scrapie and mad cow disease in sheep and goats MEDIA RELEASE Schlieren-Zurich, November 14, 2012









Thursday, May 31, 2012



CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PRION2012 Aerosol, Inhalation transmission, Scrapie, cats, species barrier, burial, and more









Sunday, August 19, 2012


Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculation 2012


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit









Friday, November 23, 2012



sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease update As at 5th November 2012 UK, USA, AND CANADA








Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012







sorry folks, it’s that time a year again, and I get a bit cranky this time a year, on December 14, and I like to shove as much TSE prion disease data down everyone’s throat as possible. just made a promise. ...ho ho ho!




layperson



MOM DOD 14/14/97 CONFIRMED hvCJD...




Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Case Report



snip...


Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease autopsy case report 'MOM'


DIVISION OF NEUROPATHOLOGY University of Texas Medical Branch 114 McCullough Bldg. Galveston, Texas 77555-0785


FAX COVER SHEET


DATE: 4-23-98


TO: Mr. Terry Singeltary @ -------


FROM: Gerald Campbell


FAX: (409) 772-5315 PHONE: (409) 772-2881


Number of Pages (including cover sheet):


Message:


*CONFIDENTIALITY NOTICE*


This document accompanying this transmission contains confidential information belonging to the sender that is legally privileged. This information is intended only for the use of the individual or entry names above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying distribution, or the taking of any action in reliances on the contents of this telefaxed information is strictly prohibited. If you received this telefax in error, please notify us by telephone immediately to arrange for return of the original documents. -------------------------- Patient Account: 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No.: (0160)118511Q Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex: F Admitting Race: C




Attending Dr.: Date / Time Admitted : 12/14/97 1228 Copies to:




UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683 Pathology Report


FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS Autopsy' Office (409)772-2858


Autopsy NO.: AU-97-00435


AUTOPSY INFORMATION: Occupation: Unknown Birthplace: Unknown Residence: Crystal Beach Date/Time of Death: 12/14/97 13:30 Date/Time of Autopsy: 12/15/97 15:00 Pathologist/Resident: Pencil/Fernandez Service: Private Restriction: Brain only


FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS


I. Brain: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Heidenhain variant.


***TYPE: Anatomic(A) or Clinical(C) Diagnosis. IMPORTANCE: 1-immediate cause of death (COD); 2.ureterlying COD; 3-contributory COD: 4.concomitant, significant; 5-incidental ***


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Patient Location: AUTOPSY Room/Bed: Printed Date; Time: 01/30/98 - 0832


Page: 1 Continued .... --------------


UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683


Pathology Report


Autopsy NO,: AU-97-00435


MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION: The spongiform change is evident in all areas of neocortex, varying from mild to moderate in severity with only very mild neuronal loss and gliosis. In the bilateral occipital lobes, there is severe loss cortical neurons and gliosis, with a corresponding pallor of the underlying white matter. There is only minimal, focal spongiform change in corpus striatum, lentiform nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellum. There is no significant loss of neurons from the lateral geniculate nucleus, and the optic chiasm and tracts are well-myelinated.


SECTIONS TAKEN: N-l) Pituitary, N-2) Right frontal, N-3) Right inferior frontal, N-4) Right caudate putamen. N-5) Right lentiform nuclei, N-6) Right hippocampus, N-7) optic chiasm. N-8) Left inferior temporal lobe, N-9) Right inferior occipital, N-10} Cerabellum. N-l1) Midbrain, N-12) Pons, N-13) Medulla.


FINAL DIAGNOSES: BRAIN: 1. Clinical history of rapidly progressive dementia, clinically consistent with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.


a. spongiform encephalopathy, most Severe in occipital lobes, consistent with Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


b. Ventriculer enlargement, moderate, consistent with atrophy. 1. Communicating spherical enlargement of occipital horn of left lateral ventricle (possible incidental congenital anomaly).


DURA; Left subdural hemorrhage, recent, minimal.


PITUITARY: Severe capillary congestion.


COMMENTS; See also western blot report from Dr. Gambetti's lab Amyloid stains are not completed for this case as of this date. The results, which are not essential for the diagnosis, will be reported separately in an addendum.


