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Senator Casey Urges USDA To Take Smart Steps to Implement New Measure That Could Help Combat Chronic Wasting Disease Among Deer

Posted Dec 05 2012 12:52pm
Sent: Wednesday, December 05, 2012 11:50 AM
Subject: Casey Urges USDA To Take Smart Steps to Implement New Measure That Could Help Combat Chronic Wasting Disease Among Deer

Casey Urges USDA To Take Smart Steps to Implement New Measure That Could Help Combat Chronic Wasting Disease Among Deer
Disease is Akin to ‘Mad Cow’ In Deer
Monday, December 3, 2012
PA Deer and Elk Farms Pump $40M Into PA Economy Annually
Washington DC- Today, U.S. Senator Bob Casey (D-PA) urged the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to take smart steps to implement a new rule that could help states battle Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) among deer. The occurrence of the disease, which is akin to Mad Cow disease among deer, has concerned many across the state. Annually, Pennsylvania deer and elk farms pump $40 million into the state’s economy.
“Hunting is an important part of our state’s heritage and economy. It’s critical that USDA do all it can to protect Pennsylvania’s deer from Chronic Wasting Disease,” Senator Casey said. “Responsibly implementing this new rule will help states and the federal government better coordinate their activities to help prevent future CWD outbreaks in Pennsylvania and across the country.”
In October, two Pennsylvania deer were diagnosed with CWD. The disease, which is like Mad Cow because it is a form of “Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy,” has created confusion and concern during this hunting season. Currently, USDA is considering a rule that would increase coordination between states and the federal government on outbreaks of CWD. Specifically the rule establishes a voluntary national program in which deer farmers comply with certain protective measures to certify their herds as CWD-free.
The full text of Casey’s letter to Secretary Vilsack is below:
December 3, 2012
The Honorable Tom Vilsack
Secretary
U.S. Department of Agriculture
1400 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20250
Dear Secretary Vilsack:
As Pennsylvania hunters are heading into the woods during this deer hunting season, I am writing with my concerns about Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). This past October, deer at a commercial farm in Pennsylvania tested positive for CWD, the first known cases in the Commonwealth. As you know, CWD is a fatal, degenerative neurological disease of deer and elk, for which there is no known treatment or vaccine.
Preventing an outbreak in captive and wild herds is very important to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. I urge USDA to continue CWD surveillance in farmed and captive deer and elk. I ask that USDA reasonably implement the current interim final rule for the CWD Herd Certification Program as well as the interstate movement requirements, effective on December 10th. I further request that USDA carefully consider Pennsylvania’s position in issuing a final rule. Protecting the captive herd will ensure the health and security of both our captive and wild populations of deer.
I urge USDA to continue its vigilant monitoring of deer that might have encountered diseased deer, particularly deer whose whereabouts are unknown. USDA must also continue to follow its CWD management plan and work with Pennsylvania to contain the disease. I commend USDA for responding to the initial report this October and assisting Pennsylvania in depopulating the affected herd. I hope this early response is indicative of future collaboration.
In addition to their importance to the Commonwealth’s ecosystem, deer and elk are important to Pennsylvania’s economy. For example, Pennsylvania ranks second among States for annual deer and elk farm sales, totaling $40 million per year. Deer and elk hunting also has a substantial effect on the State’s economy. CWD threatens the deer and elk species as well as the sustainability of these industries. It is imperative that Federal, State and local officials continue to work together to address this alarming disease.
Thank you for your attention to this matter. I look forward to continue working with you.
Sincerely,
Robert P. Casey, Jr.
United States Senator
cc: The Honorable Ken Salazar, Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior
Press Contact
April Mellody 202-228-6367
Greetings Senator Casey et al in Pennsylvania,
Many, Many thanks for stepping up and asking for more regulatory authority and testing of CWD from these captive shooting pen game farms.
I am very concerned about the USDA et al, and any attempt by them to regulate captive shooting pen game farms for the cervidae. the USDA has failed us terribly in regards to the BSE mad cow debacle with cattle, they have failed us terribly with scrapie surveillance, and I believe they will do the same thing with Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in deer and elk.
I am going to send you some information on the escapes of captive cervids from PA that are in Louisiana, and nobody is talking. also, where is Purple 4 ?? here is the information we spoke of over the phone, please use this information as you wish. ...
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Sent: Tuesday, November 20, 2012 2:25 PM
To: BSE-L BSE-L
Cc: brobbins@ldaf.la.gov Subject:
PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA
UPDATE
i have been trying to find out about the Louisiana investigation into the PA deer, where they are at, and how many. from the letter below from the Dept. of ag in Pa, there is an investigation into this ongoing in PA, but they will not speak about the Louisiana deer, the Louisiana dept of ag, are the ones that can only speak about that part of this issue. so, i called them, finally got ahold of a Mr. walter, i had been trying all day to speak with Dr. Brent Robins, but when i called back at the time i was suppose to call back and speak with Dr. Robins, he had apparently left the office, after I was told to call him back at at a specific time. so i had to talk with a Mr. Walter, or a Mr. Walters or a Walter somebody, that was chief of something there at Animal Health & Food Safety in Baton Rouge, LA - (225) 925-3962 Office Telephone No: (225) 925-3962. bottom line, the investigation is ‘ongoing’, and it’s an ‘open’ investigation, and they refuse to talk anymore about it. told me they would release a report when and if the investigation is over with. so, apparently, we still have from 1 to 6 deer loose in Louisiana from PA CWD positive index herd, and nobody from Louisiana is talking about it. all PA dept of ag says is Louisiana has them, but they can’t talk about them, and all Louisiana dept. of ag will say, is it’s an open ongoing investigation. he would not even confirm, or not, if they have located said deer or how many were in the investigation. from what I got from the Son (see below), they have no clue where they are. so, we will see if any report is made in the future, or not. ...
Got a private email.
snip...as follows ;
I would pass along a story. Nothing official has come out, but I have inside sources with multiple federal and state agencies in LA. But a deer or multiple deer, not sure which, from a CWD positive pen in PA was moved to a pen somewhere around Lake Charles, LA. The deer may have been moved to at least one other pen in LA, and possible one in MS as well, but no one really knows. There are supposedly 150 deer at the pen in Lake Charles that were quarentined and killed and they are now trying to figure out how and where to dispose of the carcasses. Everything is very sketchy and grey right now, but it is now possible that CWD could have spread to 1 or 2 more states. We shall see in the next few weeks if any kind of official press release comes out...end
so, I gave the Pa dept of ag a call. this is the kind reply I got. ...tss
From: xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx
Sent: Wednesday, November 14, 2012 4:03 PM
To: 'Flounder9@verizon.net'
Subject: Deer information
Terry - The animal moved on a certificate of veterinary inspection prior to the discovery of the positive CWD herd in Pennsylvania. Louisiana animal health authorities are investigating the movement of this deer that was epidemiologically linked to the index Pennsylvania herd, into their state. We are awaiting their response.
Since the announcement of CWD positives in Pennsylvania there are no states permitting the movement of imported Pennsylvania deer and the Department of Agriculture is not permitting the movement of any deer into the commonwealth. -
xxxxxx
snip...
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture | Press Office 2301 North Cameron Street | Hbg PA 17110 Phone: 717.787.5085 | Fax: 717.787.1039 www.agriculture.state.pa.us
====================
I thank the Dept of Penn Ag for that kind reply and information.
I pray that CWD has not been transported to Louisiana from Pennsylvania, via the great escape of CWD 2012 into Pennsylvania from captive game farming. ...tss
P.S. UPDATE, I HAVE TRIED TO GET CONFIRMATION AND UPDATE FROM THE STATE OF LOUISIANA, AND THE ARE MUM ON THE SUBJECT. WILL NOT REPLY. then I get an email from the Son of the Father that owns said game farm in LA, that was supposedly to receive the deer from PA CWD debacle. a sad story, the day before deer farm was quarantined, the Father fell out of a tree and died in a hunting accident. my condolences goes out to the family.
snip...
it seems that several deer from Pennsylvania CWD exposed herd, or cohorts, were brought to Louisiana via Donald Hodge Sr. 6 deer were transported from PA to LA by Mr. Elmer Fisher, and the truck driver was Dustin Miller. here is where the story gets a bit tricky. seems there are NO records of the deer actually ever arriving at Donald Hodge Sr.’s Farm. seems that they were suppose to go to Lafayette Louisiana, but, seems he had a silent partner, a Jarrod somebody? the son was not sure. the son said that from his fathers notes (that’s all they had to go by), these 6 deer from PA never reached his farm, even though his Dad signed for them. the 6 deer were never logged into inventory, there were no tags, no micro chips from them found. the Dept. of Ag took soil samples. to date, the son said everything at his Dad’s farm is negative. now here is where the story gets even more fishy. the location changed from Lafayette Louisiana , to a location of an unregistered hunting club, or shooting pen, as he called it, and there was some attempted deal between the silent partner, and the delivery driver, to bring the 6 deer to this shooting pen in the area of Slidell Louisiana instead. the driver was offered $1,000. to take the deer there. but he refused, so evidently, the silent partner set up a meeting place, where another trailer was brought in, and the deer were then boxed up, and sent to this shooting pen up around Slidell Louisiana, somewhere along the Mississippi border. that is where the trail runs cold for these 6 deer from PA. the Donald Hodge Farm in LA, has about 160 cervids. NONE have been slaughtered or tested to date, and are being fed, and they are under quarantine. seems in Louisiana, there are no requirements for IN STATE movement of cervids from what Jr. told me. Donald Jr. told me the Dept. of Ag says there are two options if these 6 deer are not located.
1. kill the whole herd
2. Quarantine for 5 years.
Donald Jr. told me he could not afford to quarantine for 5 years.
seems right now, everything is in a holding pattern by the Dept of Ag, until they can locate the 6 deer from PA.
the Son told me that he was told there is NO indemnity program if they slaughter the deer.
It’s really a sad situation. Donald Hodge Sr., died Oct. 16 in a hunting accident, and Oct. 17 his farm was quarantined, and the family is beside themselves to say the least, as you can understand.
snip...end...tss
I wrote Commissioner Strain the other day, with no reply to date ;
Commissioner Strain Sir,
I hope you can find time Sir, to read through all this, and reply to me with some facts on the LA shooting pen and those 6 deer? I am on a fact finding mission and I hope that you can help me out.
...snip...end
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD
Wednesday, November 14, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA
Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought
Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free
Wednesday, November 07, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA Second Adams County Deer Tests Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease
Thursday, November 29, 2012
Chronic wasting disease on the Canadian prairies
now, let’s take for instance a state like Virginia, where ;
Deer farming (fallow deer only) is allowed by VDGIF permit. A moratorium on new permits has been in effect since the mid-1990’s. Currently 1 active fallow deer farm exists. No other cervids may be farmed in Virginia. Cervids may only be held in captivity with a valid VDGIF permit (e.g., exhibitors, T&E, etc.). Required to have proper health certificates form the originating state and may be required to have special testing for TB and Brucellosis by VDACS.
now, the first few original cwd positive in Virginia were less than a few miles from the West Virginia line, of which both cases were only a few miles from the outbreak of CWD in WV in Hampshire Co. so, it’s very possible that CWD strolled on over, or trucked on over, to Virginia, from W. Virginia, where CWD, captive penned hunting, and some escapees, exist ;
The first case of CWD was discovered in a female deer killed by a hunter in November 2009 on private land in Frederick County. The second confirmed case was found during the 2010 hunting season, from a male deer harvested less than two miles away form the first positive. Both cases are within a few miles of where CWD has been detected in Hampshire County, West Virginia every year since 2005.
now, in Texas, WE know for that cwd has been waltzing across the Texas since 2001-2002 from NM WSMR. so it is not out of the question, that an escapee from WV, or, a wild deer from WV or Pennsylvania, that was exposed to CWD via fence line exposure, from one of many shooting pens in WV, where their own agency states ;
*** Political pressures precluded our agency from fully implementing a science-based, CWD containment zone designed to effectively regulate deer carcass transport and the baiting and feeding of wildlife within designated areas.
these cases of cwd in Hampshire County WV should have been extensively investigated in my opinion. for one area to be so heavily exposed with CWD cases, there must be a common denominator somewhere. shooting pens, hunter or taxidermy negligence with carcass, trucked in, as the crow flies, something must be a common denominator there. kinda like the scrapie goat cases in Michigan and California...why so many in only these two areas ?
game farms are a proven threat to cwd exposure. game farms are not the only threat to the wild. although they are the biggest threat in my opinion. ...
A Case History of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) In West Virginia Prepared by the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Wildlife Resources Section September 7, 2008
• On September 2, 2005, the first confirmed positive CWD deer in West Virginia was reported. The animal was a 2.5-year-old male collected as a road kill near Slanesville, West Virginia during routine surveillance for the disease.
• On September 29, 2005, three more deer were confirmed positive for CWD. These animals were collected by CWD deer collection teams operating in the Slanesville area. The positive animals were all female and included one 1.5-year-old and two 2.5-year-old animals.
• On November 18, 2005, a fifth deer was confirmed positive for CWD, a 2.5 year-old female deer collected by the DNR in the Slanesville area. This animal was initially reported as a sick 7.5-year-old female to our agency. The animal did not exhibit the classical CWD clinical sign of being emaciated, but it was reported as displaying clinical signs associated with the central nervous system. Subsequent confirmation of this fifth positive sample by the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa revealed that a sample numbering cross reference error had occurred at the University Of Minnesota laboratory and the fifth positive deer was actually the 2.5 year-old female deer collected by DNR and not the 7.5 year-old female.
• Five (5) more deer tested positive for CWD from DNR collections that took place in Hampshire County during March and April of 2006.
• One (1) hunter-harvested deer was collected during the bucks-only deer season in Hampshire County during November of 2006.
• Three (3) more deer tested positive for CWD from DNR collections that took place in Hampshire County during March and April 2007.
• Six (6) hunter-harvested deer were collected during the bucks-only deer season in Hampshire County during November 2007.
• Eleven (11) more deer tested positive for CWD from DNR collections that took place in Hampshire County during March and April 2008.
• From September 2005 through April 2008, a total of 4,380 deer have been tested for CWD. These samples consisted of 1,016 hunter-harvested deer taken during the 2005 fall hunting season, 195 deer collected by the DNR in the fall of 2005, 125 deer collected by the DNR in 2006, 1,357 hunter-harvested deer taken during the 2006 fall hunting season, 143 deer collected by the DNR in 2007, 1,285 hunter-harvested deer taken during the 2007 fall hunting season, and 259 deer collected by the DNR in 2008. CWD was not detected in any of the 1,016 hunter-harvested deer collected in 2005. Four (4) of the 195 deer collected by the DNR in the fall of 2005 were confirmed to have the CWD agent, 5 of the 125 deer collected by the DNR in 2006 tested positive for CWD, 1 of the 1,357 hunter-harvested deer collected in 2006 tested positive for CWD, 3 of the 143 deer collected by the DNR in 2007 were confirmed to have the CWD agent, 6 of the 1,285 hunter-harvested deer collected in 2007 tested positive for CWD, and 11 of the 259 deer collected by the DNR in 2008 had the CWD agent.
• Prior to the hunter-harvested samples collected in 2007, analysis of the CWD surveillance data indicated the disease appeared to be found in a relatively small geographical area located near Slanesville, West Virginia. The CWD positive deer had all been collected within a 5½-mile radius of the first positive deer and within the Hampshire County CWD Containment Area (i.e., that portion of Hampshire County located North of U.S. Route 50). In 2007, it was determined that one CWD positive deer was harvested outside the CWD Containment Area but still within Hampshire County near Yellow Springs, West Virginia (i.e., 11.4 miles southeast of the closest known CWD location).
snip...
SUMMARY OF PROGRAM WEAKN ESSES
• Our agency lacks human dimensions expertise, and we have not secured sound, sciencebased information relating to the views, opinions and concerns of hunters, landowners and others interested in the ongoing CWD situation and our agency’s management actions.
