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Steve Lightfoot: West Texas Mule Deer rules CWD Management Plan mandatory check stations for harvested mule deer taken inside th

Posted Oct 23 2013 11:23pm
Steve Lightfoot: West Texas Mule Deer rules
 
Steve Lightfoot, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, guest columnist
 
San Angelo Standard Times
 
Posted October 23, 2013 at 2:35 p.m.
 
Rick Meritt harvested this Mule deer in West Texas last year. Photo used with permission, Steve Alderman and Rick Meritt. www.muledeercountry.com. See the original posting at
 
Rick Meritt harvested this Mule deer in West Texas last year. Photo used with permission, Steve Alderman and Rick Meritt. www.muledeercountry.com. See the original posting at http://muledeercountry.com/forum/desert-mule-deer/texas/ .
 
Wildlife officials are reminding mule deer hunters and landowners in far West Texas about the protocols developed as part of Texas Parks and Wildlife Department’s (TPWD) Chronic Wasting Disease management plan. The plan includes mandatory check stations for harvested mule deer taken inside the CWD Containment Zone, which covers portions of Hudspeth, Culberson, and El Paso counties. See map of CWD zones at http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/cwd .
 
The management plan was implemented after CWD was detected in tissue samples from two mule deer in far West Texas during the summer of 2012. Those were the first cases of CWD detected in Texas deer.
 
Nearly 300 tissue samples were collected from hunter harvested mule deer from the Trans Pecos ecoregion during the 2012-13 season for CWD testing. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory and National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) confirmed CWD in four of those samples. All CWD-positive deer were harvested within the CWD Containment Zone.
 
Of 298 deer sampled during last hunting season, 107 were harvested in the Containment Zone, 93 were harvested in the adjacent High Risk Zone, 25 were harvested in the Buffer Zone, and 73 deer were harvested outside of the CWD zones. Nineteen of the samples collected from the Containment Zone were from deer harvested in the Hueco Mountains.
 
Hunters taking mule deer inside the Containment Zone during the 2013 general mule deer hunting season, Nov. 22 – Dec. 8, are required to submit their harvest (unfrozen head) for CWD sampling at mandatory check stations within 24 hours of harvest.
 
“We recommend hunters in the Containment Zone and High Risk Zone quarter deer in the field and leave all but the quarters, backstraps, and head at the site of harvest if it is not possible to bury the inedible carcass parts at least 6 feet deep on the ranch or take them to a landfill,” said Shawn Gray, Mule Deer Program Leader for TPWD.
 
Mandatory check stations will be open from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Nov. 22 – Dec. 9. Stations will be located in Cornudas at May’s Café (on US 62-180) and in Van Horn at Van Horn Convention Center (1801 West Broadway).
 
Hunters who harvest deer in the Containment Zone outside the general season under the authority of MLDP (Managed Lands Deer Permits) will need to call TPWD at (512) 221-8491 the day the deer is harvested to make arrangements to have the deer sampled for CWD.
 
In addition to protocols within the Containment Zone, TPWD has established check stations for voluntary CWD sampling for deer harvested in other parts of West Texas. Biologists have been collecting mule deer harvest data in the region since 1980 and this year CWD sampling will be offered in addition to age and weight measurements.
 
Voluntary check stations will be established at the following locations during the first three weekends of the general season, Saturday through Monday (Nov. 23–25, Nov. 30–Dec. 2 and Dec. 6–8), from 9 a.m. – 5 p.m. Saturday and Sunday and 9 a.m. – 1 p.m. Monday:
 
Midland at Naturally Fresh (Deer Processor) (1501 Elwyn)
 
Bakersfield at Chevron Station (south of I10; Exit 294)
 
Sanderson at Slim’s Auto Repair (823 West Oak; Intersection of US 90 and 285)
 
Alpine at Hip-O Taxidermy (east side of town on US 90, across from Dairy Queen)
 
All deer brought to the check stations this season will be aged as part of our CWD surveillance. Additional biological information such as antler measurements and field dressed weights will also be collected as time allows.
 
TPWD has tested almost 30,000 wild hunter-harvested and road-killed deer in Texas since 2002. The captive-deer industry in Texas has submitted more than 7,400 CWD test results as well.
 
“CWD has not been detected anywhere outside of the Hueco Mountains,” said Mitch Lockwood, Big Game Program Director with TPWD. “But adequate surveillance in that part of West Texas depends on check stations and we appreciate the cooperation and active participation of hunters and landowners in this area.
 