(this was hand written notes) no amyloid evident in the special stains. no evidence of plaques.GAE


Gerald A. Campbell, M.D., Pathologist Division of Neuropathology


(Electronic Signature}. (Gross: 01/16/98 Final: 02/08/98


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Patient Location: AUTOPSY Room/Bed: Printed Date: Time: 02/09/98 - 1120


Page 2 END OF REPORT -------


UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 fax (409) 772-5683 Pathology Report


Date/Time of Death: 12/14/97 Autopsy No.: AU-97-00435


NEUROPATHOLOGY CONSULTATION


CLINICAL HISTORY This patient was a 63-year-old white female with recent onset of progressive dementia. She was well until September of this year, when she noted a decrease in her visual activity and was found to have visual field defects as well. MRI revealed no lesions in the orbits or optic pathways. She was admitted to the hospital with the working diagnosis of bilateral optic neuropathy for a course of intravenous methylprednisolone, but her vision continued to deteriorate. She developed increasing memory and speech impairment, weakness and myoclonus. She died on 12/14/97, approximately three and one-half months after her symptoms started.


Date/Time of Death: 12/14/97 13:30 Date/Time Autopsy: 12/15/97 15:00 Pathologist Resident: PENCIL/FERNANDEZ


GROSS DESCRIPTION: Submitted are the brain, convexity dura and pituitary gland.


The pituitary gland is very dark and almost hemorrhagic in appearance, but has no obvious hematoma. It is submitted totally for histology.


The right convexity dura has diffuse but minimal subdura hemorrhage, and the dura is otherwise unremarkable.


The brain is normally developed with normal size for an adult and is symmetric externally. It does not have apparent sulcal widening. There is mild congestion of the leptomeninges, which are transparent. There is no evidence of inflammatory exudete. There is no evidence of internal softenings or other lesions externally. The cerebral arteries have focal atherosclerosis, but are without significant compromise of the vessels lumens. There is no evidence of aneurysms or malformations.


The hemispheres are sliced coronally revealing, a ventricular system which is mildly enlarged. The cortical ribbon is normal in thickness throughout most of the brain, except for the inferior and medial occipital lobes bilaterally, where the cortex is firm, thin and has a brownish discoloration, more severely so on the left than the right. In addition there is a spherical enlargement of the left occipital horn of the lateral ventricle which communicates with the remainder of the lateral ventricle. The tissue of the white matter around this enlargement is somewhat softer then in other areas. Other areas of the brain are grossly unremarkable. The brainstem and cerebellum are sliced transversely, revealing normal development and no evidence of gross changes or lesions.


DICTATED BY: GERALD A. CAMPBELL, M.D., PATHOLOGIST 01/16/98


Page 1 Continued .... ---------------


Patient Account: 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No,: (0160)118511Q


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex:F Race:C Admitting Dr.: Attending Dr: Date/Time Admitted: 12/14/97 1228


UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683 Pathology Report


FINAL AUTOPSY REPORT Autopsy Office (409)772-2858 Autopsy No.: AU-97-00435


CLINICAL SUMMARY:


This is a 63-year-old white female with a recent onset of progressive dementia. Her past medical history is significant for hypothyroidism. She was well until September of this year, when she noted visual difficulty. By mid-October, she could not read the newspaper. She was found to have a decrease in visual acuity and visual field defects. One week after her initial evaluation, a panel of blood tests showed no significant abnormalities and a MRI revealed some periventricular white matter "plaque-like" areas but no lesions in the orbits or optic pathways.


The patient had continued deterioration and distortion of her vision. The visual field defects increased, and she was found to have paracentral scotomas which were thought to be consistent with bilateral optic neuropathy. Early in November, she was admitted to the hospital for a course of intravenous methyl prednisolone.


During her hospital stay, she was noted to have short term memory and speech impairment; her vision did not improve. She was discharged with the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


Later, the patient developed progressive dementia with marked impairment of speech and memory. She had complete visual loss, increased weakness and myoclonus. She died on December 14, 1997.