*** Political pressures precluded our agency from fully implementing a science-based, CWD containment zone designed to effectively regulate deer carcass transport and the baiting and feeding of wildlife within designated areas.
• Expanded opportunities to harvest additional antlerless deer, remove females from the population and reduce deer densities have only achieved moderate success due at least in part to the land ownership patterns in this portion of Hampshire County (i.e., numerous landowners holding small acreages).
• A lack of funding has precluded our agency from conducting DNA-based research designed to determine the movement patterns of deer across the landscape. If we could determine the genetic flow of this material, we might be able to implement more effective management options to reduce the spread of CWD.
• Enhanced CWD surveillance efforts have placed an extreme burden on existing programs in terms of manpower allocations and budget constraints, especially within the Game Management Unit.
*** Political pressures precluded our agency from fully implementing a science-based, CWD containment zone designed to effectively regulate deer carcass transport and the baiting and feeding of wildlife within designated areas.
sadly, this is typical with the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion, aka mad cow type disease. this is what got us where we are today. ...TSS
what about escapees from PA ??
Earl Ray Tomblin, Governor Frank Jezioro, Director
News Release: November 4, 2011
Facebook: WV Commerce - State Parks
Hoy Murphy, Public Information Officer (304) 957-9365 hoy.r.murphy@wv.gov Contact: Curtis Taylor, Wildlife Resources Section Chief 304-558-2771 DNR.Wildlife@wv.gov
Elk escape from captive cervid facility in Pennsylvania near West Virginia border
SOUTH CHARLESTON, W.Va. – The West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) has confirmed with officials from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) that at least two elk, including one adult bull and one cow, have escaped from a captive cervid facility (deer and elk farms) in Greene County, Pa. Greene County shares a common border with Marshall, Wetzel and Monongalia counties in West Virginia. The elk escaped from a captive cervid facility located approximately three miles from the West Virginia-Pennsylvania border.
The PDA regulates captive cervid facilities in Pennsylvania. A representative of the agency was unaware if the recent escaped elk were tagged. The WVDNR regulates captive cervid facilities in West Virginia. In West Virginia, all captive cervids in breeding facilities must be ear-tagged, and there are currently no reported elk escapes from any facility in West Virginia.
A bull elk has been seen recently in Wetzel County, W.Va., according to WVDNR officials. There have been no reports of cow elk sightings in either Wetzel County, W.Va., or Greene County, Pa. No free-ranging wild elk live within 150 miles of Wetzel County. The elk sighted in Wetzel County is likely the escaped animal from the captive facility in Pennsylvania.
seems, it’s all about money to these game farmers, nothing else matters, and this in my opinion will the demise of the wild cervid population as we know it. the only stand to take as a hunter in my opinion, is to just say NO to the USDA taking over the captive shooting pen industry, and then just say NO to captive shooting pens altogether. there is an extreme push now by these game farmers in all states, to have the USDA take over control of these shooting pens, for one reason only, LAX OVERSIGHT. they know what they will be able to do under the arms of the USDA, compared to the DNR or states controlling them. ...tss
Contribution of West Virginia’s Cervid Farming Industry to the State Economy, 2010-2011 Prepared by Daniel Eades, Trends in West Virginia’s Agriculture and Cervid Industries West Virginia farms are small farms.
While the number of farms in West Virginia has increased from 21,531 in 1997 to 23,618 in 2007, the size and value of farm products sold declined over the 10 year period (Table 1. Historical Highlights…, 2009).
snip...
The database of captive cervid operators was prepared by the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. In late September surveys (Appendix A) were mailed to 37 facility operators. Twenty-two (22) responses were obtained, for a survey response rate of 59.5%.
Now, let’s take at a few states where CWD was first documented in captive shooting pens, game farms, breeders, high, low, fence operations, zoos, wildlife research facilities, for cervidae. lets look back a bit at the history of this, and ESCAPEES there from. ...
There are now at least 5 known captive research facilities and at least 3 zoos and 5 game farms involved in CWD, all traceable if you want to shipments of animals out of Ft. Collins. These are:
1. Sybille Wildlife Research and Education Center, Visitor Center and Wildlife Viewing Sites - on Hwy. 34, about 28 miles SW from I25 exit south of Wheatland State of Wyoming - Game and Fish Department - Sybille Visitor Center 2362 Highway 34 Wheatland State WY 82201 Phone 307-322-2784 from 4
2. Kremmling. Colorado State University - Cooperative Extension - Grand County PO. Box 475 Kremmling State CO 80459 Phone 303-724-3436 from 1
3. Meeker. Colorado State University - Cooperative Extension - Rio Blanco County 779 Sulphur Creek Road, Box 270 City Meeker CO 81641 Phone 303-878-4093 from 1
4. Main Ft. Collins facility. State of Colorado - Division of Wildlife - Wildlife Research Center State of Colorado - Division of Wildlife - Wildlife Research Center 317 West Prospect City Fort Collins CO 80526 Phone 970-484-2836
5. Wild Animal Disease Center, CSU, Ft. Collins exchanging cervids with 4
6. Denver zoo receiving mule deer from 4
7. Toronto zoo receiving mule deer from 4
8. Wyoming zoo receiving mule deer from 1
9. South Dakota game farm receiving calf elk from 1 or 4 [?]
10. Regina, Saskatchewan game farm receiving South Dakota elk, 27 April, 1996 confirmation. from 9
11. 12 cases of CWD reported now from S. Dakota, at least 2 different herds, seemingly 3-4 game farms, from 1 and 4.
CWD -- the middle years
19 Mar 98 Webmaster opinion Early publications on chronic wasting disease from the 1982-1992 era are are not easily available at university libraries so I have typed up their best parts and made a few comments:
Spongiform encephalopathy of Rocky Mountain Elk J. Wildlife Diseases 18(4) 465-471 1982 Williams ES and Young S
Spongiform encephalopathies in Cervidae Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz 11(2), 551-567 1992 Williams ES and Young S Highlights of the these articles:
A mule deer x white-tailed deer hybrid [Odocoileus hemionus hemionus x Odocoileus virginianus] was susceptible to CWD, with possibly bad implications for heterozygote transmission and low species barriers.
The affected black-tailed deer [Odocoileus hemionus columbianus] was captured as an adult in Oregon in the mid-1970's and became infected after two years somewhere in 1976-79. The disposition of any other black-tailed deer at the facility is unknown.
It needs to be determined whether any were returned to the wild in Oregon.
The elk at Ft. Collins had sporadic fence-line contact with affected deer, sometimes were maintained in pens that previously contained CWD-affected deer, and had occasional contact with pronghorn, bighorn, moufflon, bighorn x moufflon, moose, black-buck antelope [Antilope cervicapra], mountain goat [Oreamnus americana] and domestic sheep and goats in separate pens. The elk generally occupied pens up to one hectare. CWD was first seen at the Colorado facility in 1967. The first two elk that succumbed were in 1979 in the very same pens that held the CWD mule deer.
snip...
However pregnant mule deer were captured, held in the contaminated Ft. Collins facility until they fawned, and then were released back into the wild. Wyoming had reported two wild elk with CWD but no mule deer by 1992; the Ft. Collins area had both. "In the past, a few surplus deer and elk were returned to the wild, or given or traded to other facilities; these practices have been stopped" by 1992.
In 1997, Spraker et al observed that "it is possible that feeding of deer and elk by local residents in Estes Park and other developments may be a contributing factors. If this disease is transmitted horizontally, either by direct contact or environmental contamination then artificial feeding stations for wild cervids could be exacerbating the problem on a local level." It is not specified what the local residents are feeding. They believe CWD "may be a spillover of scrapie from domestic sheep" even though scrapie is low in NE Colorado and CWD has not been seen elsewhere in free-ranging cervids where scrapie is more common.
CWD is more prevalent in Estes Park than anywhere else. Area wildlife manager Rick Spowart said the disease seems to discriminate and is more prevalent in certain neighborhoods in Estes Park. Apparently, the Lexington Lane area has the highest prevalence of disease in Estes Park, Spowart said. According to Division veterinarian Mike Miller, of the 30 cases that have been reported in the 16 years of study, approximately 25 have emanated from the Estes Park vicinity. The reason for this is unknown. Spowart speculated that the spreading of the disease might be attributed to a disease-positive deer salivating on food left out by humans, and other deer ingesting the saliva of the diseased deer.
Hunting and fishing tags bring in $500 million a year to Colorado. Mike Miller, the DOW state veterinarian, commented that statewide testingcontinues to indicate that the disease is concentrated in the Fort Collins and Fort Morgan areas.
However both the Ft. Collins Dow and Wyoming Fish & Game facilities are apparently still operative. "Control of CWD is currently based on maintaining relatively low cervid populations and recognizing that CWD is an ongoing problem [PC, Thorne and Miller]."
"Eradication has been attempted [in an unspecified year in the 1982-86 period] at the Wyoming facility by killing all elk and deer in the main portion of the facility where CWD had been recognized , but not in outlying areas where CWD had not occurred. Disinfection of the facility and turning the soil where affected animals had been housed was not attempted. Deer and elk were not reintroduced for approximately a year.
The new animals had no contact with affected deer or elk; however, contact had previously occurred between affected deer and elk, and other ruminants (pronghorn, bighorns, and moose) which still remained on the premises. Subsequently, CWD occurred in newly introduced deer and elk, the first case occurring five years after the eradication attempt... The source of animals for restocking was wild deer and elk from a variety of [unspecified] locations where CWD had not been recognized. [Thorne]"
Not to be outdone by this half-assed effort, Miller killed all resident deer and elk at Fort Collins [in an unspecified year], but no other on-site ruminants, and buried them on site. The soil was turned and structures and pastures repeatedly sprayed with calcium hypochlorite [chlorine bleach] and the area kept free of cervids for a year.
Then 12 elk calves collected from the wild were hand-raised in a new rearing area, with evaporated milk of unspecified origin as the only protein feed. . It is not specified whether this new rearing area was within the old older pen, whether weaned calves were raised within the old pen, or what ruminants they had contact with. Two new cases of CWD were found at 3 and 4.5 years. The replacement calves were known by 1992 to have been collected from an area subsequently recognized to have had several cases of free-ranging CWD.
Two elk [Cervus elaphus nelsonii] were captured as adults in Wyoming in early 1978, the same year the Wyoming facility first reported CWD in mule deer. These later succumbed to CWD after 2 years of captivity at the Sybille Wildlife Research and Education Center near Wheatland, Wyoming. Feed in captivity can be ruled out: there was no animal protein of any type provided. These are the only 2 of 60 captive elk reported affected; the animals had only fence-line contact with other captive wild species such as mule deer unlike the elk at the Colorado facility. Sybille also had far less mule deer CWD than Ft. Collins.
Four newborn elk calves were hand-raised on cow's milk, vitamins, alfalfa, and grain at two separate Ft. Collins captive research facilities. One calf came from the Denver zoo in 1976, two came from the Sybille facility in 1976 born to resident dams and partly raised by them, and one was collected from the wild in 1975, as a "presumed orphan". Most affected animals were not related though some cases were seen in offspring of dams which subsequently developed the disease. CWD controls of 1982, all 39 negative: 15 captive elk aged 1-2 years, 2 captive adult bull elk, 22 wild cow elk ages 2-9.
"Little information is available on management of captive cervids at Ft. Collins prior to about 1974." Any protein feeding or confinement with cattle or scrapie sheep are unknown. The nutritional and metabolic research Ft. Collins facility was opened in the 1950's and first documented CWD clinically in 1967. Animal deaths were dismissed as simply resulting from stresses of confinement or nutritional deficiencies and there was no serious autopsies until 1978. The scrapie-like lesions were immediately noted and eventually published in the 1980 Williams JWD article.
From 1970 to 1981, 60 deer resident for two years or longer (90%) developed CWD at Ft. Collins. Other facilities had similar morbidities and mortalities though fewer absolute numbers and less aggregation of confined animals. The youngest was 18 months, the oldest 9 years, with 3-4 years more typical. There was no seasonal pattern or association with breeding season.
snip...
CWD in High Country News
Chris Carrel 16 Mar 98 pg 5 in High Country News News to me was South Dakota. They have now got a dozen cases in captive elk. The source herd included animals from the Colorado-Wyoming infection zone as well as some from Canada, according to Sam Holland, South Dakota's state vet. South Dakota is starting up a surveillance program for wild deer and elk, as are 7 other states under a 'modest' APHIS program. Contact for Dr. Sam D. Holland: Animal Industry Board 411 S. Fort St. Pierre, SD 57501-4503 (605) 773-3321.
State-by-State update on Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) 25 Jan 99 webmaster: based on published sources listed above
Colorado:
-- All known cases of CWD ultimately trace back to the Foothills Research Facility in Ft. Collins, Colorado [10] -- eastern Larimer Coounty and S. Platte River corridor have most free-ranging CWD deer [1] -- 2,500 deer and elk from NE Colorado, incidence of CWD steady at 5-7% in deer, 1% in elk by IHC 1995-97.[1] -- 350 deer and elk from other areas in Colorado tested negative by IHC 1995-97 [1] -- 85 CWD-positive cervids have been identified in the endemic area of Colorado and Wyoming 1981-1997 -- 0.4% in 487 elk tested from 1992-1996; 2.9% in 687 mule eer examined from 1983-1996. -- More than 400 samples from cervids outside the endemic area of Colorado and Wyoming have been negative.
Wyoming: [based in part on mid 1998 brochure by Chris Madson sent 1 Feb 99, -- infected Fish and Game research facility in Laramie; 3 failed decontamination efforts -- CWD found in wild elk and deer -- Swapped animals with Ft. Collins facility for many years. -- "between 1974 and 1979, 66 mule deer and 1 black-tail were held in captive in Colorado and Wyoming research corrals, mainly as subjects in long-term studies of deer food habits and nutrition. Of these 67 long-term residents, 57 contracted the strange disease. None survived." -- between 1981 and 1985, 60 cases in the wild were found: 44 in mule deer, 6 in white-tailed, and 10 in elk. The first affected wild Wyoming elk was found in 1986. First clinically affected captive animal found in 1978. -- the 1997 Wyoming survey obtained usable samples from137 deer in hunting units 16, 59, 60, 62,63, and 64. 8 positives were found, of which 7 were from unit 64. -- 93 samples in 1997 from units 15, 55,57, and 73 tested negative. 15 elk samples from areas 5, 7, 12, 13, 21, 82, and 110 were also negative. -- of the 100 cases reported in the wild, 11 have been found in Wyoming.
Nebraska: -- Feb 1998 CWD confirmed by NVSL in 4.5 year old male elk in north central Nebraska game farm, affected herd quarantined -- CWD elk trace-backs to endemic region of Colorado, purchased as 2 year old, symptoms 26 months later. -- The affected elk had been on 2 farms in western Colorado before arriving. -- Sick elk pastured with 12 other velvet bulls 3-5 years of age in 80 acre pasture. -- 6 high risk bulls: blood samples sent for capillary electrophoresis. -- 2 high risk bulls tested negative by IHC; 6 bulls with fenceline contact also negative. -- frequent fenceline contact observed with white-tailed and mule deer. -- trace-forward to buyers in 2 Nebraska herds and 4 other states (IA, IL, TX, WI) which were notified. -- elk from the affected herd were sold through two auctions in Colorado and Missouri. -- Any farmed elk or deer over 16 months dying from any cause must have brain stem tested (30 negatives so far) -- free ranging deer (no elk) surveyed in 1997 on borders, 350 negatives.
South Dakota: [1] -- First CWD diagnosis in game farm elk on 8 Dec 97; now 5 infected herds,11 exposed herds -- all 5 infected herds placed on 5 year quarantine; animals in 1 herd given to research project. -- 38/86 animals from infected herds tested positive for CWD.