 
 
Saturday, October 19, 2013
 
ACA Council Meets to Endorse Several Proposed USAHA Resolutions (CWD TSE PRION DISEASE)
 
 
 
Thursday, October 03, 2013
 
TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments _REMOVE_ the requirement for a specific fence height for captives
 
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
 
ANNOUNCEMENT
 
October 3, 2013
 
 
 
Thursday, July 04, 2013
 
New TAHC Movement Requirements for Species Susceptible to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
 
 
 
 
Date: Sun, 25 Aug 2002 19:45:14 –0500
 
 
 
TEXAS OLD STATISTICS BELOW FOR PAST CWD TESTING;
 
Subject: CWD testing in Texas
 
Date: Sun, 25 Aug 2002 19:45:14 –0500
 
From: Kenneth Waldrup
 
To: flounder@wt.net
 
CC: mcoats@tahc.state.tx.us
 
Dear Dr. Singletary,
 
In Fiscal Year 2001, seven deer from Texas were tested by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) for CWD (5 fallow deer and 2 white-tailed deer). In Fiscal Year 2002, seven elk from Texas were tested at NVSL (no deer). During these two years, an additional six elk and one white-tailed deer were tested at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL). In Fiscal Year 2002, four white-tailed deer (free-ranging clinical suspects) and at least eight other white-tailed deer have been tested at TVMDL. One elk has been tested at NVSL. All of these animals have been found negative for CWD. Dr. Jerry Cooke of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department also has records of 601 clinically ill white-tailed deer which were necropsied at Texas A&M during the late 1960's and early 1970's, and no spongiform encepalopathies were noted.
 
Thank you for your consideration.
 
Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD Texas Animal Health Commission
 
========================
 
TEXAS CWD STATUS
 
Captive Cervids
 
There have been no reported CWD infections of captive elk or deer in Texas. There is currently no mandatory surveillance program for susceptible cervids kept on game farms, although, there has been voluntary surveillance since 1999, which requires owners of participating herds to maintain an annual herd inventory and submit samples for all mortalities of animals over 16 months of age.
 
snip...
 
SO, i thought i would just see where these Ecoregions were, and just how the CWD testing was distributed. YOU would think that with the cluster of CWD bordering TEXAS at the WPMR in NM, you would have thought this would be where the major CWD testing samples were to have been taken? wrong! let's have a look at the sample testing. here is map of CWD in NM WPMR bordering TEXAS;
 
NEW MEXICO 7 POSITIVE CWD WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE MAP
 
 
 
NEXT, let's have a look at the overall distribution of CWD in Free-Ranging Cervids and see where the CWD cluster in NM WSMR borders TEXAS;
 
Current Distribution of Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Cervids
 
 
 
NOW, the MAP of the Exoregion where the samples were taken to test for CWD;
 
 
CWD SURVEILLANCE SAMPLE SUBMISSIONS TEXAS
 
 
 
Ecoregions of TEXAS
 
 
 
IF you look at the area around the NM WSMR where the CWD cluster was and where it borders TEXAS, that ecoregion is called ***Trans Pecos region. Seems if my Geography and my Ciphering is correct ;-) that region only tested 55% of it's goal. THE most important area on the MAP and they only test some 96 samples, this in an area that has found some 7 positive animals? NOW if we look at the only other border where these deer from NM could cross the border into TEXAS, this area is called the High Plains ecoregion, and again, we find that the sampling for CWD was pathetic. HERE we find that only 9% of it's goal of CWD sampling was met, only 16 samples were tested from some 175 that were suppose to be sampled.
 
AS i said before;
 
> SADLY, they have not tested enough from the total population to
 
> know if CWD is in Texas or not.
 
 
BUT now, I will go one step further and state categorically that they are not trying to find it. just the opposite it seems, they are waiting for CWD to find them, as with BSE/TSE in cattle, and it will eventually...
 
 
snip...see full text ;
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
Monday, February 11, 2013
 
TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD Four New Positives Found in Trans Pecos
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Far West Texas
 
 
 
 
Monday, March 26, 2012
 
Texas Prepares for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Possibility in Far West Texas
 
 
 
Monday, March 26, 2012
 
3 CASES OF CWD FOUND NEW MEXICO MULE DEER SEVERAL MILS FROM TEXAS BORDER
 
 
 
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
 
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
 
 
 
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
 
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...
 
 
 
 
Sunday, January 06, 2013
 
 
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE
 
*** "it‘s no longer its business.”
 
 
 
Saturday, June 29, 2013
 
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
 
 
 
Monday, June 24, 2013
 
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
 
 
 
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
 
CWD GONE WILD, More cervid escapees from more shooting pens on the loose in Pennsylvania
 
 
 
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
 
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
 
 
 
Thursday, August 08, 2013
 
Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America
 
 
 
Thursday, July 11, 2013
 
The New Hornographers: The Fight Over the Future of Texas Deer, Captive shooting pens, and the CWD TSE prion disease
 
 
 
Friday, August 09, 2013
 
CWD TSE prion, plants, vegetables, and the potential for environmental contamination
 
 
 