MF /AV 12/16/97


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Patient Location: AUTOPSY Room/Bed: Printed Date / Time: 01//30/98 - 0832 Page: 2 Continued .... --------------


Patient Account: 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No.: (0160)118511Q Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex: F Race: C Admitting Dr.: Attending Dr.: Date / Time Admitted : 12/14/97 1228


UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston. Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683 Pathology Report


AU-97-00435


GROSS DESCRIPTION:


EXTERNAL EXAMINATION: The body is that of a 63-year-old well-nourished, well-developed white female. There is no rigor mortis present, and there is unfixed dependent lividity on the posterior surface. The head is normocephalic with a moderate amount of gray, medium length scalp hair. The irides are blue with equal pupils measuring 0.4 mm in diameter. The nares are patent with no exudate. Dentition is fair. Buccal membranes are normal. There is normal female hair distribution. The chest does not have increased anterior-posterior diameter. The abdomen is slightly protuberant. Lymph node enlargement is not present. The extremities are unremarkable. The genitalia are those of a normal female. Two well-healed remote scars are identified in the abdomen: one in the right upper quadrant and another in the superpubic area.


BRAIN: The brain weighs 1450 gm. The gyri and sulci display a normal pattern without edema or atrophy. The meninges show no abnormalities. The circle of Willis, basilar and vertebral arteries show no significant atherosclerosis. The brain is fixed in formalin for later examination by a neuropathologist (see neuropathology report). No indentation of the cingulate gyri, unci or molding of the cerebellar tonsils are noted.


SPINAL CORD: The spinal cord is not removed.


PITUITARY GLAND: The pituitary gland is removed and is fixed in formalin for subsequent examination by a neuropathologist.


MF /AV 12/16/97


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Patient Location: AUTOPSY Room/Bed: Printed Date / Time: 01/30/98 - 0832


Page 3 Continued .... --------------


Patient Account : 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No.: (0160)118511Q patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex: F Race: C Admitting Dr.: Attending Dr,: Date/Time Admitted: 12/14/97 1228


UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683


Pathology Report AU-97-00435


MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:


BRAIN: Histologic examination of multiple sampled areas of the brain showed the characteristic features of Creutzfetdt-Jakob disease. These were present in most sections, but were particularly prominent in the occipital cortex. The spongiform degeneration was seen in the neuropil of the gray matter as multiple vacuoles amoung numerous reactive astrocytes and occasional neuronal cell bodies. These changes were most notable in the basal layer of the cortex. PAS and amyloid stains will be performed on selected sections to asses the presence of plaques.


MF /MF 01/28/98


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Patient Location: AUTOPSY Room/Bed: Printed Date / Time: 01/30/98 - 0832


Page: 4 Continued .... --------------


Patient Account: 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No.: (0160}118511Q Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex: F Race: C Admitting Dr.: Attending Dr.: Date / Time Admitted : 12/14/97 1228


UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 775550-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683 Pathology Report


Autopsy office (409)772-2858 Autopsy No.: AU-97-00435


FINAL AUTOPSY REPORT


CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION:


The clinical findings in this case strongly suggest the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: progressive dementia, typical EEG changes, visual disturbances and myoclonus. These characteristics indicate this is a "probable case of CJD", according the criteria set by the EC Surveillance Group of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Europe (1).


The definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, however, is established by neuropathologic findings. There are three changes that are classically described and considered diagnostic: spongiform change, neuronal loss and astrocytic gliosis. The presence of these can vary significantly in proportion and distribution and often correlate with clinical symptoms. This permits classification of the disease into several variants.


Three variants of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been proposed by Roos and Gajdusek (2): frontopyramidal, with pyramidal or lower motor neuron involvement; occipitoparietal {Heidenhain), characterized by disorders in higher cortical function and vision; and diffuse, with cerebral, cortical, basal ganglia, thalamic, cerebellar, midbrain and spinal cord involvement.


Histological examination from multiple samples of the brain in this case revealed astrocytic gliosis, spongiform degeneration and neuronal loss. Although these changes were seen in most sections, they were most prominent in the occipital cortex. This correlates very well with the clinical history of visual disturbances. Based on this finding, the present case corresponds to the Heidenhain variant. It is not uncommon for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to present with visual symptoms as the initial manifestation of the disease. Vargas et al (3) has reported three cases with these characteristics.


There have been numerous and significant advances in our understanding of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and prion diseases in general. These have been reviewed in several papers written recently, including one by Horowich and Weissman (4).


In summary, this 63 year old female with a history of visual disturbances and dementia of rapid progression was found to have the neuropathologic changes characteristic of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, predominantly in the occipital cortex. The occipital tropism and consequent visual symptoms indicate this case corresponds to the Heidenhain variant.