-- 2 wild white-tailed deer or ingress offspring within premises of an infected facility tested posivitve.[4] --30 deer on elk farm premises killed, 1 tested positive for CWD. -- one suspected case reported in antelope on infected premises [4] -- index herd tested at USDA: 10 of 17 positive by IHC, only 3 by histopathology, only 2 animals clinical
Oklahoma: -- In June,1998 CW) was diagnosed in a captive elk in Oklahoma. -- The Oklahoma herd received more than 80 elk from commercial sources in Montana and Idaho. -- Animals from the same origins as the Oklahoma herd went to 13 other ranches in Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Alberta, and Saskatchewan in the past 11 years, plus many secondary movements. [8] -- no control or surveillance program.
Utah: -- one trace-back zoo in Salt Lake City from elk possibly associated to Oklahoma game farm. -- One 30 year old hunter dying of CJD of unknown origin (not familial or iatrogenic). -- 135 deer sampled in 1998, 90 tested, all negative so far, pathology done in-state. Unpublished UF&G.
Montana: -- Single trace-back elk game farm under quarantine from Oklahoma case, though importer destroyed ear tag. -- Single trace-forward elk game farm that had bought elk from trace-back game farm connected to Oklahoma
Iowa, Illinois, Texas, and Wisconsin: -- These states have trace-forward herds from an infected herd in Nebraska. -- Missouri also sold elk from this herd at auction to buyers in unknown states. -- Wisconsin has additional trace-forward game farms from affected South Dakota game farms [7] -- Michigan allows deer to concentrate at bait stations, spread of tuberculosis attributed to this in NE Lower Peninsula [7].
Vermont: -- ancedotal trace-forward herds from Colorado and Wyoming
Idaho: -- no reported CWD, possible trace-back herd based on Oklahoma case, hold order on elk farm. -- elk ranchers forced regulatory change to ag department to avoid regs.
Saskatchewan: -- Diagnosed first elk with CWD in 1996. 23 elk herd destroyed, other animals tested negative. -- Second affected animal seen in April 98, siblings negative 68 elk in herd. -- imported as a yearling, in 1989, as part of a small shipment of elk from S. Dakota,mother still healthy. -- No trace-forward herds from this elk farm. -- quarantine lifted on 4 herds, no more testing except voluntary. -- index herd and 3 traceback herds will be inspected every 6 months.
Alberta: -- farm surveys conducted in 7 mule deer, 13 white-tails, 15 elk, no CWD found. -- 81 wild animals also free of disease ( 4 elk, 45 mule deer, 32 white-tails) as of May 98.
Toronto: -- In the 1970's, CWD occurred at the Metro Toronto Zoo, in a mule deer imported from a zoo in Colorado. -- CWD has not been reported in wild deer or elk in Canada.
CWD: 3 of 80 elk on game farm carried brain lesions
By ERIN P. BILLINGS Billings Gazette Tuesday, January 11, 2000
HELENA - Three of 80 elk cremated last week at a Philipsburg game farm were infected with the deadly chronic wasting disease, test results released Monday confirm.
The disease has been found during the 1990s in captive and wild deer and elk populations in Colorado, Wyoming and South Dakota and has been identified in captive herds in Nebraska. It was first identified during the 1960s in a research facility at Fort Collins, Colo., and has affected up to half of the deer and elk at that facility.
Montana moves to eliminate game farms
20 May 00 Stan Frasier Montanans Against the Domestication and Commercialization of Wildlife MADCOW
"Game farming commercializes the last remnants of the great wild commons, it seeks to privatize what is held in trust by all of us, it domesticates the wildness we sought to preserve, and it trivializes what is exceptional...The things we value die inside the woven wire of game farms." Jim Posewitz, Orion-the-Hunter's Institute. The June 2000 issue of The Atlantic Monthly will carry an article called "The Money Game," by Hamilton writer Hal Herring about game farming and captive shooting. In the article, Hal quotes a California man named Mike Ferrari who paid to shoot an elk on the Big Velvet Elk Ranch in Darby, Montana.
". . . I'm sitting here right now looking at that animal on my wall, and it just doesn't mean very much to me," Ferrari says. Ferrari also tells of game ranch hunts in Texas called a Texas Grand Slam, "where you shoot all the species of sheep, and some of these animals, you have to honk the horn on the truck to make them get out of the way." Ferrari no longer shoots game farm animals.
The group is currently collecting signatures to get a game farm reform initiative on the Montana state ballot. It will stop captive shooting and stop licensing of any new game farms. They need to collect 20,000 signatures by June 23 to qualify for the Nov election. Donations can be sent to:
MADCOW PO Box 5841 Helena, MT 59604
Game Farm Reform Petition Resubmitted, Approved; Sportsmen Group is again Gathering Signatures May 18, 2000. Contacts: Gary Holmquist, (406) 273-7862 Stan Frasier (406) 443-3424 Stan Rauch (406) 642-6639} Dave Stalling (406) 721-8258 John Kober (406) 458-0227 HELENA---Despite recent attempts by the game farm industry to undermine its citizen initiative, Sportsmen for I-143, spearheaded by Montanans Against the Commercialization and Privatization of Wildlife (MADCOW) is once again gathering signatures to place a game farm reform initiative on the November ballot. "Our goal is to reform the game farming industry and protect our public wildlife and hunting heritage," said MADCOW President Gary Holmquist. "We want to keep the wild in wildlife, and keep the hunt in hunting by prohibiting new licenses and ending the captive shooting of penned animals in Montana."
MADCOW had begun to gather signatures last week, but its effort were temporarily derailed when the special legislative session passed Senate Bill 7, signed into law by Gov. Marc Racicot, placing a temporary moratorium on new game farm licenses until a test is developed to detect Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in live deer and elk. Since the new law amends the state statutes that MADCOW hopes to change through its initiative, the validity of the initiative was in question. Although game farmers claim the new law prevents the spread of CWD, MADCOW President Gary Holmquist said the law does nothing to stop the occurrence and spread of the deadly disease, since it does not prohibit the movement of game farm animals in and out of the state, which is how disease spreads, nor does it require double fencing on game farms to keep wild elk and deer from making contact with potentially diseased, domestic animals.
"The new law was pushed through the legislature for one reason--to derail our efforts," Holmquist said. "Although game farmers deny it, their true intent was made quite clear in a May 8 letter that game farm attorney Mark Taylor sent to the Attorney Generals office, stating that SB 7, if signed into law, would make our petition invalid--although he discounted such intentions in front of two legislative committees. This new law is a legislative smokescreen for the industry that fails to address the real threats of game farming. It merely shows the need for the people of Montana to step up and take measure to protect our public wildlife by supporting I-143. "
Last Friday, MADCOW reworded its petition in accordance with the new law and resubmitted it for state approval. The new petition met state approval on Monday, and MADCOW has forged ahead with signature gathering. A total of 19,862 signatures from five percent of voters in at least 34 legislative districts is needed by June 23 to place Initiative I-143 before voters next fall.
"With the backing of the Montana Bowhunters Association, The Montana Wildlife Federation, the Montana Chapter of the Wildlife Society and other sportsmen, conservation and wildlife groups throughout the state, weve got the network in place to quickly gather signatures and place this initiative before the citizens of Montana for a vote," Holmquist said. "A recent survey conducted by Montana Conservation Voters reveals that more than 70 percent of Montanans believe game farms should be banned or more tightly regulated---this initiative provides Montanans a voice and opportunity to protect our public wildlife."
If passed, I-143, also known as the Game Farm Reform Initiative, would prohibit the issuance of any new game farm licenses, prohibit the shooting for profit of captive big game animals such as deer, elk, mountain goats or antelope, and prevent the transfer or sale of existing game farm licenses. The initiative would not affect the licensing of existing game farms.
According to Holmquist, the initiative is needed to protect Montanas public wildlife and fair-chase hunting heritage. "Deadly diseases such as chronic wasting disease, tuberculosis and cryptosporidium increasingly emanating from these so-called alternative livestock operations are only part of the driving force behind this initiative," he said. "Other serious, well-documented threats of this industry to our wildlife and hunting heritage include loss of habitat, escape and hybridization, the privatization of wildlife, the creation and expansion of commercial markets for the parts of vulnerable wildlife and the bankrupt image of hunting portrayed by the captive shooting operations. Game farming erodes our hard-earned, long-standing American principles of wildlife management based on the public ownership of wildlife, a ban on commercial markets for vulnerable wildlife, allocation of hunting by law with equal opportunity for all citizens, and a ban on the frivolous killing of wildlife."
MADCOWs concerns that the unethical shooting of penned, domestic animals creates a negative perception of hunting and fuels the fires of the anti-hunting movement is shared by the Montana Bowhunters Association (MBA), which recently pledged its backing of the initiative. "A long-standing major concern of our membership is the game farm industrys practice of shooting penned game farm animals under the guise of hunting, which is completely contrary to Montanas treasured and honored hunting heritage," said MBA President Mark Baker. Our desire is for the game farm reform initiative to be on the November ballot so all of the voting citizens of Montana will finally have their say on the game farm issue."
Holmquist said if people are interested in signing a petition or helping to gather signatures they can contact him at (406) 273-7862. Or, they can learn more and print out a copy of the petition from the groups website at: www.macow.org .
"Game farming is far too serious a threat to the future of Montanas wildlife for us, as citizens, not to make a citizen effort to control the problem before it gets beyond control," Holmquist said. "The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks has already spent more than a million of sportsmen-generated dollars to license, monitor, test for and eradicate disease, and otherwise protect our public wildlife from this highly-subsidized industry. Its time to reform game farming and protect the public wildlife and ethical, fair chase hunting we Montanans cherish."
Game farmers fight Montana initiative to outlaw Associated Press 8/20/00
The Montana Alternative Livestock Producers have filed a lawsuit asking the district court to strip from the Nov. 7 ballot an initiative that would ban new game farms. I-143, advocated by the Montana Wildlife Federation and other groups, seeks to indefinitely block issuance of new game farm licenses, stop expansion of operations, prohibit the transfer of existing licenses and halt captive shooting of game farm animals.
The Alternative Livestock Producers, include 92 Montana ranching families who have diversified their existing operations to include raising elk, say the initiative was improperly filed. I-143 opponents also condemned the measure as "a frontal assault on private property rights" by removing any financial benefit for a rancher to continue in this business.
Stan Frasier, a Wildlife Federation leader and secretary-treasurer of Sportsmen for I-143, responded by comparing it to cockfighting.
"People are still allowed to own chickens, but they can't do cockfighting because society determined it was unethical, inhumane," Frasier said. "This initiative does not prevent any existing livestock producers from owning elk. It merely says they can't charge people to shoot them and call it hunting."
Advanced method more sensitive in testing for CWD July 14, 2000 Karen R. Cooper, APR Public Information Officer Department of Livestock By using a more sensitive test than was available during the Philipsburg alternative livestock facility depopulation at the end of last year, tests recently performed on tissues collected from the herd have shown an additional five elk had Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), according to Dr. Arnold Gertonson, Montana State Veterinarian. A total of nine of the 81 elk tested from that alternative livestock facility were positive for CWD. CWD is deadly to deer and elk and causes a slow wasting away of the animal, as the disease's name implies.
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State-by-State update on Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) 25 Jan 99 webmaster: based on published sources listed above
Colorado: -- All known cases of CWD ultimately trace back to the Foothills Research Facility in Ft. Collins, Colorado [10] -- eastern Larimer Coounty and S. Platte River corridor have most free-ranging CWD deer [1] -- 2,500 deer and elk from NE Colorado, incidence of CWD steady at 5-7% in deer, 1% in elk by IHC 1995-97.[1] -- 350 deer and elk from other areas in Colorado tested negative by IHC 1995-97 [1] -- 85 CWD-positive cervids have been identified in the endemic area of Colorado and Wyoming 1981-1997 -- 0.4% in 487 elk tested from 1992-1996; 2.9% in 687 mule eer examined from 1983-1996. -- More than 400 samples from cervids outside the endemic area of Colorado and Wyoming have been negative.
Wyoming: [based in part on mid 1998 brochure by Chris Madson sent 1 Feb 99, -- infected Fish and Game research facility in Laramie; 3 failed decontamination efforts -- CWD found in wild elk and deer -- Swapped animals with Ft. Collins facility for many years. -- "between 1974 and 1979, 66 mule deer and 1 black-tail were held in captive in Colorado and Wyoming research corrals, mainly as subjects in long-term studies of deer food habits and nutrition. Of these 67 long-term residents, 57 contracted the strange disease. None survived." -- between 1981 and 1985, 60 cases in the wild were found: 44 in mule deer, 6 in white-tailed, and 10 in elk. The first affected wild Wyoming elk was found in 1986. First clinically affected captive animal found in 1978. -- the 1997 Wyoming survey obtained usable samples from137 deer in hunting units 16, 59, 60, 62,63, and 64. 8 positives were found, of which 7 were from unit 64. -- 93 samples in 1997 from units 15, 55,57, and 73 tested negative. 15 elk samples from areas 5, 7, 12, 13, 21, 82, and 110 were also negative. -- of the 100 cases reported in the wild, 11 have been found in Wyoming.
Nebraska: -- Feb 1998 CWD confirmed by NVSL in 4.5 year old male elk in north central Nebraska game farm, affected herd quarantined -- CWD elk trace-backs to endemic region of Colorado, purchased as 2 year old, symptoms 26 months later. -- The affected elk had been on 2 farms in western Colorado before arriving. -- Sick elk pastured with 12 other velvet bulls 3-5 years of age in 80 acre pasture. -- 6 high risk bulls: blood samples sent for capillary electrophoresis. -- 2 high risk bulls tested negative by IHC; 6 bulls with fenceline contact also negative. -- frequent fenceline contact observed with white-tailed and mule deer. -- trace-forward to buyers in 2 Nebraska herds and 4 other states (IA, IL, TX, WI) which were notified. -- elk from the affected herd were sold through two auctions in Colorado and Missouri. -- Any farmed elk or deer over 16 months dying from any cause must have brain stem tested (30 negatives so far) -- free ranging deer (no elk) surveyed in 1997 on borders, 350 negatives.
South Dakota: [1] -- First CWD diagnosis in game farm elk on 8 Dec 97; now 5 infected herds,11 exposed herds -- all 5 infected herds placed on 5 year quarantine; animals in 1 herd given to research project. -- 38/86 animals from infected herds tested positive for CWD.
-- 2 wild white-tailed deer or ingress offspring within premises of an infected facility tested posivitve.[4] --30 deer on elk farm premises killed, 1 tested positive for CWD. -- one suspected case reported in antelope on infected premises [4] -- index herd tested at USDA: 10 of 17 positive by IHC, only 3 by histopathology, only 2 animals clinical
Oklahoma: -- In June,1998 CW) was diagnosed in a captive elk in Oklahoma. -- The Oklahoma herd received more than 80 elk from commercial sources in Montana and Idaho. -- Animals from the same origins as the Oklahoma herd went to 13 other ranches in Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Alberta, and Saskatchewan in the past 11 years, plus many secondary movements. [8] -- no control or surveillance program.
Utah: -- one trace-back zoo in Salt Lake City from elk possibly associated to Oklahoma game farm. -- One 30 year old hunter dying of CJD of unknown origin (not familial or iatrogenic). -- 135 deer sampled in 1998, 90 tested, all negative so far, pathology done in-state. Unpublished UF&G.
Montana: -- Single trace-back elk game farm under quarantine from Oklahoma case, though importer destroyed ear tag. -- Single trace-forward elk game farm that had bought elk from trace-back game farm connected to Oklahoma
Iowa, Illinois, Texas, and Wisconsin: -- These states have trace-forward herds from an infected herd in Nebraska. -- Missouri also sold elk from this herd at auction to buyers in unknown states. -- Wisconsin has additional trace-forward game farms from affected South Dakota game farms [7] -- Michigan allows deer to concentrate at bait stations, spread of tuberculosis attributed to this in NE Lower Peninsula [7].
Vermont: -- ancedotal trace-forward herds from Colorado and Wyoming
Idaho: -- no reported CWD, possible trace-back herd based on Oklahoma case, hold order on elk farm. -- elk ranchers forced regulatory change to ag department to avoid regs.
