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PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION September 29 – October

Posted Mar 18 2013 2:05pm
 
2012 RESOLUTIONS




INTERIM RESPONSE:




The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services (VS) recognizes the concerns of the United States Animal Health Association regarding chronic wasting disease (CWD) and appreciates the opportunity to respond. In fiscal year 2012, the congressional appropriation for the CWD program was reduced to approximately $1.9 million; further reductions are expected for fiscal year 2013 pending congressional budget approval. Consequently, VS no longer has funds to pay




UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION

 
 

2012 Resolution




___________________________________________________________________________




indemnity for CWD positive, suspect, or exposed farmed cervids. VS has directed remaining program funds to the administrative costs associated with implementation of the national CWD herd certification program and will continue to advise States on development of herd plans to manage CWD affected herds.


 
 



 
 



CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CONTROL BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

 
 

It has been stated by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services that (1) the goal of the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) program in the United States has now changed from eradication to controlling its spread, (2) there is no longer federal funding available to pay for CWD testing or to pay indemnity for CWD infected or exposed animals, and (3) depopulation of infected herds will no longer be required or expected.

 
 

With this major change in objectives, it is critical that we change the way we implement the CWD program in the United States. We now need a program that minimizes the risk of spreading CWD in farmed and wild cervidae without putting farmed cervidae producers out of business if their herds become CWD infected or exposed. We need a CWD control program that includes plans for how to (1) handle infected or exposed herds, (2) clean up infected herds without depopulation, and (3) provide outlets so producers can continue to sell velvet antler and live animals to slaughter or specified terminal facilities.

 
 

RESOLUTION:




The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services and state animal health regulatory officials to develop protocols for the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) control program that mitigate the risk of the spread of CWD and allow producers with CWD infected or exposed herds to continue operations under quarantine and which allow (1) addition of cervidae from CWD certified herds, (2) participation in herd plans such as test and removal, and (3) movement of velvet antler and live animals to slaughter or other approved terminal facilities.

 
 

UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION




2012 Resolution

 
 

___________________________________________________________________________

 
 

INTERIM RESPONSE:

 
 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services (VS) recognizes the concerns of the United States Animal Health Association and appreciates the opportunity to respond. In conjunction with the publication of the chronic wasting disease (CWD) final rule in June 2012, VS prepared a set of program standards governing the voluntary national herd certification program. The standards provide further explanation and guidance on how participating States and cervid owners can meet the program requirements to certify herds as low risk for CWD.

 
 

The standards are divided into two parts. Part A covers herd certification program participation requirements; registration, identification, and recordkeeping; surveillance and sampling; and diagnostics and testing. It also describes the requirements for interstate movement of cervids in accordance with the rule. Part B provides guidance to States for responding to findings of CWD in farmed cervids, in accordance with the national CWD herd certification program. This section also provides suggested best management practices that may be used by States and by herd owners to investigate and manage CWD-affected herds, including development of herd plans and factors affecting continuity of business.

 
 

VS will continue to serve in an advisory capacity to assist States and herd owners with these mitigation efforts.

 
 

VS has convened a working group to review the program standards (see Resolution 24).


 
 








UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION

 
 

2012 Resolution

 
 

116th Annual Meeting




October 18-24, 2012 ~ Greensboro, NC

 
 

_________________________________________________________

 
 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 21 APPROVED AS AMENDED

 
 

SOURCE: COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK

 
 

SUBJECT MATTER: FUNDING FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE TESTING

 
 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION:




The requirements for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) herd certification (9 CFR 55) and for interstate movement of farmed cervidae (9 CFR 81) specify that all farmed cervidae greater than 12 months of age that die or are slaughtered must be tested for CWD.

 
 
 
The CWD testing protocol that is recommended for farmed cervidae is the immunohistochemistry test using formalin fixed samples of brain stem or a retropharyngeal lymph node. The test on either of these tissues is highly sensitive and specific for detecting the presence of CWD prion. The test costs at least $25.00 per slide to perform at United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) approved laboratories.





In the past, USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services has provided funding to pay for CWD testing of wild and farmed cervids in the United States. Federal funding for this purpose is no longer available and farmed cervidae producers in most states must pay the entire cost for required CWD tests. Without federal funding for CWD testing, producer compliance with program requirements is likely to decrease. Without producer support, the program to control the spread of CWD in the United States may become less effective.