Friday, September 27, 2013
 
***Uptake of Prions into Plants
 
Presentation Abstract
 
 
 
Tuesday, September 17, 2013
 
Mother to Offspring Transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion disease
 
 
 
Sunday, September 01, 2013
 
hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
 
 
 
Thursday, May 31, 2012
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PRION2012 Aerosol, Inhalation transmission, Scrapie, cats, species barrier, burial, and more
 
 
 
Monday, August 8, 2011
 
Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to CWD Infection
 
 
 
Friday, November 09, 2012
 
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
 
 
 
Sunday, November 11, 2012
 
*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012
 
 
 
Sunday, August 25, 2013
 
Prion2013 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission
 
 
 
 
NOW, let’s take a look at what the science is saying on the risk factors of human TSE prion disease from CWD prion disease of cervids.
 
 
first, from the cdc/nih et al prion gods, and what they said on human cwd potential, and what that might look like ;
 
 
now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ??
 
 
“Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”
 
From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)
 
Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??
 
Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST
 
From: "Belay, Ermias"
 
To:
 
Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"
 
Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM
 
Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
 
Dear Sir/Madam,
 
In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.
 
That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.
 
Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
 
 
-----Original Message-----
 
From:
 
Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM
 
To: rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV
 
Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS
 
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS
 
Thursday, April 03, 2008
 
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
 
2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41
 
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease
 
Sigurdson CJ.
 
snip...
 
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
 
snip...
 
full text ;
 
 
 
 
Monday, February 09, 2009
 
Exotic Meats USA Announces Urgent Statewide Recall of Elk Tenderloin Because It May Contain Meat Derived From An Elk Confirmed To Have CWD
 
snip...
 
Cross-sequence transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease creates a new prion strain
 
Date: August 25, 2007 at 12:42 pm PST
 
our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions.
 
 
 
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
 
Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II
 
 
 
 
CWD TO HUMAN RISK FACTORS PRION2013
 
PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS
 
HD.13: CWD infection in the spleen of humanized transgenic mice
 
Liuting Qing and Qingzhong Kong
 
Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America, and there is evidence suggesting the existence of multiple CWD strains. The susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to the various CWD prion strains remains largely unclear. Current literature suggests that the classical CWD strain is unlikely to infect human brain, but the potential for peripheral infection by CWD in humans is unknown. We detected protease-resistant PrpSc in the spleens of a few humanized transgenic mice that were intracerebrally inoculated with natural CWD isolates, but PrpSc was not detected in the brains of any of the CWD-inoculated mice. Our ongoing bioassays in humanized Tg mice indicate that intracerebral challenge with such PrpSc-positive humanized mouse spleen already led to prion disease in most animals. ***These results indicate that the CWD prion may have the potential to infect human peripheral lymphoid tissues.
 
=====
 
Oral.15: Molecular barriers to zoonotic prion transmission: Comparison of the ability of sheep, cattle and deer prion disease isolates to convert normal human prion protein to its pathological isoform in a cell-free system
 
Marcelo A.Barria,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Masanori Morita,3 Tetsuyuki Kitamoto,4 Rona Barron,5 Jean Manson,5 Richard Kniqht,1 James W. lronside1 and Mark W. Head1
 
1National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences; School of Clinical Sciences; The University of Edinburgh; Edinburgh, UK; 2National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD; Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa Laboratory; Fallowfield. ON Canada; 3Infectious Pathogen Research Section; Central Research Laboratory; Japan Blood Products Organization; Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Neurological Science; Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine; Sendai. Japan; 5Neurobiology Division; The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS; University of Edinburgh; Easter Bush; Midlothian; Edinburgh, UK
 
Background. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a known zoonotic prion disease, resulting in variant Creurzfeldt- Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. In contrast, classical scrapie in sheep is thought to offer little or no danger to human health. However, a widening range of prion diseases have been recognized in cattle, sheep and deer. The risks posed by individual animal prion diseases to human health cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to assess empirically. The fundamemal event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) to its pathological isoform (PrPSc). Here we report the use of a rapid molecular conversion assay to test whether brain specimens from different animal prion diseases are capable of seeding the conversion of human PrPC ro PrPSc.
 
Material and Methods. Classical BSE (C-type BSE), H-type BSE, L-type BSE, classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, chronic wasting disease and vCJD brain homogenates were tested for their ability to seed conversion of human PrPC to PrPSc in protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reactions. Newly formed human PrPSc was detected by protease digestion and western blotting using the antibody 3F4.
 
Results. C-type BSE and vCJD were found to efficiently convert PrPC to PrPSc. Scrapie failed to convert human PrPC to PrPSc. Of the other animal prion diseases tested only chronic wasting disease appeared to have the capability ro convert human PrPC to PrPSc. The results were consistent whether the human PrPC came from human brain, humanised transgenic mouse brain or from cultured human cells and the effect was more pronounced for PrPC with methionine at codon 129 compared with that with valine.
 