Saskatchewan: -- Diagnosed first elk with CWD in 1996. 23 elk herd destroyed, other animals tested negative. -- Second affected animal seen in April 98, siblings negative 68 elk in herd. -- imported as a yearling, in 1989, as part of a small shipment of elk from S. Dakota,mother still healthy. -- No trace-forward herds from this elk farm. -- quarantine lifted on 4 herds, no more testing except voluntary. -- index herd and 3 traceback herds will be inspected every 6 months.
Alberta: -- farm surveys conducted in 7 mule deer, 13 white-tails, 15 elk, no CWD found. -- 81 wild animals also free of disease ( 4 elk, 45 mule deer, 32 white-tails) as of May 98.
Toronto: -- In the 1970's, CWD occurred at the Metro Toronto Zoo, in a mule deer imported from a zoo in Colorado. -- CWD has not been reported in wild deer or elk in Canada.
Chronic Wasting Disease in Wild and Captive Cervids USAHS 8 Oct 98 Next USAHA meeting is in San Diego in October 8-15, 1999 Non Member Fee $190.00
WESTERN REGION March 3-4, 1999 Nugget Hotel Reno, NV Dr. Jerry Bohlender, CO [no email] 303/239-4161
NORTH CENTRAL REGION March 29, 1999 - 8-12 noon Nashville, TN (in conjunction with LCI meeting) Doubletree Hotel Dr. Sam Holland, SD 605/773-3321 Poster sessions: Summary of Current Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance Data in the United States: Bovine Brain Examinations - A.J. Davis, A.L. Jenny, W.D. Taylor, A.J. Wilson, T. Gidlewski Improvements in a competition assay to detect scrapie prion protein by capillary electrophoresis.--Schmerr MJ, Goodwin, Kathryn R, Cutlip RC, Jenny AL
"Dr. Michael Miller of the Colorado Division of Wildlife provided an update of chronic wasting disease (CWD) surveillance in Colorado; Drs. Terry Spraker, Beth Williams, and Katherine O'Rourke are collaborators on this work. Chronic wasting disease is a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer, white-tailed deer, and Rocky Mountain elk. To date, the only documented focus of CWD in free-ranging cervids is in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. Methods for surveying free-ranging populations of deer and elk have been described by these collaborators previously. Dr. Miller briefly reported on results of ongoing harvest surveys in the endemic areas of Colorado. Brain tissues from over 2,500 deer and elk from northeastern Colorado and over 350 deer and elk from elsewhere in Colorado harvested during 1995-1997 were examined microscopically after staining with anti-prion protein immunostains (USDA-ARS F89/160.1.5), as well as hematoxylin and eosin; deer and elk showing positive immunostaining, with or without typical light microscopic lesions, were regarded as CWD-affected. All deer and elk harvested outside northeastern Colorado tested negative." "In northeastern Colorado, prevalence estimates within species have not differed over the last three years. Survey data show that CWD is at least five times more prevalent in deer than in elk in northeastern Colorado. Similarly, geographic distribution of CWD is wider among deer than among elk; the primary focus of CWD in free-ranging deer appears to be the eastern half of Larimer County, although a few positive deer have been detected along the South Platte River corridor; elk cases have been confined to Larimer County."
"Contrary to previous reports based on data from clinical cases, CWD is as prevalent among female deer as among male deer. Age distributions of positive cases among male and female deer were skewed toward older age classes as compared to age distributions of unaffected deer harvested, suggesting transmission among adult deer was not uncommon. Field data support the hypothesized importance of lateral transmission in CWD epidemiology. Harvest survey techniques developed in Colorado and Wyoming offer an effective and efficient approach for detecting, studying, and monitoring CWD in free-ranging cervid populations, and are now being used to survey for CWD elsewhere in North America."
"Dr. Sam Holland, State Veterinarian for South Dakota, gave a brief summary of his state's experience with CWD in captive elk. After an initial diagnosis of CWD on December 8, 1997, his investigation revealed three infected and five exposed captive elk farms. All infected herds have been placed on quarantine for 5 years, and animals in one herd have become part of a research project. Eighty-six animals have been tested from positive herds, and 38 have been infected with CWD. Of the exposed herds, 2 of 35 animals tested were infected. The Department of Agriculture has developed a memorandum of understanding with the state wildlife agency to evaluate the wild cervids in the state. To date, two white-tailed deer within the enclosures of an infected premise were positive. One deer was a wild animal and the other was privately owned."
"Dr. Butch Sahara of Nebraska provided an overview of the Nebraska Department of Agriculture's experience with CWD. His agency received word from NVSL in April 1998 that a 4-year-old male elk had tested positive for CWD. The domesticated cervid ranch that submitted the animal was located in north- central Nebraska and contained 150 head of elk housed at three facilities. The home ranch was completed first and received all of the purchased elk. A second breeding unit was completed in the summer of 1997. A third hunt pasture was completed in the spring of 1998. All elk were purchased from TB-accredited herds in Colorado, with the first elk coming to this facility in December 1995."
"The positive bull had clinical signs in February 1998, and traceback records indicated he had originated in the Colorado CWD endemic area. He was purchased as a 2-year-old and began to show clinical signs about 26 months after arriving in Nebraska. Free ranging white-tailed and mule deer are observed frequently outside the elk facility and could have fence-line contact with the elk."
"Only three other elk had died on this facility previous to the positive bull; lightning, a broken neck from hitting a fence, and sudden death of a spiker were the causes of acute death. The positive bull was pastured with 12 other velvet bulls 3-5 years of age in an 80-acre pasture."
"An epidemiological investigation was completed, the affected herd was quarantined, and 17 animals that had been sold were traced to buyers in Nebraska and five other states. None of the animals that had been sold had been in the same pasture with the positive bull, and they did not have fence-line contact during the time that clinical signs were observed. All states were notified, and Nebraska placed a hold order on the two Nebraska herds that had received animals."
"As of this date, Dr. Sahara has examined the complete herd every 30-45 days with no symptoms of CWD observed. Of the 12 high risk bulls, 3 are dead (2 negative and 1 pending), 3 will be harvested in the hunt pasture this fall, and 6 have had blood submitted for the new Capillary Electrophoresis PrP test. Six other mature elk that have had fence-line contact with the bull pasture have been sent to slaughter and were negative on the brain tissue immunohistochemistry test at NVSL."
"The Nebraska Department of Agriculture, with support from its Cervid Advisory Board, began a policy that any domesticated elk, white-tailed, or mule deer over 16 months of age that dies from any cause must have the brain stem submitted for PrP testing. Approximately 30 brain stems have been submitted with no positive animals identified. Dr. Sahara stated that early detection and removal are the key to control of CWD. He also recognized the need for a program that does not destroy the producer who is unfortunate enough to detect the disease. His agency is working with the cervid industry to develop a CWD monitoring program that could provide buyers with verified inventory tracing and documentation of CWD testing from targeted animals. Free ranging deer and elk will also be included in surveillance programs in 1998."
Report of the USAHA Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock USAHA 1998 Committee Reports
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"Sam Holland, DVM, State Veterinarian from South Dakota, presented "CWD, the State Regulatory Experience." In December 1997, South Dakota confirmed the diagnosis of CWD in a captive elk herd. This occurrence was treated as an animal health emergency. Dr. Holland reviewed a program to prevent, prepare, respond and recover. Great pains were taken to include all stakeholders in the process. The response included quarantine, immediate epidemiologic traceback, and the notification of all stakeholders, which included fact sheets and letter writing. A meeting of all stakeholders was organized to glean support from the industry, support from regulators, to determine a scientific based process, to devise a risk based program, and attempt an indemnity program (the latter being unsuccessful.)"
"The group consensus was that a mandatory control program needed to be enacted. Legislation was passed to enforce the control program. The control program includes detailed definitions, outlines official tests, and delineates movement criteria. "
"Dr. Holland reviewed the present status of CWD in South Dakota. There have been a total of three affected herds, those with confirmed CWD. A total of five herds were exposed to the affected herds and have been quarantined from one to five years. The source elk herd had 30 free-ranging white-tailed deer that were on the property but did not share a pasture. It was uncertain whether there had been contact. These 30 white-tailed deer were harvested, and one was found positive for CWD. A surveillance program of free-ranging wildlife was developed via cooperation between the various state agencies involved. About 0.5 percent of annual hunter harvest in designated areas are being examined for CWD. "
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CWD policies in various states
SCWDS BRIEFS April 1998 Issue
State Fish & Game Departments: all 50 states
Nebraska
Dept of Agriculture and Game and Parks
On April 9, 1998, chronic wasting disease (CWD) was diagnosed in a captive elk in Nebraska. This discovery follows the confirmation of CWD in two captive elk herds in South Dakota earlier this year. The Nebraska elk was a 4 1/2-year old male that was among a privately owned herd of approximately 150 elk. The health of the animal had deteriorated for about 2 months before it died. Confirmation of CWD was made by the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa. The case history revealed that the affected elk was born on a farm on the Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, but it was on two additional Colorado farms before it arrived in Nebraska at 2 to 2 1/2 years of age. One of the Colorado premises was in the known CWD-endemic region along the Eastern Slope of the Rocky Mountains in northcentral Colorado.
The Nebraska State Veterinarian's Office has quarantined the affected herd, and a hold order was placed on two additional herds in Nebraska that received animals from the affected herd. It also has been determined that elk farmers in four states (IA, IL, TX, WI) have received elk from the infected herd, and these states were notified by the Nebraska Bureau of Animal Industry. Additional tracing may be forthcoming because elk from the affected herd were sold through two auctions in Colorado and Missouri. A CWD Working Group is being formed to develop Voluntary CWD Management Guidelines. The first goals of the Nebraska Bureau of Animal Industry are: (1) to implement a policy requiring disease reporting of animals over 16 months of age; (2) to require identification of individual animals and reporting change of ownership; and (3) to establish a data base to monitor change of ownership.
South Dakota has taken legislative action to create a CWD control program for captive cervids. Their program calls for a 5-year quarantine with monitoring of all affected, adjacent, or exposed captive cervid herds. Monitored herds that maintain clean status are given certificates at annual milestones for years 1 through 4 and are designated "Certified CWD Cervid Herd" after 5 years of negative surveillance. The Cervid CWD Surveillance Identification Program includes required examination of brain tissue from all dead cervids 18 months or older, including deaths by slaughter, hunting, illness, and injury. The South Dakota State Veterinarian has forwarded the description of his State's program to the United States Animal Health Association along with the suggestion that it should be considered as a "starting place" for developing a Model CWD Control Program. Persons interested in this document can obtain a copy from Dr. Sam Holland, South Dakota State Veterinarian, SD Animal Industry Board, 411 South Fort Street, Pierre, South Dakota 57501-4503.
South Dakota program for cwd in captive elk works well United States Animal Health Association (703) 451-3954 For immediate release:Contact - Larry Mark
MINNEAPOLIS, Minn., Oct. 7, 1998 -- A model program for the containment and eradication of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in captive elk herds was developed and carried out in South Dakota last year in response to the diagnosis of this disease in December 1997 in a captive elk herd in South Dakota. Dr. Sam Holland, South Dakota State Veterinarian, reviewed for the USAHA committee on captive wildlife and alternative livestock a program that was put together in a short period of time and was highly successful. Dr. Holland noted that the occurrence of CWD was treated as an animal health emergency and that great pains were taken to involve all people with a stake in the issue in developing a way to deal with the disease. The group consensus was that a mandatory control program needed to be enacted with official tests and movement criteria.
To date in South Dakota, there have been three elk herds with confirmed CWD and five others that were exposed to the affected herds. The latter have been quarantined for from one to five years. The source elk herd had 30 free-ranging white-tailed deer on the property but not in the same pasture. These 30 deer were harvested and one was found positive for CWD. A surveillance program of free-ranging wildlife has been developed that includes examination of deer and elk killed by hunters....
6. CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE: IMPORTS:
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CWD policies in various states SCWDS BRIEFS April 1998 Issue State Fish & Game Departments: all 50 states
Nebraska Dept of Agriculture and Game and Parks
On April 9, 1998, chronic wasting disease (CWD) was diagnosed in a captive elk in Nebraska. This discovery follows the confirmation of CWD in two captive elk herds in South Dakota earlier this year. The Nebraska elk was a 4 1/2-year old male that was among a privately owned herd of approximately 150 elk. The health of the animal had deteriorated for about 2 months before it died. Confirmation of CWD was made by the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa. The case history revealed that the affected elk was born on a farm on the Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, but it was on two additional Colorado farms before it arrived in Nebraska at 2 to 2 1/2 years of age. One of the Colorado premises was in the known CWD-endemic region along the Eastern Slope of the Rocky Mountains in northcentral Colorado.
The Nebraska State Veterinarian's Office has quarantined the affected herd, and a hold order was placed on two additional herds in Nebraska that received animals from the affected herd. It also has been determined that elk farmers in four states (IA, IL, TX, WI) have received elk from the infected herd, and these states were notified by the Nebraska Bureau of Animal Industry. Additional tracing may be forthcoming because elk from the affected herd were sold through two auctions in Colorado and Missouri. A CWD Working Group is being formed to develop Voluntary CWD Management Guidelines. The first goals of the Nebraska Bureau of Animal Industry are: (1) to implement a policy requiring disease reporting of animals over 16 months of age; (2) to require identification of individual animals and reporting change of ownership; and (3) to establish a data base to monitor change of ownership.
NEBRASKA CWD FIRST DOCUMENTED CAPTIVE HERDS
CWD had previously been confirmed in 4 captive elk in the state during the past 4 years. Last week, the Nebraska Department of Agriculture and APHIS ordered a captive herd in northern Cheyenne County be destroyed after a third case of the disease was confirmed there.
The first case on that ranch appeared in 1999. The latest appeared in an offspring of an elk that tested positive for CWD last spring. All animals from that herd are being tested at the Colorado State University veterinary lab. The only other positive test in Nebraska came from a captive elk in Cherry County.
Clarifications on immunohistochemical detection of preclinical CWD in captive elk Listserve. Dr.Janice Miller 13 May 99
The number of positive animals found (10 of 17) should not be extrapolated to represent the whole herd because it was a selected group. The full text of the article states: "Seventeen elk from a large captive herd in South Dakota were slaughtered in April, 1998. Individual members of the original herd were diagnosed with CWD in December, 1997. The owners reduced the herd in hopes of salvaging some of the animals for meat. Slaughtered elk were chosen based on young age and the likelihood that they were not yet infected. The slaughtered elk were all male, ranging in age from two to five years (9=2 years, 7=3 years, 1=5 years)."
"The five year old and one of the three year old elk exhibited clinical signs consistent with CWD as seen by the herdsman of the ranch. Three of the 17 elk, including the two elk with clinical signs, had histologic lesions consistent with CWD, including spongiform change of the gray matter neuropil, vacuolated neurons, and mild gliosis."
"Separately, a three year old aclinical animal displayed histologic lesions suggestive of CWD, including mild spongiform change in the gray matter of the medulla oblongata and cerebrum, a few vacuolated neurons, and mild gliosis in the brain stem and spinal cord. Medulla oblongata at the obex from each of the 17 elk were immunohistochemically examined for PrP-Sc according to the method of Miller and others, 1994. Tissues from 10 of the 17 elk (58.8 %) were positive."
This work strongly validates concerns about horizontal transmission in elk. I have heard Drs. Mike Miller and Elizabeth Williams speak many times and they always stress that the epidemiology of CWD indicates it is laterally transmitted. Dr. Williams spoke just last week here in Ames and her handout about CWD states:
"The mode of transmission of CWD is not known. Epidemiologic evidence strongly suggests lateral transmission occurs among deer and elk and probably from mule deer to elk and white-tailed deer. Maternal transmission may occur but does not explain many cases of CWD. Concentration of animals in captivity may facilitate transmission; however, CWD is maintained in populations of deer even at moderate to low populations densities."