 
 
 

Funding for CWD testing was requested and approved in United States Animal Health Association 2011 resolution number 14.





RESOLUTION:





The United States Animal Health Association urges Congress to appropriate federal funding to pay the laboratory costs of testing farmed and wild cervidae for Chronic Wasting Disease.

 
 






 
 
 

UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION

 
 

2012 Resolution

 
 

___________________________________________________________________________

 
 

RESOLUTION NUMBER: 24 APPROVED

 
 

SOURCE: COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK




SUBJECT MATTER: CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE PROGRAM STANDARDS

 
 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

 
 
 

It has been stated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services (VS) that the goal of the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) program in the United States has now changed from eradication to controlling its spread.

 
 

The document entitled, "Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards" was published by USDA-APHIS-VS in July 2012. It was developed before the shift of the CWD program from eradication to control and without adequate input from state wildlife and animal health officials or farmed cervidae producers. Sections of the document suggest placing restrictions on farmed cervidae producers that do nothing to further the effort to control the spread of CWD. The restrictions are not based on current scientific knowledge and could undermine the success of CWD control programs that have been in place in many states for more than a decade.




RESOLUTION:

 
 
 
The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services (VS) to revise the document entitled, "Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards", and establish a Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Program Standards Committee to review and rewrite the document within 90 days so that it more appropriately reflects the needs of producers and regulatory officials charged with implementation of a program to control, not eradicate, CWD in the United States.





The United States Animal Health Association suggests that the CWD Program Standards Committee should be made up of representatives from and appointed by each of the following organizations: (1) the Exotic Wildlife Association, (2) the North American Elk Breeders Association, (3) the North American Deer Farmers Association, (4) the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, (5) the National Assembly of State Animal Health Officials, and (6) the USDA-APHIS-VS. UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION







2012 Resolution

 
 
 

___________________________________________________________________________





INTERIM RESPONSE:

 
 
 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services (VS) recognizes the concerns of the United States Animal Health Association (USAHA) and appreciates the opportunity to respond. To address a number of concerns voiced at the 2012 USAHA meeting, VS established a CWD Program Standards Working Group. The goal of the working group is to discuss stakeholder concerns with the CWD program standards and to recommend revisions as necessary. The group is composed of three representatives each from the National Assembly, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, and the cervid industry; two representatives from the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians; and experts from VS.

 
 
 

The working group first met on November 28, 2012, and continues to have weekly teleconferences. We expect revisions to the program standards to be completed by the first week of March. The revised program standards will then be made available for public comment through a notice in the Federal Register.





















PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION Adam’s Mark Buffalo Hotel Buffalo, New York September 29 – October 5, 2011




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USDA-APHIS-VS Chronic Wasting Disease National Program Patrice N. Klein of USDA APHIS VS – National Center for Animal Health Programs provided an update on the agency’s CWD–related activities: CWD Rule Update: The amended final rule on chronic wasting disease (CWD) is currently in departmental clearance. The rule will set minimum standards for interstate movement and establish the national voluntary Herd Certification Program (HCP).



Farmed/captive cervid surveillance testing: Through FY2010, VS conducted surveillance testing on approximately 20,000 farmed /captive cervids by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) standard protocol. As of Sept. 15, 2011, approximately 19,000 farmed /captive cervids were tested by IHC for CWD with funding to cover lab costs provided through NVSL. Farmed/captive cervid CWD status: The CWD positive captive whitetailed deer (WTD) herd reported in Missouri (February 2010) was indemnified and depopulation activities were completed in June 2011. All depopulated animals were tested for CWD, and no additional CWD positive animals were found.



In FY 2011, CWD was reported in two captive elk herds in Nebraska (December 2010 and April 2011). To date, 52 farmed/captive cervid herds have been identified in 11 states: Colorado, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Thirty-nine were elk herds and 13 were WTD herds. At this time, eight CWD positive herds remain: six elk herds in Colorado and the two elk herds in Nebraska.



Wild Cervid surveillance: In FY 2009 funding supported surveillance in approximately 74,330 wild cervids in 47 cooperating States. Wild cervid CWD surveillance totals are pending for fiscal year 2010 (2010-2011 calendar year) due to seasonal surveillance activities and completion of final cooperative agreement reporting to APHIS.