Conclusion. Our results show that none of the tested animal prion disease isolates are as efficient as C-type BSE and vCJD in converting human prion protein in this in vitro assay. ***However, they also show that there is no absolute barrier ro conversion of human prion protein in the case of chronic wasting disease.
 
=====
 
Invited.16: Studies of chronic wasting disease transmission in cervid and non-cervid species
 
Edward A, Hoover,1 Candace K. Mathiason,1 Davin M. Henderson,1 Nicholas J. Haley,1 Davis M. Seelig,1 Nathaniel D. Denkers,1 Amy V. Nalls,1 Mark D. Zabe,1 Glenn C. Telling,1 Fernando Goni2 and Thomas Wisniewski,2
 
1Prion Research Center; Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2New York University School of Medicine; New York, NY USA
 
How and why some misfolded proteins become horizontally transmitted agents and occasionally cross species barriers are issues fundamental to understanding prion disease. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is perhaps a prototype of horizontal prion transmission, encompassing efficient mucosal uptake, lymphoid amplification, neuroinvasion, peripheralization, and dissemination via mucosal excretion. Efficient mucosal transmission of CWD in deer has been demonstrated by oral, nasal, aerosol, and indirect contact exposure. In addition, other studies (Mathiason CK, et al.) reported at the symposium support a significant role for pre- and/or postnatal transmission of CWD from doe to offspring. Accumulating, yet still incomplete, evidence also suggests that the period of relatively covert CWD infection may be longer than originally thought. Given the above, minimally invasive sensitive assays based on body fluids from live animals would aid substantially in understanding the biology of CWD. We have been applying seeded realtirne quaking-induced amplification of recombinant PrP substrates (i.e., RT-QuIC methodology) to: (1) investigate antemortem CWD detection, and (2) model PrP-based species barriers and trans-species adaptation-topics we previously explored using sPMCA and in vivo bioassays. At this symposium, we report sensitive and specific detection CWD prions in saliva, urine, blood (Mathiason lab), and rectal and pharyngeal lymph node samples (Haley NJ, et al.) from pre-symptomatic and symptomatic experimentally and naturally exposed deer. Other ongoing studies are employing RT-QuIC methodology to model amplification barriers among CWD, FSE, BSE, and CJD prions using cervine, feline, bovine, human, and promiscuous rPrP substrates and the above species prion seeds, cellular co-factors, and transgenic mice. Finally, in collaboration with the Wisniewski laboratory, we are conducting of experimental CWD vaccination studies in deer employing oral administration of an attenuated Salmonella vector expressing cervid PrP epitopes.
 
=====
 
AD.06: Detecting prions in the brain and blood of TSE-infected deer and hamsters
 
Alan Elder,1 Davin Henderson,1 Anca Selariu,1 Amy Nalls,1 Byron Caughey,2 Richard Bessen,1 Jason Bartz3 and Candace Mathiason1
 
1Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratories; Hamilton, MT USA; 3Creighton University; Omaha, NE USA
 
While large quantities of protease resistant prion protein (PrPres) can be demonstrated by western blot or IHC in lymphoid biopsies or post-mortem brain tissues harvested from prion-infected animals, these conventional assays are less reliable as means to detect the small quantities of prions thought to be present in bodily fluids or associated with early and asymptomatic phases of TSE disease. The Real Time-Quaking Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) assay is capable of detecting prions at concentrations below the level of sensitivity of conventional assays and provides a real-time fluorescent readout negating the use of proteases. We have made modifications to the RT-QuIC assay to utilize it for the detection of PrPres in brain and blood harvested from various species infected with prions. In this study, we analyzed CWD-infected deer and CWD/TME-infected hamster whole blood to determine the effect of:
 
(1) various anticoagulants,
 
(2) freezing and
 
(3) NaPTA precipitation.
 
Brain tissue and blood collected from naive deer and hamsters served as negative controls.
 
We were able to demonstrate amplifiable prions in
 
(1) brain and blood samples harvested from CWD/TME-infected animals,
 
(2) heparinized blood,
 
(3) frozen vs. fresh blood and
 
(4) NaPTA treated samples.
 
The RT-QuIC assay is able to detect PrPres in various species of animals and shows promise as an antemortem diagnostic tool for blood-borne TSEs.
 
=====
 
 
 
 
 Sunday, July 21, 2013
 
*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?
 
 
 
Thursday, October 10, 2013
 
CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb
 
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
 
 
 
Sunday, August 11, 2013
 
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013
 
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010
 
 
 
Sunday, October 13, 2013
 
CJD TSE Prion Disease Cases in Texas by Year, 2003-2012
 
 
 
 
TSS
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