Dr. Mike Miller's most recent publication (Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease in Captive Rocky Mountain Elk, Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34:532-538, 1998), states the following:
"Our observations provide compelling circumstantial evidence for lateral transmission of CWD among elk. We believe the most plausible explanation for the epidemic pattern observed in this captive elk herd is animal-to-animal transmission of CWD."
Chronic Wasting Disease, Deer & Elk - Canada: Surveillance Feb. 5/98 ProMED Two Canadian provinces, at least, have initiated surveys for Chronic Wasting Disease in wild deer. Alberta began a survey last year and Saskatchewan is in the collection phase of its first survey year. British Columbia has made some preliminary plans for such a survey. A great many wild deer brains have been examined over the past 30 years by Canadian veterinary pathologists, both wildlife disease specialists and general veterinary diagnosticians familiar with the lesions of scrapie, the equivalent disease in domestic sheep. No lesions typical of CWD have been detected except as reported previously for a small number of captive mule deer and one captive elk. [Sensitive modern methods of detection, such as prion immuno-assay, were very unlikely to have been used -- that and the epidemic in the south is why they are ramping up the monitoring. -- webmaster] Thus, there is some background evidence that the disease does not exist in wild cervids in Canada at a prevalence detectable under current conditions of surveillance. Further surveillance is justified, however. Health Canada recognizes its responsibility with respect to public safety and zoonotic diseases and is expanding its activity in this area.
We are indeed fortunate to have Dr. Harvey Artsob and his group and can look forward to expanded activity in zoonotic diseases when that group is relocated to its new facility in Winnipeg.
Contacts regarding Health Canada's program are:
Dr. Artsob or Dr. Robert Clarke Frederick A. Leighton, Co-Director Headquarters Office Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 1-800- 567-2033 (Canada only) or 306-966-5099 (toll) Correspondence with Canadian authorities Fri, 13 Feb 1998 Webmaster asks: Dr. Leighton at U. Saskatchewan in Saskatoon has been most helpful in chasing down wire story and internet stories of chronic wasting disease in Canada, which turns out to be early pre-emptive monitoring with negative results, sensitive methods being used via Dr. Williams' lab at U.Wyoming. One basic worry that we have in the US is whether CWD is arising de novo on game farms due to use of rendered animal feed (non-British, unrecognized strain of bovine TSE?) or whether all the CWD is traceable back to the original Wyoming/Colorado provenance or whether other States or Provinces could have their own unrelated foci.
For the Toronto zoo mule deer and the Alberta elk with CWD, I am inclined to rule out zoo- and Alberta derived-feed given the incubation times and US background of these animals. The elk could only be tracked back to South Dakota, not Colorado/Wyoming unlike the mule deer as I understand it.
My questions:
What is fed to captive deer and elk at these game farms? what Canadian laws and regulations apply amd are there compliance visits? how many of these game farms/animals are there? what rules apply to trans-shipment (especially back and forth across borders)? what sort of records are kept on individual animals? is there a necropsy program on 'downer' animals? l Dr. Ted Leighton responds: Most of your questions are more appropriate for me to answer than for Dr. Clarke. Health Canada has a broadening program in zoonotic disease surveillance but much of it is currently under development and re-definition. Most of your questions are about CWD in wildlife and in game farmed animals. Trace-back to origin for the one CWD-positive elk detected in Canada was not possible beyond the last farm of origin prior to importation. This is becaise of a lack of an animal identification and movement registration program for game farmed elk in the USA at the time. There has not been a case of CWD in mule deer on Canadian game farms. The case was at the Toronto zoo. It is thought that the disease originated from the Colorado-Wyoming focus through importation from a captive herd subsequently found to have the disease.
The surveillance programs of Alberta and Saskatchewan are making use of the expertise at the Veterinary Laboratory of the State of Wyoming. A battery of tests are run on each sample: histopathology of specific brain nuclei, immunohistochemistry for altered (scrapie) prion protein and western blot analysis. In Alberta, thus far, about 100 animals have been tested and all have been negative. No samples have yet been tested from Saskatchewan, but collection of samples for processing and shipment to Wyoming is underway.
No one but the game farmers knows what game farmed animals are fed. For information about Canadian laws regarding animals feeds, you should contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. A senior person in our region is Dr. Byrnne Rothwell. He could direct you to the most appropriate source of information.
Dr. Byrnne Rothwell writes that he, Dr. George Luterbach, Dr. Whiting, worked together with Dr. Broughton on the single case diagnosed in Saskatchewan, January of l996. Dr. Luterbach was the spokesperson, and will be best able to give you complete answers.
Rancher writes in about deer feeding realities LifeSaveIn opinion Tue, 27 Jan 1998 "We, among my ranching friends here, have already shared reports of wasting disease seen and killing deer on our properties here [in Utah]. And as an old dairy rancher this should be no surprise. Deer always scavenged my feeder bins when snow restricted their own foraging; so deer have been eating animal renderings in the "cattle" feed all along (including not only cow, sheep [scrapie] and all other animal "bypass", but also themselves in highway kills and deer and elk dressings from hunter processings commercially done) .
Also D.N.R. (Division of Natural Resources), State Fish and Game will also on occasions feed donated or purchased (animal fat/protein enriched) meal directly to snowbound, or feed and cold stressed deer and elk.
So reverse logic clearly dictates that if the deer and elk, which live free and longer than most cattle, are expressing and dying with spongiform encephalopathy while eating the shared renderings normally meant for cattle, and also associating with them; then as with all other animal pathogens, reason mandates that TSE "prions" are also shared; but since cattle raised for food do not live long enough for visible symptoms to appear, or if any health failure symptoms do begin to appear, the animal is quickly "processed" for product or rendering before gross disease expression renders the animal absolutely unsalable, so BSE or "cattle" wasting disease must never be noted or recorded.
And lets be economically real here, if it is ever suspected, no rancher or feeder would lay himself open to having his entire herd culled for BSE at a potential loss several hundreds to near a thousand dollars per unit animal, and neither would the livestock dependant industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, soaps and beyond, and the bureaucracies payed for and serving them all.
But any honest veterinary biologist knows this one is the clincher on TSE and BSE, and that other neurologically damaged biological animal in the picture - man - and his CJD!
Hunter writes in Colorado correspondent 16 Feb 98 The 2/14/98 Denver Post had an article on CWD. The interesting thing is that a hunter who thought he was to have been notified within 3 weeks if his deer was positive for CWD was notified after 6 weeks, and the deer meat was ground up with lots of other deer meat and turned to sausage. I know that when a guy gets his animals, he tastes some of it right quick.
Elk & game farming in other states Utah Fish and Game Dept
The state of Utah has little experience with big game farming. In an effort to understand elk and game farming, the Division has contacted other states that allow elk farming. The following are some of the problems other states associate with elk farming reported to the Division: MONTANA Karen Zachiem with Montana Parks and Wildlife reported that Montana allows game farming. Initial regulations were inadequate to protect the state's wildlife resources. The state has tried to tighten up regulations related to game farming, resulting in a series of lawsuits against the state from elk ranchers. Zachiem reported that the tightening of regulations was in response to the discovery of TB in wildlife (elk, deer, and coyotes) surrounding a TB infected game farm. TB has been found on several game farms in Montana. Also, they have had problems with wildlife entering game farms as well as game farm animals escaping the farms. Finally, there has been a growth in shooting ranches in Montana. Game farmers allow hunters to come into enclosures to kill trophy game farm animals, raising the issues of fair chase and hunting ethics. WASHINGTON Rolph Johnson with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, reported that Washington allows game farming, but it is strictly regulated to safeguard wildlife. Washington opposed the law when first proposed for the following reasons: introduction of disease and parasites; hybridization of wildlife species; habitat loss; health risks to humans, wildlife, and livestock; and state responsibility to recover or destroy escaped elk. Game farming is not cost effective due to the restrictions needed to prevent these problems. NEW MEXICO Jerry Macacchini, with New Mexico Game and Fish, reported that New Mexico has problems with game farming and a moratorium on elk and game farming has been imposed by the state at the request of its citizens. Problems identified in the moratorium were: escaped game farm animals; theft of native elk herds; and disease. OREGON Dan Edwards, with Oregon Fish and Wildlife, reported that Oregon has very little elk farming and is now prohibited by regulation. The elk farms that are in operation existed prior to the adoption of game farm regulations. Individuals who want to elk farm, must buy out an existing elk farm owner. Elk farms are no longer permitted due to, "...current and imminent threats to Oregon's native deer and elk herds and social and economic values.'' Oregon has documented numerous game farm animals that have escapeed from private game farms. Concerns about elk farming arose during public elk management meetings. The impacts of privately held cervids on publicly owned wildlife were a recurring issue throughout the elk management process. Key issues included: disease and parasites; escape and interbreeding of domestic animals with native wildlife; illegal kills for meat; and theft of public wildlife. WYOMING Harry Harju, assistant wildlife chief with Wyoming Fish and Game, reported that elk or game farming is now prohibited in Wyoming. Only one game ranch exists in Wyoming, which was operating before the passage of the law. The state of Wyoming was sued by several game breeders associations for not allowing elk farming. The game breeders lost their suit in the United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit. The court maintained that the state had authority to regulate commerce and protect wildlife. Wyoming has had problems with big game farming originating in surrounding states. Wyoming has documented the harvest of red deer and their hybrids during elk hunts on the Snowy Mountain range that borders Colorado. Wyoming speculates that the red deer were escapees from Colorado game farms. Hybridization is viewed as threat to the genetic integrity of Wyoming's wild elk population. In a public hearing, the public voted against game farms in the state of Wyoming. Wyoming's Cattlemen's Association and Department of Agriculture opposed elk and big game farms, as well, particularly due to disease risks. Brucellosis is a major problem for wildlife and livestock in the Yellowstone Basin.
NEVADA
Nevada reports that big game farms are allowed in Nevada. Nevada has not had any problems as a result of big game farms. However, Nevada has only one big game farm in the entire state and it is a reindeer farm. IDAHO Wildlife Chief Tom Rienecker reported that Idaho Fish and Game once regulated elk farming in their state, but lost jurisdiction of elk farming to the Department of Agriculture as a result of pressure from elk farmers. Idaho has 20-30 big game ranches. Idaho has had problems with escapes and several law enforcement cases have been filed against suspects who have taken calves out of the wild for elk farming purposes. Disease has not been a problem for Idaho. COLORADO John Seidel, with Colorado Division of Wildlife, reported that the Division used to regulate big game farming until the big game breeders association petitioned for the Department of Agriculture to assume authority over big game farming because too many citations were issued to elk farms for violations. Colorado experienced numerous poaching incidents with elk calves from the wild and theft of whole herds of wild elk captured in private farms. Seidel reported that some of the larger "elk shooting ranches" have been investigated and charged with capturing wild herds of elk within the shooting preserve fences. Seidel reported that there have been documented problems with disease (TB); escaped hybrids and exotics; intrusion of rutting wild elk into game farms; massive recapture efforts for escapees and intruders; and loss of huge tracts of land fenced for shooting preserves/ranches. Based on their experiences, the Colorado Division of Wildlife wishes they did not have big game farms in Colorado. Seidel believes that CEBA would fight hard to open Utah to elk farming to provide a market for breeding stock in Utah ($3,000 & up for a bull and $8,000 & up for a breeding cow). ARIZONA The Arizona Game and Fish Department reports that elk farming is legal in Arizona but the agency would not allow it if they had to do it all over again. Arizona reported the loss of huge blocks of land to fencing and some disease problems. ALBERTA, CANADA Alberta has allowed elk farming for a number of years. To date, Alberta has spent $10,000,000 and destroyed 2,000 elk in an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of tuberculosis. Based upon the game farming experiences of these states, their recommendation to Utah was not to allow elk farming. OTHER The Division has contacted several state and federal veterinarians. The opinions of some agricultural veterinarians differed from wildlife veterinarians. Some veterinarians endorsed elk farming with the right regulatory safeguards. Other veterinarians opposed elk farming due to the risks to wildlife and livestock. This issue needs a more comprehensive review. The Division also contacted a Special Agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who conducted a covert investigation in Colorado to gather intelligence on elk farming and detect poaching activity of wild elk. Although poaching was not detected, the agent described his experience with pyramid schemes in elk sales; lack of a meat market; falsification of veterinarian records for farmed elk; escapes and intrusions between wild and captive elk; inadequate inspections by brand inspectors; transportation of TB infected elk; and the temperament of the elk themselves. The Colorado Elk Breeders Association (CEBA) told the Division that CEBA did not approve of elk poaching and has turned in fellow elk farmers for poaching live elk calves from the wild.
CEBA told Utah legislators that the Colorado Division of Wildlife did not like elk ranching at first, but has come to see that elk farming is not as bad as they originally thought it would be. The Colorado Division of Wildlife disagreed with CEBA's perception of their relationship.
Keep 'em wild: Montana should ban canned hunts. Whitefish elk farm draws fire from hunters, biologists By STEVE THOMPSON Missoula Independent, also the Whitefish Pilot 13 Sep 1998 Ph: 406/862-3795 Fax: 406/862-5344
"Although not everyone sees it the same way, Kalispell legislator Bob Spoklie says his controversial plan to develop an elk shooting gallery on 160 acres near Whitefish is rooted in the richest of Montana traditions-private property, pleasure and profit. Flaring like a bull elk in rut, Spoklie rages against those who disagree with his intentions. "These are not public wildlife," Spoklie told me angrily. "These are our animals and not anyone else's. We'll do as we please." If his political opponents succeed in banning canned elk hunts, Spoklie warns, the next step will be to eliminate all public hunting. "That's the real agenda here," he said.
By contrast, next door in Wyoming, the suggestion that Rocky Mountain elk can be penned, hand-fed and then shot is more than a disgusting notion. It's illegal. In fact, the Cowboy State has gone so far as to prohibit all private game farms. Utah also prohibits canned elk hunts. Listening to Spoklie, one might be convinced that Utah and Wyoming are governed by a bunch of socialist, animal-rights activists. But the truth is those states are hardly run by left-wing zealots. Rather, lawmakers there have chosen to honor a Western tradition as deeply rooted as Spoklie's rather crass libertarianism.
This conservation heritage was pioneered by Theodore Roosevelt and others who established wildlife as a public commons. Wildlife laws in those states seek to protect hunters' fair-chase pursuit of healthy, free-ranging game. According to Dick Sadler, a long-time Democratic legislator in Wyoming now retired, elk hunting farms violate the very spirit of the West. In the 1970s, he joined forces with Republican John Turner to pass landmark legislation which banned game farms. Sadler and Turner had researched game farms in other states, and they came away with a bitter taste.
Spoklie, however, says elk and other big game have been converted to private livestock around the world. "Montana is so far behind that we think we're leading," he says. As the founder of the Montana Alternative Livestock Association, Spoklie is clearly frustrated about the clamor surrounding his attempts to domesticate elk in Whitefish. But then he has been one of the chief lobbyists for the game farm industry. Due in large part to his influence, Montana legislators have resisted attempts to copy Wyoming's game farm ban, including former Florence Senator Terry Klampe's proposed moratorium in 1995.
But Sadler, a lifelong hunter, offers the following evidence for what's wrong with canned hunting: "I saw a film of one of those canned hunts in Michigan, where the guys get up and have a big breakfast, put on their hunting clothes, walk outside, shoot the animals in an enclosure and then congratulate themselves. "That was one of the most disgusting things I've ever seen."
As the proposal to ban game farms wound through the Wyoming legislature, though, Sadler focused on more pragmatic arguments. Today, he still complains about the threat of disease transmission to wild animals, genetic pollution and loss of habitat to enclosures.
It was the Republican Turner, who later became George Bush's Fish and Wildlife Service director, who invoked the West's sporting heritage. "Turner's argument to the legislature was that you can't take a magnificent animal like an elk and allow some slob to shoot it inside a fence," Sadler says. Ultimately, most Wyoming legislators agreed that it just wasn't proper to domesticate and commercialize a wild animal like elk.