In fiscal year 2011, there are 15 ‘tier 1’ States, 20 ‘tier 2’ States, and 15 ‘tier 3’ States. Two new ‘tier 1’ States, Minnesota and Maryland, were added in fiscal year 2011 based on the new CWD detections in a free-ranging white-tailed deer in southeastern Minnesota and in western Maryland. Consequently, Delaware was upgraded to ‘tier 2’ status as an adjacent State to Maryland. For FY 2011, 45 States and 32 Tribes will receive cooperative agreement funds to complete wild cervid surveillance and other approved work plan activities. Based on FY 2012 projected budget reductions, future cooperative agreement funds will be eliminated.



APHIS CWD Funding: In FY 2011, APHIS received approximately $15.8 million in appropriated funding for the CWD Program. The President’s FY 2012 budget proposes to reduce program funding for CWD by $13.9 million, REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE



188



leaving the program with a request of $1.925 million to provide some level of Federal coordination for the national herd certification program (HCP). Consequently, APHIS is planning to amend its role in the program to one of Federal coordination. Based on the projected FY 2012 budget, funding for CWD cooperative agreements and indemnity funding for States and Tribes will be eliminated. Under this scenario, the States or cervid industry producers will likely be responsible for the costs of surveillance testing and indemnity for appraisal, depopulation, and disposal of CWD-positive animals. Commodity Health Line Structure: In the FY 2012 budget, livestock commodities regulated by USDA have been organized into “Commodity Health Line” structures or groupings. APHIS’ Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant (ECSR) Health line supports efforts to protect the health and thereby improve the quality and productivity of the equine, cervid and small ruminant industries. Activities supported by the ECSR Health Line range from monitoring and surveillance to investigation and response actions undertaken when health issues relevant to the industry are identified. APHIS also maintains regulations and program standards which guide ECSR activities at both the Federal and State/Tribal level.



The ECSR Health line funds essential activities necessary to maintain current ECSR surveillance and program operations while providing the flexibility to respond to new and emerging industry-specific health concerns. APHIS’ current activities include Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Slaughter Horse Transport, and Brucellosis/Tuberculosis in cervids. Overall, APHIS will use funding from the ECSR Health Line Item to support Agency efforts in the following mission areas: prevention, preparedness and communication; monitoring, surveillance and detection; response and containment; and continuity of business, mitigation and recovery. Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)



Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, Iowa provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a U.S. scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues, and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK




189




and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.




Committee Business:




The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Committee on Nominations and Resolutions. In summary, the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:




• Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids;




• Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement; and




• Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids.





snip...




RESOLUTION NUMBER: 14 -- APPROVED SOURCE: COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK SUBJECT MATTER: CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE FUNDING FOR CAPTIVE CERVIDS



BACKGROUND INFORMATION:




The proposed rule for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Herd Certification and Interstate Movement of Captive Cervids in farmed cervidae requires that all farmed cervidae greater than 12 months of age that die or are slaughtered must be tested for CWD. Farmed cervidae producers across the nation have complied with testing requirements, in large part because laboratory costs for CWD testing have traditionally been paid with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funds. The CWD testing protocol that is recommended for farmed cervidae is the immunohistochemistry (IHC) test using formalin fixed samples of brain stem and retropharyngeal lymph node from each animal. It is the most




NOMINATIONS AND RESOLUTIONS




349




sensitive and specific test for detecting CWD. The test is expensive and costs at least $25.00 per slide to perform at USDA approved laboratories. There is an urgency to maintain USDA funding to cover the costs of CWD testing for farmed cervidae. If USDA funding for CWD tests ends and farmed cervidae producers are forced to cover the cost of such tests, there is a real possibility that producer compliance with CWD testing requirements will decrease. Without producer cooperation, the national CWD control program for farmed cervidae could collapse.




RESOLUTION:




The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services to continue to provide funding to cover the laboratory costs of testing farmed cervidae for Chronic Wasting Disease by immunohistochemistry at all approved laboratories.





*****





RESOLUTION NUMBER: 15 -- APPROVED SOURCE: COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK SUBJECT MATTER: CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE HERD CERTIFICATION AND INTERSTATE MOVEMENT FINAL RULE




BACKGROUND INFORMATION:




Implementation of rules for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) that define the CWD herd certification program (9 CFR 55 Subpart B) and requirements for interstate movement of farmed cervidae (9 CFR 81) has been delayed since 2006.




There is an urgency to finalize these rules to ensure that CWD certification programs are uniformly administered in all states and that all farmed cervidae that move from state to state meet the same requirements. These rules are critically important to the survival of the farmed cervidae industry. These rules are needed to preserve the ability of producers to move farmed cervidae and their products interstate and internationally without unnecessary restrictions.