REFERENCES:


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Patient location: AUTOPSY Room/Bed: Printed Date / Time: 01/30/98 * 0832


Page: 5 Continued .... --------------


Patient Account: 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No.: (0160)118511Q Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex: F Race: C Admitting Dr.: Attending Dr.: Date / Time Admitted : 12/14/97 1228


UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409} 772-5683 Pathology Report


Autopsy No.: AU-97-00435


FINAL AUTOPSY REPORT


CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION:


1. Budka H, et al: Tissue handling in suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other human spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases), Brain Pathology. 5:319-322,1995.


2. Roos R, Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ Jr: The clinical characteristics of transmissible Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Brain 96: 1-20, 1973.


3. Vargas ME, et al: Homonymous field defect as the first Manifestation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 119:497-504, 1995.


4. Horowich AL, Weissman JS: Deadly conformations - protein misfolding in prion disease. Cell Vol.89, 499-510, 1997.


MF /MF 01/28/98


SCOT D. PENCIL, M.D., PATHOLOGIST MARTIN FERNANDEZ, M.D. 01/29/98 (Electronic Signature)


Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Patient Location: AUTOPSY Room/Bed: Printed Date / Time: 01/30/98 - 0832


Page: 6 END OF REPORT --------------


The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston


Gerald A, Campbell, Ph.D., M.D, Associate Professor and Director Division of Neuropathology Department of Pathology


February 26, 1998


Pierluigi Gambetti, M.D. Professor Institute of Pathology Case Western Reserve University 2085 Adelbert Road Cleveland Ohio 44106


Dear Dr, Gambetti:


Enclosed please find the microscopic slides and autopsy report from our patient, Barbara Poulter (Hosp.# 11851lQ, Autopsy # AU97-435). These slides are being sent for consultation at the request of Mr. Singletary, Ms. Poulter's son and next of kin. We will also send frozen tissue from the brain on dry ice next week, and someone will call you on the day the tissue is shipped. Please return the slides when you have finished with your examination. If you need any further information, please do not hesitate to call me. Thanks for your assistance with this case.


Sincerely, Gerald A. Campbell ------------------ CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY


February 26, 1988


Gerald Campbell, M.D,, PhD. Division of Neuropathology, G85 University TX Medical Branch Galveston, TX 77555-0785


Dear Dr. Campbell,


As per our telephone conversation concerning a recent case of CJD, I Will be willing to examine slides and the frozen tissue on western blotting, I will issue a report to you about our conclusions. Below is my address, Our Fed Ex number is XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.


Thank your for your assistance in this matter,


Best personal regards,


Pierluigi Gambetti, M.D.


PG:In


Division of Neuropathology Pierluigi Gambetti, M.D. Director Institute Of Neuropathology 2085 Adelbert Road Cleveland, Ohio 44106


Phone 216-368-0587 Fax 216-368-2546 ------------------ CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY


February 27, 1998


Dr. Gerald A. Campbell The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Division of Neuropathology, G85 Galveston. TX 77555-0785


Dear Dr. Campbell,


We are in receipt of the slides you sent on Mrs. Barbara Poulter (your #: AU97-435;our#098-28).


Best personal regards, Pierluigi Gambetti, M.D.


PG:sb


Division of Neuropathology Pierluigi Gambetti, M.D., Director ----------------------------------- CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY


March 30, 1998


Dr. Gerald A, Campbell The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Division of Neuropathology Department of Pathology Galveston, Texas


Dear Dr Campbell,


We performed Western immunoblot analysis on the frozen tissue from your case #AU97-435 (our #098-28). The Immunoblot reveals the presence of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) confirming the diagnosis of prion disease. The immunoblot pattern of PrPres is consistent with the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


Thank you for referring to us this interesting case.


Sincerely,


Piero Parchi, M.D.


Pierluigi Gambetti, M.D.


PP:sb


Division of Neuropathology Pierluigi Gambetti, M.D., Director Case Western Reserve University


This Autopsy report is for the use of anyone, who is trying to understand this hideous disease CJD. I hope it can be beneficial for some in researching human TSE. Please remember, this was my Mom, and to use this with great respect.


thank you, kind regards,


Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA


-------------------------------


BARBARA FREDERICK POULTER


DIED 12-14-97


If I had one last thing I could tell you, it would be, I love you. I'm sorry for the stupid argument we had the last few months, BEFORE this hideous disease ROARED through your body. BUT, I PROMISE MOM, YOUR DEATH WILL NOT GO UNANSWERED!