To Spoklie's dismay, the debate locally is getting louder, and his loudest opponents are sportsmen. Making the biggest waves are the Montana Wildlife Federation, the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, Orion: The Hunter's Institute, and a coalition of neighbors and hunters in the Whitefish area.
Orion's founder Jim Posewitz, a retired wildlife biologist, says canned hunts jeopardize public acceptance of the real thing. A leading advocate of "fair chase" hunting, which emphasizes the almost sacred relationship between hunter and prey, Posewitz argues that the majority of non-hunting Americans will tolerate hunting only if it is conducted with the highest ethics. "Game farms are an abomination," he says.
Spoklie, an appointed lawmaker who recently lost the Republican primary election, dismisses such statements as "differences of philosophy" that don't stack up against private property rights. If someone's willing to pay thousands of dollars to shoot a penned elk, then that's good both for him and Montana's economy, he says.
Karen Zackheim, game farm coordinator for the state Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, says the issue goes beyond philosophy. The most pressing statewide concern, she says, is chronic wasting, an elk version of mad cow disease. The little known disease, for which there is neither a test nor a cure, recently killed captive elk in several Western states and has spread to wild game in some places. Zackheim also has identified other potential problems with the Spoklie elk farm.
Spoklie makes it clear that Zackheim and others should butt out. And some Montana lawmakers seem willing to listen to him, having recently stripped state wildlife officials of some oversight responsibilities. Now, Spoklie would prefer even less state oversight, including his permit application currently under review.
For Montanans, ultimately, the choice looms between the competing visions offered by Bob Spoklie and our Western neighbors. Montana lawmakers should follow Wyoming's lead and remove our wildlife heritage from the private marketplace. For the sake of both the hunter and the hunted, private elk farms should be banned."
MONTANA GAME FARM CAPTIVE SHOOTING PEN ESCAPEES
Since 1992, the state has recorded 39 animal escapes from Montana game farm operations. During the same period there were 22 cases in which native wildlife got into a game farm. Here's a look at the number of animals escaping from game farms vs. the number of wildlife getting into the farms from the outside.
1992: Six escapes of game farm animals compared with seven animals entering the pen.
1993: Six escapes compared with one animal getting in from the outside.
1994: Nine escapes compared with one animal getting in from the outside.
1995: Six escapes compared with two animals getting in.
1996: Four escapes compared with two animals getting in.
1997: Two escapes compared with two getting in.
1998: Four escapes compared with six getting in.
1999: Two escapes compared with two getting in from the outside.<
MONTANA CAPTIVE SHOOTING PEN GAME FARM ESCAPEES
Running afoul of the law 1994 is also when Wallace began piling up violations with federal and state authorities. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has cited Big Velvet Ranch for Clean Water Act violations in connection with five dams Wallace had built that year on Lowman Creek, which also flows across the ranch and empties into Rye Creek. When the two creeks flooded during a winter thaw, overflow from the dams sent tons of sand and rock debris down Rye Creek and onto lands off the ranch. But Wallace says there was nothing unusual about the debris-flow. "If you look at the earth, things are changing constantly," he says. "Sand is always flowing down that creek." State officials have also cited the ranch for improper fencing and for not maintaining riparian areas along the two creeks. And they have documented 24 cases of wild animals breaking into the ranch or captive game escaping. As a result, wildlife officials have had to shoot a dozen wild mule deer and three white-tailed deer.
Chronic Wasting Disease - USA Date: Mon, 6 May 1996 14:08:39 -0400 (EDT)
I'm not sure about this specific case [elk in Canada with CJD], but before going to vet school, I worked for the Colorado Division of Wildlife in Fort Collins, CO. We had captive bred mule [deer?] and elk that acquired a Chronic wasting syndrome similar to what you describe. Though the animals were fed alfalfa hay, native grass in their pens were also available.
This particular tract of land had once been domestic sheep range and at the time it was speculated that scrapie or something similar to scrapie was responsible for the disease.
Joel Stone, D.V.M., Ph.D Merck Research Laboratories Rahway, N.J.
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Subject: CWD TSE PRION, AND SCRAPIE ?
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection
Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.
see full text ;
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA
White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation
snip...
It is unlikely that CWD will be eradicated from free-ranging cervids, and the disease is likely to continue to spread geographically [10]. However, the potential that white-tailed deer may be susceptible to sheep scrapie by a natural route presents an additional confounding factor to halting the spread of CWD. This leads to the additional speculations that 1) infected deer could serve as a reservoir to infect sheep with scrapie offering challenges to scrapie eradication efforts and 2) CWD spread need not remain geographically confined to current endemic areas, but could occur anywhere that sheep with scrapie and susceptible cervids cohabitate. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation with a high attack rate and that the disease that results has similarities to CWD. These experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation to determine the likelihood of the potential transmission of sheep scrapie to white-tailed deer. If scrapie were to occur in white-tailed deer, results of this study indicate that it would be detected as a TSE, but may be difficult to differentiate from CWD without in-depth biochemical analysis.
Wednesday, February 16, 2011
IN CONFIDENCE
SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES
IN CONFIDENCE
WYOMING DEER STILL ESCAPING SHOOTING PEN GAME FARMS 2006
Idaho game farm elk escape worries Wyoming.
By Ralph Maughan On September 7, 2006 Late on Sept. 7.
Now there’s more. Idaho’s Governor Jim Risch has signed an emergency order to carry out the “immediate destruction” of more than 100 domesticated elk that escaped from “the Chief Joseph private hunting reserve.” One article said the elk were bred to have especially large antlers. Is that so, or is it because they are really red deer? This needs to be cleared up.
The Idaho Statesman/AP has a longer article this morning, Sept. 8, on Governor’s Risch’s order. Read Article.
KANSAS CWD FIRST DETECTED IN CAPTIVE ELK HERD.
CWD has been detected twice previously in Kansas. The first case was in 2001 in a captive elk herd in Harper County.
Indiana 20 Deer Escape Trophy Buck Game Farm State Officials Fear Cwd Risk To Wild
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Escaped deer pose risk of spreading disease in Indiana
State wildlife officials fear the missing animals could have been exposed to fatal ailment
Twenty deer escaped this spring from a Jackson County farm where trophy bucks with huge antlers are bred and sold to fenced-in, private hunting preserves. Department of Natural Resources officials, may be infected with chronic wasting disease. / (Charlie Nye/The Star)
Deer hunters in four southeastern Indiana counties have been given an unusual directive by state wildlife officials: If you see a deer with a yellow tag in its ear, kill it.
And call a biologist.
The deer, say Department of Natural Resources officials, may be infected with chronic wasting disease.
The edict comes after 20 deer escaped this spring from a Jackson County farm where trophy bucks with huge antlers are bred and sold to fenced-in, private hunting preserves. Seven of the deer remain unaccounted for.
Wildlife officials worry about chronic wasting disease spreading here, devastating what is currently a thriving deer population of 500,000 to 1 million animals.
The disease, which is causing havoc in several states, including Wisconsin, hasn't yet made its way to Indiana. Officials don't think it poses a risk to humans or other livestock.
DNR spokesman Phil Bloom said the escape highlights a larger issue.
"This case," he said, "underscores the concern many have about how the commercialization of wildlife and interstate trafficking in wildlife presents a Pandora's box, with the potential spread of a deadly disease that does have some wide-ranging consequences."
In this case, Bloom said, biologists are hoping those consequences can be minimized with some help from hunters -- and motorists unlucky enough to hit and kill one of the tagged deer.
The alert not only includes Jackson County, where the release occurred, but also neighboring Bartholomew, Jennings and Scott counties. Licensed hunters and motorists who kill tagged deer are urged to immediately call (812) 837-9536.
The DNR and the Indiana Board of Animal Health will retrieve the carcass so it can be tested for the disease.
Bloom said of particular interest are any deer with a yellow ear tag and two numbers on it, or any deer with a tag bearing the prefix "IN 764" followed by another four numbers.
Hunters who shoot one of the deer will be issued a new license free of charge.
DNR officials are concerned because a Pennsylvania farm -- where chronic wasting disease was detected -- sold 10 animals to farms in Indiana over the past three years. Bloom said two does were sold to farms in Noble and Whitley counties; the rest went to a farm in Jackson County.
Some of the Jackson County deer were moved to a fourth facility in Jackson County, where the escape happened.
Shawn Hanley, president of the Indiana Deer and Elk Farmers' Association, said a storm caused a tree to fall on the farm's fence. A Pennsylvania buck remains on the loose.
"We have been in contact with the DNR and with the (Indiana Board of Animal Health), and will cooperate fully with attempts to recover the lost animal," Hanley said in an email.
Citing the ongoing investigation, Bloom declined to release the name of the farms. So did Douglas Metcalf, chief of staff for the Board of Animal Health.
Meanwhile, Metcalf said, each of the four farms is under quarantine, and the animals are being tested for the disease.
Of the 20 deer that got loose, Bloom said, 11 were immediately recaptured, one was hit by a car and a bow hunter shot another this fall.
Rick D. Miller, the owner of the 2.5 Karat Game Ranch in nearby Bartholomew County, says he's outraged by what happened. The farm where the deer escaped, he said, isn't one of the 385 Indiana deer farms that voluntarily allow officials to test their herds for the disease.
"We don't want these crazy things to happen," said Miller, a former president of the Indiana Deer and Elk Farmers' Association.
Miller said Indiana's $50 million-a-year game-farming industry has a lot to lose if the disease spreads. And so does he.
At any given time, Miller says, he keeps between two dozen and 60 elk and white-tail deer on his farm. He collects deer urine to sell. Some hunters buy bottles of the urine as a deer attractant. Big "shooter" bucks can be sold to captive hunt facilities for $1,500 to $2,500.
Breeding stock can sell for $1,000 to $250,000, depending on the size and genetics of the buck.
In Indiana, at least, the future of farmers who sell to local game clubs remains unclear. In 2006, the DNR passed rules banning high-fence hunting because the facilities were deemed unsporting and a potential disease risk. The clubs sued in response.
A judge issued an injunction prohibiting a ban, leaving the facilities in business for the time being.
Bloom of the DNR said the legal challenges are pending.
Follow Star reporter Ryan Sabalow at twitter.com/RyanSabalow. Call him at (317) 444-6179.
Friday, July 20, 2012
CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve
Wednesday, September 05, 2012
Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive
2010 WISCONSIN CAPTIVE DEER ESCAPES
There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. ...
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C. & D. Captive Cervid and Law Enforcement Update (11:10 AM)- Warden Pete Dunn gave the captive cervid farm update. There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. Approximately 30% of these escapes were caused by gates being left open and the other 70% resulted from bad fencing or fence related issues. The 20 actual confirmed escape incidents amounted to 77 total animals. 50 of the escaped animals were recovered or killed and 27 were not recovered and remain unaccounted for. Last year the CWD Committee passed a resolution to require double gates, but this has not gone into effect yet. Questions were raised by the committee about double fencing requirements? Pete responded that double fencing has not been practical or accepted by the industry. The DNR has the authority to do fence inspections. ?If a fence fails to pass the inspection the fencing certificate can be revoked and the farmer can be issued a citation. This year three citations and one warning have been issued for escapes.
Pete reviewed the reporting requirements for escape incidents that these must be reported within 24 hours. The farmer then has 72 hours to recover the animals or else it will affect the farm’s herd status and ability to move animals. Davin proposed in the 15 year CWD Plan that the DNR take total control and regulatory authority over all deer farm fencing. Larry Gohlke asked Pete about the reliability for reporting escapes? Pete said that the majority of escapes were reported by the farmer, but it is very difficult to determine when an escape actually occurred. Pete said that they are more concerned that an escape is reported and not that it is reported at the exact time that it happened.
THE states are going to have to regulate how many farms that are allowed, or every state in the USA will wind up being just one big private fenced in game farm. kind of like they did with the shrimping industry in the bays, when there got to be too many shrimp boats, you stop issuing permits, and then lower the exist number of permits, by not renewing them, due to reduced permits issued.
how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??
11,000 game farms X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.
RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
Form 1100-001 (R 2/11) NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM
SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update
FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING TUESDAY TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief
SUMMARY:
Monday, January 16, 2012
9 GAME FARMS IN WISCONSIN TEST POSITIVE FOR CWD
see full text and more here ;
Thursday, February 09, 2012
50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012
Samuel E. Saunders1, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, and Jason C. Bartz
Author affiliations: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, Nebraska, USA (S.E. Saunders, S.L. Bartelt-Hunt); Creighton University, Omaha (J.C. Bartz)
Synopsis
Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease
CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).
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Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential. However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern...
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Reasons for Caution There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions (3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2 strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human) genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies transmission potentials of CWD.
Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut degradation.
Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research, epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently identified,...
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Minnesota escapees from game farm shooting pens
Friday, May 25, 2012
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD found in a farmed red deer from Ramsey County Minnesota
Deer, elk continue to escape from state farms
Article by: DOUG SMITH , Star Tribune Updated: March 14, 2011 - 12:08 PM
Curbing chronic wasting disease remains a concern; officials are increasing enforcement.
Almost 500 captive deer and elk have escaped from Minnesota farms over the past five years, and 134 were never recaptured or killed.
So far this year, 17 deer have escaped, and officials are still searching for many of those.
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Deer, elk continue to escape from state farms
Article by: DOUG SMITH , Star Tribune Updated: March 14, 2011 - 12:08 PM
Curbing chronic wasting disease remains a concern; officials are increasing enforcement.
*** Almost 500 captive deer and elk have escaped from Minnesota farms over the past five years, and 134 were never recaptured or killed.
*** So far this year, 17 deer have escaped, and officials are still searching for many of those.
The escapes fuel concern that a captive animal infected with a disease such as chronic wasting disease (CWD) could spread it to the state's wild deer herd. There are 583 deer and elk farms in Minnesota, holding about 15,000 animals. Since 2002, CWD has been confirmed on four farms, and herds there were killed. This year, the first confirmed case of the fatal brain disease in a Minnesota wild deer was found near Pine Island – where a captive elk farm was found in 2009 to be infected with CWD.
State officials with the Board of Animal Health, which oversees the deer and elk farms, and the Department of Natural Resources say there is no firm evidence the elk herd, since destroyed, is responsible for infecting that deer.
But given the proximity of the cases, suspicion remains high. And others say the continued escape of captive animals is problematic.
"It's a loose cannon, and unfortunately it has the potential of threatening our entire wild deer herd," said Mark Johnson, executive director of the Minnesota Deer Hunters Association. He only recently learned that 109 deer and elk escaped in 32 incidents in 2010, and 24 of those animals never were recovered.
"The escapes themselves are startling and worrisome, but the two dozen not accounted for are a real concern," he said.
Dr. Paul Anderson, an assistant director at the Board of Animal Health, said the escapes are unacceptable.
"We've talked to the industry people and we all agree those numbers are too high," Anderson said. "We and the producers need to do a better job. We're going to increase our enforcement in 2011."
But he said the risk to the wild deer herd is minimal. Deer and elk generally die within three years of exposure to CWD, and 551 of the 583 Minnesota farms have had CWD surveillance for three or more years.
"We're very confident those farms don't have CWD," he said. As for the other 32 farms, "we don't think they have CWD either, but our confidence levels are not as good. We're pushing them."
The law requires farmers to maintain 8-foot fences, but most of the escapes are caused by human error, Anderson said. "They didn't close a gate or didn't get it shut right," he said.
Captive deer and elk brought into the state must come from herds that have been CWD-monitored for at least three years. Anderson said 184 animals were shipped here in the past year, and farmers exported 1,200 outstate.
The DNR is hoping the lone wild deer that tested positive for CWD is an aberration. Officials have long said CWD is potentially devastating to the state's wild deer herd. The DNR is killing 900 deer near Pine Island to determine if other deer might have the disease. So far, all have tested negative. Since 2002, the agency has tested more than 32,000 hunter-harvested deer, elk and moose.
While the Board of Animal Health licenses and oversees the deer and elk farms, the DNR is responsible for animals that have escaped for more than 24 hours. Escaped deer and elk can keep both DNR conservation officers and wildlife managers busy.