HEIDENHAN VARIANT CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE


We got a call from my Mother around the end of Oct. saying "the damn'est thing has happened, I can't see, and if I'm talking to you and I don't make sense, bare with me, I'll come back". It was a shock to all of us. It seems that a few days before, she was crossing the ferry and became frightened because she was having problems seeing. She explained it as looking down a tunnel or not being able to see from the sides, and seeing brown spots.


We had NOT been talking, over something, we had NO control of, for a few months. So I did not know she had been having these visual problems, until she was blind. These were her first symptoms. From that point on, I was with her most everyday. I had to cross the Galveston/Bolivar ferry, and its about 30 minutes each way, so as the disease progressed, it gave me a great deal of time to think. When the visual problems started, it was about 2 weeks later, and she was blind. That led to coordination, and balance problems starting. But as this hideous disease progresses, it just GOES. You don't seem to catch up with it. It was like a fire in a hurricane. We would go out and get her things she needed one day, and the next day it would be obsolete, because the disease had gone to another stage. So you started over. Her coordination and balancing led to being in a wheel-chair. She was starting to get these trembles. I also noticed how her hands and feet started to go inward. Her speech was nothing more than jerble at this time, and this was probably about the 6th week, (at this point we had to tie her to the wheel chair, to keep her from falling out). The trembles had turned into SEVERE JERKS, that at times would take 3 of us to hold her down. I will never forget that....About her 8th week she became comatose....She died around the 10th week. I had spent the night, she had problems through the night, so the nurse came. She checked her out and comforted us, (HOSPICE IS A WONDERFUL ORGANIZATION). The nurse said she seemed to be alright and that it would probably be alright to go home for a few hours. I was on the Ferry, going back to Galveston, when I got the call, she was gone. What can you do, Mom was gone, and I was stuck on the Damn Ferry, going the wrong direction.


She knew what she had. I remember, before she had lost her speech completely. After a doctors conference, and CJD had come up. She heard us say CJD, and she screamed, SHE knew! At that point, I didn't know what was, much less, CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE.....I have learned a lot since. I have learned I truly miss my Mom and I am MAD as hell that she is gone!


Terry/MADSON!!!


SYMPTOMS:


VISION - BLIND IN ABOUT 10 TO 14 DAYS


COORDINATION AND MUSCLE CONTROL SWALLOWING DIFFICULTY CONFUSION AND DEMENTIA SPEECH PROBLEMS HALLUCINATIONS TREMBLES TOO SEVERE JERKING LOSS OF WEIGHT HANDS AND FEET GREW INWARD UPPER TRUNK STIFFNESS, SHOULDER, UPPER ARM








Back to MANY FACES OF CJD









From: Jeff Subject: Very interesting letter from son of CJD victim -- and alleged connection to cows


Date: April 22, 1998 at 19:53:42 EST


This was sent to Oprah Winfrey, reprinted here by permission:


I am the madson of a deadmom who died of madcow.(heidenhain variant creutzfeldt-jacob disease.) I sat with her for 10 weeks and watched as this hideous disease ate her brain up. She wrote in her journal that she started to see brown spots on sept. 27, 1997. These were her first symptoms -- apprx.10 days later she was blind, about 2 weeks later she had lost control of her coordination, walking, and speech.


She would get these uncontrollable jerks that at times would take 3 of us to hold her down. Around the 8th week she was totally bedridden. She died in the 10th week on 12-14-97. THANK GOD!


If you ever see this disease, as I did with my mom, you will truly believe that madcow is here. I truly believe that is what my mom died of. They can call it what ever they want to.


Now, I will take this a step further. My neighbor's mother also died of c.j.d. She died on 12-14-96, they had diagnosed it as Alzheimers, until the autopsy he demanded ruled out alzheimers and ruled in c.j.d.


About a month ago my neighbor called me over, he had been going through some old boxes of his mom's and came across some pills he thought I should see. When I read the ingredients I just about sh*t!