Tim Marion, an assistant area wildlife manager in Cambridge, has 38 deer and elk farms in his four-county work area, which includes Isanti, Chisago, Mille Lacs and Kanabec counties. Since last August, he's had 21 animals escape from four farms. Dogs broke into two pens, a tree fell on a fence in a third and another owner said someone opened a gate while he was away.
Four of those deer were shot and seven recaptured. Ten remain unaccounted for. Finding them can be difficult. Of nine deer that escaped from a farm near Mora, officials shot one two miles away, another four miles away and a third 8.5 miles from the farm. All were reported by people who spotted the animals at recreational deer feeders because they had tags in one ear, as required by law.
"There's no way we would have gotten any of these deer without the landowners helping us," Marion said.
But he has another problem.
"Three of those deer out there have no tags in the ear," he said. Will he find them?
"All I can say is we're trying," he said.
DNR conservation officer Jim Guida of Nisswa knows firsthand about escaped deer. He was bow hunting last fall near home when he shot a 10-point buck. Later, he was stunned to find a tag in its left ear.
"I thought it might be a [wild] research deer tagged at Camp Ripley," Guida said.
Wrong. It had escaped from a farm a year earlier.
see ;
Friday, September 28, 2012
Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota
OHIO SHOOTING PEN GAME FARM ESCAPEES
Runaways from deer farm face death sentence from state wildlife officials Published: Tuesday, May 05, 2009, 6:30 AM Updated: Tuesday, May 05, 2009, 6:32 AM
HUNTSBURG TOWNSHIP — Joe Byler overlooked the open gate at his Geauga County farm. His animals didn't.
Seven trophy whitetailed deer being raised by Byler meandered out of their suddenly not-so-fenced-in pen on April 26. It may prove to be a fatal escape. State wildlife officials intend to shoot and kill any runaways that Byler fails to round up within the next few days.
Three remained on the lam as of Monday afternoon. Byler managed to recapture the other big money bucks last week with the help of friends.
Monday, June 11, 2012
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting
Saturday, February 04, 2012
Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised
IDAHO CAPTIVE SHOOTING PEN GAME FARMS ESCAPEES
IDAHO CAPTIVE ELK ESCAPES
Elk That Escaped From Game Farm Are Seen as Threat to Wild Herds By JIM ROBBINS Published: October 7, 2006 TETONIA, Idaho — There is an elk hunt going on in the forests and farm fields near here at the foot of the craggy Teton Mountains. Ordinarily, that would be no great surprise, but the reason behind it is.
The elk are domesticated animals, raised on a game farm less than 10 miles from Yellowstone National Park, which is home to thousands of wild elk. Recently, a bear tore open a fence and the elk escaped, said Dr. Rex Rammell, a veterinarian who owned the farm. And that has led to a state-ordered death warrant against them.
Domestic elk are controversial in the West. Idaho wildlife officials worry that the animals could pollute the genetic purity of the region’s native elk or could carry chronic wasting disease or other illnesses and infect the wild herds.
“It’s a huge unknown,” said Steve Schmidt, regional supervisor for Idaho Fish and Game in Idaho Falls. “It’s a frightening thing because we can’t predict what the outcome will be.”
Dr. Rammell condemned the shooting of his escaped animals, saying they were pure elk and posed no threat because of genetics or disease.
“It’s all false information to get the extermination of my herd and the elk industry in Idaho,” he said.
Dr. Rammell, who said he has sold his ranch and is getting out of the business, said that 100 to 160 animals escaped.
[As of Wednesday, he said, he had recaptured 40. Also Wednesday, state officials said 28 animals had been killed by Idaho Fish and Game employees and by hunters in a specially declared season.]
Officials said the captive animals had been quarantined.
The elk escaped around mid-August, but state officials say they were not notified of the escape until September. On Sept. 7, Gov. James E. Risch issued an order that allowed state wildlife officials to destroy the animals. Seven three-man “shooter teams” were sent to kill as many as possible.
Dr. Rammell said he could have captured the escaped elk by luring them into a trap baited with grain and molasses, but once the shooting started, he said, the herd scattered. “They are pretty spooked right now,” he said.
State officials said they could not wait until the escaped animals were rounded up. “The rut is beginning,” Mr. Schmidt said. Domestic elk mating with wild elk would pass on their genes.
The escape also worries officials in neighboring states and Yellowstone National Park. With archery hunting season under way, the Park Service has beefed up patrols and rangers have a shoot-on-sight order for the elk, which can be identified by ear tags. But some of the hunters have said the tags, which are small, are difficult to see from a distance.
“We haven’t seen any yet,” said Al Nash, a Yellowstone spokesman. “If they are spotted, the rangers are to shoot them and present the head with the ear tag to Idaho officials,” he said, so they can be tested.
Wildlife officials have sent samples from the elk already killed to labs for genetic testing and to determine whether the animals were diseased. The results will not be available for another week.
“We are concerned about the genetic threat to Yellowstone’s herd,” Mr. Nash said. “The Greater Yellowstone area is seen as a reservoir of a pure healthy population of elk.”
Officials in Wyoming are also on the lookout for the tagged animals.
The escape has angered some hunters who say they will renew their efforts to have game farms banned in Idaho.
“We are opposed to game farming and breeding of elk for these exact reasons,” said Mark Armstrong, a spokesman for the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, a hunter-oriented conservation group in Missoula, Mont. “It could threaten the genetic viability of elk throughout the region.”
Dr. Rammell has run afoul of state officials before and is appealing more than $60,000 in fines and legal fees for past violations related to his elk farm. He was arrested recently when he tried to stop state officials, who had shot one of his elk on a neighbor’s ranch, from removing it.
Private elk ranches are a contentious issue. They have been banned in Montana and Wyoming, which are also neighbors to Yellowstone, because of disease and genetic concerns. They are legal in Idaho, which has 78 private elk ranches.
Elk ranchers say 500 domesticated bulls were shot last year in Idaho. They said it costs around $6,000 for such a hunt. But many hunters say that the so-called shooter pens violate the notion of “fair chase” and are unethical.
“It’s wrong,” said Jim Posewitz, executive director of Orion, the Hunter’s Institute, which promotes ethics in hunting and has worked to ban private game farms in Montana.
“They call it a hunt, and seek the animal because of the value our society has placed on elk,” Mr. Posewitz said, “but that value comes from legitimate hunting, and without that they wouldn’t be selling those animals for the money they get. They steal that value.”
That view is disputed by Eldon Golightly, an elk rancher near Preston, Idaho, who said shooter pens fulfilled a need for people who are unable to hike the mountains. “It’s a thrill for these guys and gals to hunt in an elk farm,” he said.
In spite of the controversy, officials in Bingham County in late September gave Rulon Jones, a former professional football player, permission for a new 2,000-acre elk hunting preserve near Blackfoot.
160 Farm Elk Escape from Idaho Preserve
by David King on September 14, 2006
This has been a big story. These elk escaped a few weeks ago and are causing havoc for the poeple trying to get the controlled. We have been in contact with the Idaho Governor’s office trying to stay on this. We will continue to follow this story as it unfolds as there could be serious consequences the longer this goes on.
160 Domestic Elk Escape from in Eastern Idaho Game Preserve.
BOISE, ID – Governor Jim Risch signed an emergency Executive Order authorizing the immediate destruction of all domestic elk that recently escaped from an elk farm in Fremont County through a hole in the fence. “There is a crisis facing our elk herds in eastern Idaho. Because of the escape of domestic elk that was not reported as required by law, we now have these farm-raised elk mingling with our wild elk herds, This emergency action is being taken to protect our wild elk herds in Idaho. There is a serious risk of disease and an altered gene pool from these domestic elk and I am authorizing these activities to begin at the earliest time possible” said Risch.
ALABAMA CAPTIVE SHOOTING PEN FARM ESCAPE
Alabama officers kill escaped RED DEER/ELK hybrid to protect native DEER herd from CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
Alabama 11/04/11 al.com: by Jeff Dute – Conservation enforcement officers in Madison County killed a young red deer/elk hybrid bull earlier this week that had wandered more than 80 miles north, then east from where it is suspected to have escaped from an enclosure near Hanceville, said District I assistant supervising wildlife biologist Mitchell Marks.
Marks said the estimated 450-pound bull’s path to where it was killed north of Huntsville was easy to track from the numerous phone calls the department received over the last two weeks. When no one claimed ownership, Marks said the decision to kill it was based on concerns over the possible spread of the always-fatal deer malady chronic wasting disease and for public safety reasons. “It’s not believed that this animal had CWD, but since we don’t know exactly where it came from, first we have to test to make sure it doesn’t,” he said.
“We don’t want to jeopardize our deer herd at all. Second, people in Alabama are not used to seeing an animal of this size on our state’s roads. Something that big could be a public hazard that we want to remove.” There is no CWD test for live animals, so once it was killed, the hybrid’s head was removed and sent for testing while the carcass was buried, Marks said. Kevin Dodd, Alabama’s assistant chief of enforcement said since state regulations only mention deer in regard to seasons and bag limits, hunters who happen to encounter a non-native species such as the sika deer shot by a bowhunter in Jackson County on Monday or even an elk are within their rights to legally kill it.
“If they happen to see a sika or an elk, it’s fair game as far as the law’s concerned,” Dodd said. “Shoot it, drag it to the truck and have it packaged at the processor.” As an example, Dodd said a hunter legally killed what he thought was the biggest whitetail doe of his life near Tuscaloosa last year. The animal turned out to be a cow elk that had escaped from an enclosure and that was twice as big as the average whitetail female.
PENNSYLVANIA SHOOTING PEN GAME FARM ESCAPEES
West Virginia DNR issues area ALERT advising that two ELK escaped from Pennsylvania facility near state border
Virginia 11/04/11 wvdnr.gov: News Release – The West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) has confirmed with officials from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) that at least two elk, including one adult bull and one cow, have escaped from a captive cervid facility (deer and elk farms) in Greene County, Pa. Greene County shares a common border with Marshall, Wetzel and Monongalia counties in West Virginia. The elk escaped from a captive cervid facility located approximately three miles from the West Virginia-Pennsylvania border. The PDA regulates captive cervid facilities in Pennsylvania. A representative of the agency was unaware if the recent escaped elk were tagged. The WVDNR regulates captive cervid facilities in West Virginia. In West Virginia, all captive cervids in breeding facilities must be ear-tagged, and there are currently no reported elk escapes from any facility in West Virginia. A bull elk has been seen recently in Wetzel County, W.Va., according to WVDNR officials. There have been no reports of cow elk sightings in either Wetzel County, W.Va., or Greene County, Pa. No free-ranging wild elk live within 150 miles of Wetzel County. The elk sighted in Wetzel County is likely the escaped animal from the captive facility in Pennsylvania.
Contact between escaped captive deer or elk and free-ranging white-tailed deer increases the risk of disease transmission from the captive animals to the native herd, according WVDNR biologists. The movement and/or escape of captive deer and elk increases this risk of contact and are one of the many possible modes of transmission for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from captive cervids to free-ranging white-tailed deer. “Monitoring and protecting West Virginia’s deer herd from CWD and other diseases is crucial to West Virginia’s economy and its natural resources,” said WVDNR Director Frank Jezioro. WVDNR advises residents in Marshall, Wetzel and Monongalia counties to contact the Farmington District Office at 304-825-6787 if they see an elk in these counties. Hunters are reminded that it is illegal to harvest any free-ranging elk in West Virginia.
Friday, November 04, 2011
Elk escape from captive cervid facility in Pennsylvania near West Virginia border West Virginia Division of Natural Resources
MICHIGAN CAPTIVE SHOOTING PEN GAME FARM ESCAPEES
A Risk-based Audit of the Captive/Privatelyowned Cervid Industry in Michigan Michigan Department of Natural Resources Report Series Issue Report No. 1 March 10, 2005
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Overall, auditors determined that 37% of all C/P-OC facilities were not in compliance with current regulations at the time of the audit. The principal areas of deficiency related to the identification of animals, the rate of CWD testing, conditions of fences, and the rate and reporting of escaped animals. snip...
Along with animal identification, CWD testing of Michigan C/P-OC, or more accurately, the lack of testing, was the greatest risk for introduction and propagation of the disease identified during this audit. In spite of a mandatory testing program for all C/P-OC over 16 months of age that die plus a representative percentage of culls, nearly 90% of the reported C/P-OC deaths were not tested for CWD. While some facilities have tested in good faith, nearly half of the audited Ranch and Full Registration facilities reported that they had submitted no CWD tests at all. Without adequate CWD testing, the introduction of CWD into the State s C/P -OC cannot be detected. More ominously, this same lack of testing means that we cannot rule out the possibility the disease is already here and currently propagating undetected. snip... These audit findings also revealed the risk of C/P-OC escapes. In spite of the fact that reporting of releases is mandatory in current regulations, it is clear not only that escapes occur but that they are rarely reported. Of 464 escapes reported to audit inspectors, only 8 releases were apparently reported to MDA. Twenty percent of Class IV and about 14% of Class III C/P-OC facilities experienced escapes, which is likely to be an underestimate. Adding to the risk is the fact that only half of the escaped C/P -OC from Ranches bore identification. Most escaped C/P-OC were reported to have been recovered, yet the time allowed for reporting and recovery under current regulations is sufficient to add substantial risk of CWD introduction even for recovered animals. snip...
" Captive/Privately Owned Cervid Facility Audit Report
PDF icon An audit of captive/privately owned cervid facilities that house deer, elk and other animals around the state showed that 37 percent of the facilities are not in compliance with current regulations for the industry.
Executive Summary
Synopsis of the report
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ILLINOIS CAPTIVE GAME FARM SHOOTING PEN ESCAPEES
ON THE OUTDOORS Hunt turns into giant undertaking December 15, 2005|BY LEW FREEDMAN It was approaching sunset on the Saturday of Illinois' second shotgun deer season in early December when Brandon Sachtleben spied the unidentified strolling object. A huge rack of antlers moved in and out of view. snip...
Finally, a taxidermist ruled out red stag. So was this an elk on the lam from a game farm? "I think that's the most obvious source," said Paul Shelton, IDNR wildlife program manager. "We have all sorts of exotics that show up for one reason or another. When you have these things in captivity, they're going to escape."
Shelton said game farm operators are supposed to mark their animals, but "everybody drives the speed limit too."
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
North Carolina commission sets up task force on deer farming
Two ‘elk’ slain near Antoich were European red deer that escaped from farm
BY DALE BOWMAN For Sun-Times Media November 8, 2012 10:28PM
Updated: November 9, 2012 2:31AM
It’s mistaken identity gone wild. Ron Mulholland thought he arrowed two wild elk last Friday from his deer stand on a farm outside of Antioch.
When James Minogue saw the story in Wednesday’s Sun-Times, he recognized the pair of breeding European red deer from the herd he helps manage for Avery Brabender on a farm in unincorporated Antioch. They, along with four others, escaped some time after Oct. 31 when a gate was opened or left open.
“It amazed me that they think they are elk and wild,’’ Minogue said.
However, elk and red deer are close enough to interbreed.
“I will talk to him,’’ Mulholland said. “I assumed they were wild and killed them. To me, they were elk. I don’t know. ... I feel bad for the guy that he would lose them. I reacted because I assumed it was an elk and I shot him.’’
“You don’t see elk in the wild in Illinois,’’ said Kevin Bettis, the duty officer in Springfield Thursday for the Illinois Conservation Police.
That’s tricky. A decade ago, Illinois didn’t have wolves or cougars, either. Both species now make regular appearances.
“These animals were hand-fed: We feed them bread, apples, corn,,’’ Minogue said.
Another tricky part is neither elk nor European red deer are protected or regulated under Illinois’ wildlife code. But these European red deer are considered domesticated animals. The herd is registered with the Illinois Department of Agriculture.
“It is no different than shooting a cow,’’ Bettis said.
However, Capt. Neal Serdar of Region II (northeast Illinois) checked with CPOs in southern Illinois, where escaped animals of such sort are more a more frequent issue.
Then he said, “The individual who shot the two red deer did not break any laws.’’
The Illinois Conservation Police consider the case closed. Whether there is any civil case would seem tricky at best, since the animals were loose.
Minogue said they recaptured two of the red deer already. He said the reason there were no ear tags is because they are a “contained, monitored herd.’’
It sounds like both parties can work it out.
“If it gets down to that, I would give him the antlers,’’ Mulholland said. “But I kind of feel it is his responsibility.’’
TEXAS CAPTIVE SHOOTING PEN GAME FARMS AND BREEDERS
Critics question broad powers of Texas Parks and Wildlife
WFAA Posted on March 1, 2011 at 10:00 PM
Updated Wednesday, Mar 2 at 12:25 PM
A News 8 investigation found that during an ongoing law enforcement investigation, Parks and Wildlife pushed through a change in state regulations so it could make a case.
Nobody involved has fond memories of December 6, 2010.
On that date, game wardens from Texas Parks and Wildlife shot and killed 71 captive deer at a Hunt County Ranch owned by James Anderton and his son Jimmie.
The men were deer breeders, raising prize bucks. Similar to breeding cattle or horses, deer breeding is a $650 million industry in Texas.
The Andertons were charged with transporting 125 deer from Arkansas to Texas. Moving deer across state lines is a violation of federal law.
The two men pleaded guilty to moving just one deer and were serving time in federal prison on that December day.
Parks and Wildlife said it was possible the out-of-state deer had infected the Andertons' deer with something called chronic wasting disease, or CWD.
The Bucks Stop Here
When deer breeder Billy Powell was nabbed for smuggling more than forty whitetails onto his East Texas farm, his case was hailed as the highest-dollar crime of its kind in history. But was he just a casualty of our ever-rabid hunting culture?
by Lee Hancock
January 2012
Powell was cornered. He surrendered 1,300 straws of semen, worth nearly $1 million, as well as a roomful of antlers and mounted deer heads. In June 2011 he pleaded guilty to smuggling more than $800,000 worth of deer from Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio and lying about it to investigators. (In exchange, prosecutors agreed to let his grandson plead guilty to misdemeanors.) Texas Deer Association officials booted Powell from their membership, telling reporters that news stories about deerzillas ignored their industry’s contributions. “We know how to improve our deer to keep Texas a destination state, so that people want to come and shoot a trophy in the pasture, not a freak in a pen with a rocking chair on its head,” said Kinsel.
Saturday, August 25, 2012 Missouri Suspends Issuing Permits for New Deer Breeders and Big-game Hunting Facilities http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/08/missouri-suspends-issuing-permits-for.html
Tuesday, June 05, 2012
Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session
Saturday, June 09, 2012
USDA Establishes a Herd Certification Program for Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States
Friday, August 24, 2012
Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America
Saturday, September 01, 2012
Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion
Monday, September 17, 2012
Rapid Transepithelial Transport of Prions Following Inhalation
Monday, November 26, 2012
Aerosol Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer
see history of my failed attempts to get the TAHC to start testing for CWD in far west Texas started back in 2001 – 2002 ;
Saturday, July 07, 2012
TEXAS Animal Health Commission Accepting Comments on Chronic Wasting Disease Rule Proposal
Considering the seemingly high CWD prevalence rate in the Sacramento and Hueco Mountains of New Mexico, CWD may be well established in the population and in the environment in Texas at this time.
Friday, June 01, 2012
TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS
LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL
Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003
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Newsdesk
Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America
Xavier Bosch
My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.
49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.
Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.
Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle.
To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.
Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have.
SNIP...FULL TEXT ;
now, a few things to ponder about those said double fences that will supposedly stop those deer from escaping.
what about water that drains from any of these game farms. surrounding water tables etc., are the double fences going to stop the water from becoming contaminated? where does it drain? who's drinking it?
Detection of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Water from a CWD-Endemic Area
65
Tracy A. Nichols*1,2, Bruce Pulford1, Christy Wyckoff1,2, Crystal Meyerett1, Brady Michel1, Kevin Gertig3, Jean E. Jewell4, Glenn C. Telling5 and M.D. Zabel1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA 2National Wildlife Research Center, Wildlife Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 3Fort Collins Water and Treatment Operations, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 4 Department of Veterinary Sciences, Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82070, USA 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Molecular Genetics and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40536, USA * Corresponding author- tracy.a.nichols@aphis.usda.gov
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only known transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife. Experimental and epidemiological data indicate that CWD can be transmitted horizontally and via blood and saliva, although the exact mode of natural transmission remains unknown. Substantial evidence suggests that prions can persist in the environment, implicating it as a potential prion reservoir and transmission vehicle. CWD- positive animals can contribute to environmental prion load via biological materials including saliva, blood, urine and feces, shedding several times their body weight in possibly infectious excreta in their lifetime, as well as through decomposing carcasses. Sensitivity limitations of conventional assays hamper evaluation of environmental prion loads in water. Here we show the ability of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify minute amounts of CWD prions in spiked water samples at a 1:1 x106 , and protease-resistant prions in environmental and municipal-processing water samples from a CWD endemic area. Detection of CWD prions correlated with increased total organic carbon in water runoff from melting winter snowpack. These data suggest prolonged persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission.
snip...
The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.
snip...end...full text at ;
what about rodents there from? 4 American rodents are susceptible to CWD to date. are those double fences going to stop these rodents from escaping these game farms once becoming exposed to CWD?
Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents
Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email: cjohnson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu
We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in "rigid loop" structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.
please see ;
Oral.29: Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to CWD Infection
Amy Nalls, Nicholas J. Haley, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Kelly Anderson, Davis M. Seelig, Dan S. Bucy, Susan L. Kraft, Edward A. Hoover and Candace K. Mathiason† Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu
Domestic and non-domestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to one prion disease, feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), thought to be transmitted through consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated meat. Because domestic and free ranging felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in CWD affected areas, we evaluated the susceptibility of domestic cats to CWD infection experimentally. Groups of n = 5 cats each were inoculated either intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD deer brain homogenate. Between 40–43 months following IC inoculation, two cats developed mild but progressive symptoms including weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors and ataxia—ultimately mandating euthanasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the brain of one of these animals (vs. two age-matched controls) performed just before euthanasia revealed increased ventricular system volume, more prominent sulci, and T2 hyperintensity deep in the white matter of the frontal hemisphere and in cortical grey distributed through the brain, likely representing inflammation or gliosis. PrPRES and widely distributed peri-neuronal vacuoles were demonstrated in the brains of both animals by immunodetection assays. No clinical signs of TSE have been detected in the remaining primary passage cats after 80 months pi. Feline-adapted CWD was sub-passaged into groups (n=4 or 5) of cats by IC, PO, and IP/SQ routes. Currently, at 22 months pi, all five IC inoculated cats are demonstrating abnormal behavior including increasing aggressiveness, pacing, and hyper responsiveness. Two of these cats have developed rear limb ataxia. Although the limited data from this ongoing study must be considered preliminary, they raise the potential for cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.
www.landesbioscience.com Prion
UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;
----- Original Message -----
From: David Colby
To: flounder9@verizon.net
Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX
Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM
Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations
Dear Terry Singeltary,
Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.
Warm Regards, David Colby
--
David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware
====================END...TSS==============
SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN
Wednesday, September 08, 2010
CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010
Monday, January 16, 2012
9 GAME FARMS IN WISCONSIN TEST POSITIVE FOR CWD
Sunday, January 22, 2012
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission
Thursday, February 17, 2011
Environmental Sources of Scrapie Prions
Greetings TAHC, Carol Pivonka, et al,
I kindly wish to comment on the proposed rule making for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”.
AS a layperson, and since the confirmed death of my mother to the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, I have followed the mad cow debacle/blunder, the CWD blunder, the scrapie blunder, and the human CJD science, daily since that day December 14, 1997 MOM DOD hvCJD. I made a promise to her about the fact I would not let this die with her. back then there was no information, and I made a promise I would my best to find this information, make it public, for everyone to know.
There is much science out there, updated peer review science, and transmission studies, that dispute some of the things said by TAHC, and other government agencies, I wish to kindly submit this science. I hope that my submission is made available to the public, and especially the members of the meeting that is to be held on September 18, 2012 meeting, to amend Chapter 40, entitled “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”.
My submission is as follows, and I will comment after each key point separately ;
Below are key points of the proposed rules to Chapter 40:
• Require additional cervid species such as North American Elk or Wapiti, red deer and Sika deer to participate in surveillance for CWD if they are being moved or transported within the state.
• Provide enrollment requirements for the TAHC Complete Monitored Herd Program for CWD, based in large part on the USDA interim final rule on CWD.
o Complete physical inventory of the herd every three years
o Fences must be 8 feet in height for herds enrolling after the rule is effective
o Require 30 feet of separation between herds, with no shared working facilities
o Requires reporting of all CWD suspicious animals and testing of all death losses in animals 12 months of age or older (changed from 16 months).
• Delegates authority to the Executive Director to issue an order to declare a CWD high risk area or county based on sound epidemiological principles for disease detection, control and eradication.
>>> • Require additional cervid species such as North American Elk or Wapiti, red deer and Sika deer to participate in surveillance for CWD if they are being moved or transported within the state.
1st and foremost, any voluntary cwd program will fail.
BY only requiring this, ONLY ‘if these cervids are being moved or transported within state’, and NOT in general, this is a mistake. Elk or Wapiti, red deer and Sika that are not moved within state, will not be in the surveillance program, and these animals could potentially risk CWD to other herd mates, that might be transported within state.
ALSO, these same cervids, once traded within state, could potentially be subclinically infected with CWD (considering cwd testing protocols, age limits etc.), and once traded within state, could it not be possible to then trade them out of state?
*** I propose this proposal should be that all cervids, should be in this CWD surveillance program, and this program should be MANDATORY, if the state is going to license ANY game farm or fenced in game farm/ranch. ...TSS
Monday, June 18, 2012
natural cases of CWD in eight Sika deer (Cervus nippon) and five Sika/red deer crossbreeds captive Korea and Experimental oral transmission to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)
Tuesday, June 19, 2012
Experimental Oral Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease to Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)
====================================
>>> • Provide enrollment requirements for the TAHC Complete Monitored Herd Program for CWD, based in large part on the USDA interim final rule on CWD.
o Complete physical inventory of the herd every three years
o Fences must be 8 feet in height for herds enrolling after the rule is effective
o Require 30 feet of separation between herds, with no shared working facilities
o Requires reporting of all CWD suspicious animals and testing of all death losses in animals 12 months of age or older (changed from 16 months).
FIRST LET’S look at the USDA interim final rule on CWD and my submission ;
Comment from Terry Singeltary Document ID: APHIS-2011-0032-0002Document Type: Public Submission This is comment on Notice: Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program Docket ID: APHIS-2011-0032RIN: Topics: No Topics associated with this document
View Document: Show Details
Document Subtype: Public Comment Status: Posted Received Date: January 24 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Date Posted: January 25 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Comment Start Date: January 24 2012, at 12:00 AM Eastern Standard Time Comment Due Date: March 26 2012, at 11:59 PM Eastern Daylight Time Tracking Number: 80fa2c68 First Name: Terry Middle Name: S. Last Name: Singeltary City: Bacliff Country: United States State or Province: TX Organization Name: LAYPERSON Submitter's Representative: CJD TSE PRION VICTIMS
Comment:
Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program (Document ID APHIS-2011-0032-0001) I believe that any voluntary program for CWD free herd certification from game farms will be futile, as was the partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban of August 4, 1997. That failed terribly, with some 10,000,000 of banned blood laced MBM being fed out in 2007, a decade post August 4, 1997 partial and voluntary ban. Game farms are a petri dish for CWD TSE Prion disease, with Wisconsin having documented 9 CWD infected game farms, with one having the highest CWD infection rate in the world, 80% CWD infection rate. I believe that all game farms should be SHUT DOWN PERMANENTLY. CWD TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit. you cannot cook the CWD TSE prion disease out of meat. you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE. Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well. the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes. IN fact, you should also know that the CWD TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades. you can bury it and it will not go away. CWD TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area. it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
Tuesday, December 20, 2011 CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
additional data submission ;
Name: Terry S. Singeltary
Address: Bacliff, TX,
Submitter's Representative: CJD TSE PRION VICTIMS
Organization: LAYPERSON
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
General Comment
Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program (Document ID APHIS-2011-0032-0001)
I believe that any voluntary program for CWD free herd certification from game farms will be futile, as was the partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban of August 4, 1997. That failed terribly, with some 10,000,000 of banned blood laced MBM being fed out in 2007, a decade post August 4, 1997 partial and voluntary ban.
Game farms are a petri dish for CWD TSE Prion disease, with Wisconsin having documented 9 CWD infected game farms, with one having the highest CWD infection rate in the world, 80% CWD infection rate.
I believe that all game farms should be SHUT DOWN PERMANENTLY.
CWD TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit.
you cannot cook the CWD TSE prion disease out of meat.
you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE.
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well.
the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes.
IN fact, you should also know that the CWD TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades.
you can bury it and it will not go away.
CWD TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area.
it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with.
that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
=====================================
>>> o Complete physical inventory of the herd every three years
By only doing a physical inventory of the herd every three years, any cervid escapee from any game farm will not be detected for 3 years. This will allow 3 years for any potential CWD infected cervid that might escape to infect the wild herds.
*** I propose a physical inventory of the herd should be done every year, and this should be mandatory. ...TSS
snip...see full text ;
Friday, October 12, 2012
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD RISK FACTORS FOR TRANSMISSION TO HUMANS
Envt.06:
Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates
Emmanuel Comoy,1,† Valérie Durand,1 Evelyne Correia,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Jürgen Richt,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Juan-Maria Torres,5 Paul Brown,1 Bob Hills6 and Jean-Philippe Deslys1
1Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa, ON Canada; 3Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS USA; 4INRA; Jouy-en-Josas, France; 5INIA; Madrid, Spain; 6Health Canada; Ottawa, ON Canada
†Presenting author; Email: emmanuel.comoy@cea.fr
The constant increase of chronic wasting disease (CWD) incidence in North America raises a question about their zoonotic potential. A recent publication showed their transmissibility to new-world monkeys, but no transmission to old-world monkeys, which are phylogenetically closer to humans, has so far been reported. Moreover, several studies have failed to transmit CWD to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease for which a zoonotic potential has been proven. We described the transmission of the atypical BSE-L strain of BSE to cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting a weak cattle-to-primate species barrier. We observed the same phenomenon with a cattleadapted strain of TME (Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy). Since cattle experimentally exposed to CWD strains have also developed spongiform encephalopathies, we inoculated brain tissue from CWD-infected cattle to three cynomolgus macaques as well as to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine or human PrP. Since CWD prion strains are highly lymphotropic, suggesting an adaptation of these agents after peripheral exposure, a parallel set of four monkeys was inoculated with CWD-infected cervid brains using the oral route. Nearly four years post-exposure, monkeys exposed to CWD-related prion strains remain asymptomatic. In contrast, bovinized and humanized transgenic mice showed signs of infection, suggesting that CWD-related prion strains may be capable of crossing the cattle-to-primate species barrier. Comparisons with transmission results and incubation periods obtained after exposure to other cattle prion strains (c-BSE, BSE-L, BSE-H and cattle-adapted TME) will also be presented, in order to evaluate the respective risks of each strain.
Envt.07:
Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease
Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany
†Presenting author; Email: dausm@rki.de
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.
Friday, November 09, 2012
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
Saturday, October 6, 2012
TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2011 Annual Report

Sunday, December 2, 2012
CANADA 19 cases of mad cow disease SCENARIO 4: ‘WE HAD OUR CHANCE AND WE BLEW IT’

Friday, November 23, 2012

sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease update As at 5th November 2012 UK, USA, AND CANADA
MOM DOD 12/14/97 hvCJD confirmed. ...TSS
layperson
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net
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