INGREDIENTS: vacuum dried bovine brain, bone meal, bovine eye, veal bone, bovine liver powder, bovine adrenal, vacuum dried bovine kidney, and vacuum dried porcine stomach. It was a cow in a pill! This woman taking these pills died of c.j.d. Could it be madcow in a pill?


I called the texas dept. of health (T.D.H.) the next day, and the following day they were out here and got the pills. I had located the manufacture and called with a bogus story and a list of doctors that would prescribe them in houston. The T.D.H. called a few days later, asking for the list of doctors, their phone numbers, and told me they would take it from there. I need not pursue it any further!


Not to long ago, 4 or 5 weeks, a girl showed up at my door. She had called crying a week earlier and could not talk. She had seen a story on T.V. about my mother. Anyway, when I first saw her I knew she had seen it too (madcow). Her mother had died of c.j.d. on 2-14-97.


This disease is here and you can call it what ever you want, c.j.d., n.v.c.j.d., hvCJD, b.s.e. or madcow, for what it is. But, that young man who died of n.v.c.j.d. in England, Steve Churchhill, had the exact same symptoms as my mother. There is also a girl in Ft. Worth Texas who called me. She had seen an article about my mom in the dallas morning news. Her dad had died of c.j.d. so far we have come up with about 18 people who has died of c.j.d. in texas, 15 confirmed. I have heard from other people its up to 32.


I am tired of hearing this crap about nv-cjd being in just young people. That same old line about how nv-cjd victims are much younger and their clinical course from first sign of symptoms to death is much longer. Any diseases clinical course is going to be longer in younger people, because their body and organs are much younger and healthier. But, in the end, their brains are full of spongiform holes, just like the older folks. Just because the plaques are more extreme, does not mean its a different disease. Could it not be just a more extreme case of typical c.j.d.??


Greed is what it is all about. They banned feeding cattle to cattle. But, are still allowed to feed those downer cows to pork and poultry. Then they are still allowed to feed the pork and poultry byproducts back to the cows. Now Dr. Gibbs writes that the prion-protien can survive the digestinal track and composting process. So the prion-protein goes right back to the cow. We must ban feeding all animals to animals. Its just an endless cycle of greed thats killing people.


I have requested that further test be done on my moms brain.(frozen tissue, paraffeine sections and serum) be sent to case western reserve university in Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Pierre Lugi Gambetti.


I hope you find some interest in this. I just don't believe we are being told everything. The gov. lied about asbestos for 75 years.


P.S.-- the results from Case Western Reserve University, on my Mothers Brain, came back positive for the prion protein PrPres, confirming the prion disease.........


kind regards,


Terry S. Singelary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA




================================================









Wednesday, May 16, 2012



Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?



Proposal ID: 29403














Are some commoner types of neurodegenerative disease (including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) also transmissible? Some recent scientific research has suggested this possibility




Friday, September 3, 2010


Alzheimer's, Autism, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's, Prionoids, Prionpathy, Prionopathy, TSE








PrioNet Canada researchers in Vancouver confirm prion-like properties in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)








Wednesday, January 5, 2011


ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011 Prions


David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2










Sunday, December 2, 2012


CANADA 19 cases of mad cow disease SCENARIO 4: ‘WE HAD OUR CHANCE AND WE BLEW IT’







2001




Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 –0800




Subject: BSE--U.S. 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001


Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 -0800


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy





######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########




Greetings List Members,



I was lucky enough to sit in on this BSE conference call today and even managed to ask a question. that is when the trouble started.


I submitted a version of my notes to Sandra Blakeslee of the New York Times, whom seemed very upset, and rightly so.


"They tell me it is a closed meeting and they will release whatever information they deem fit. Rather infuriating."


and i would have been doing just fine, until i asked my question. i was surprised my time to ask a question so quick.


(understand, these are taken from my notes for now. the spelling of names and such could be off.)


[host Richard Barns] and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of CJD Watch.


[TSS] yes, thank you, U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?


[no answer, you could hear in the back ground, mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question again.]


[host Richard] could you repeat the question?


[TSS] U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds?


[not sure whom ask this] what group are you with?


[TSS] CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are tracking CJD world-wide.


[not sure who is speaking] could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary


[TSS] you are not going to answer my question?


[not sure whom speaking] NO




snip...




please see full text of USA BSE 50 STATE EMERGENCY conference call and more ;










TSS
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