RESOLUTION:




The United States Animal Health Association urges the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services to finalize rules for Chronic Wasting Disease herd certification programs (9 CFR 55 Subpart B) and interstate movement of farmed cervidae (9 CFR 81).




*****




REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 350 RESOLUTION NUMBER: 16 -- APPROVED SOURCE:COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK SUBJECT MATTER: LIVE ANIMAL TESTING FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE




BACKGROUND INFORMATION:




Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in live animals is an important component of CWD Prevention and Control Programs. With the funding decrease for CWD indemnification, the need has increased for additional diagnostic tools to monitor CWD positive herds and epidemiologically linked herds that may be maintained in quarantine rather than depopulated. The use of recto-anal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) has been approved as a live animal test for Scrapie. There have been numerous studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of RAMALT in cervids.




There are several additional advantages to RAMALT sampling. There is a large amount of suitable tissue to sample and multiple sites can be sampled allowing repeat sampling over time.




RESOLUTION:




The United States Animal Health Association requests that the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services evaluate live animal tests, including the rectal biopsy (RAMALT), as a live animal test for Chronic Wasting Disease.





*****





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Update on Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States Tom Gidlewski, USDA-APHIS, National Wildlife Research Center It has been roughly a decade since we learned that chronic wasting disease (CWD) is not confined to Colorado and Wyoming. During this time funds were made available for extensive wildlife surveillance for CWD and numerous infected areas were discovered. This 2011 update on chronic wasting disease in the United States reviews the current status of infected states including the rate of disease spread as well as the success of management efforts. CWD current and applied research is reviewed. It appears that elimination of CWD in established populations is very unlikely and future efforts need to be directed toward minimizing the spread of the disease into unaffected areas. Hunters are apparently unwilling to participate in the drastic efforts necessary to severely reduce a cervid population to the level necessary to affect CWD transmission. We now know that the CWD agent is readily excreted in clinical animals and persists in the environment markedly facilitating transmission. Hopefully, technological advances such as vaccination will provide the necessary tools for intervention.




How can we do more with less? Techniques to increase efficiency of chronic wasting disease surveillance Dr. Daniel P. Walsh, National Wildlife Health Center, United States Geological Survey


With drastic reductions in resource allocations for chronic wasting disease (CWD) surveillance, pressure has been placed upon wildlife management agencies to continue to conduct necessary and oft times mandated disease surveillance efforts with minimal budgets. Under these constraints, there is an increasing demand for efficient and economical surveillance systems for disease detection among wildlife managers. In an effort to meet these needs, we developed a weighted surveillance system for use in detection of CWD in regions where it presently is not known to occur. Our weighted surveillance approach exploits inherent differences in prevalence among demographic groups arising from the CWD disease processes and dynamics to increase efficiency in disease detection. We employ a Bayesian statistical estimation procedure that allows us to account for the uncertainty in estimates of these inherent differences within a rigorous framework. The overall structure of our weighted surveillance technique is constructed using a “points” system, which allows for samples to enter the CWD surveillance stream from multiple sources, while being intuitive and easily applied by wildlife managers. We believe that our weighted surveillance approach provides a viable alternative to traditional surveillance approaches, and because of its potential to increase efficiency and thereby REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE




514




produce economic benefits; it represents the next step in the evolution of CWD surveillance.











USDA-APHIS-VS Chronic Wasting Disease National Program




Patrice N. Klein of USDA APHIS VS – National Center for Animal Health Programs provided an update on the agency’s CWD–related activities:





CWD Rule Update: The amended final rule on chronic wasting disease (CWD) is currently in departmental clearance. The rule will set minimum standards for interstate movement and establish the national voluntary Herd Certification Program (HCP). Farmed/captive cervid surveillance testing: Through FY2010, VS conducted surveillance testing on approximately 20,000 farmed /captive cervids by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) standard protocol. As of September 15, 2011, approximately 19,000 farmed /captive cervids were tested by IHC for CWD with funding to cover lab costs provided through NVSL.





Farmed/captive cervid CWD status: The CWD positive captive white-tailed deer (WTD) herd reported in Missouri (February 2010) was indemnified and depopulation activities were completed in June 2011. All depopulated animals were tested for CWD and no additional CWD positive animals were found.





In FY 2011, CWD was reported in two captive elk herds in Nebraska (December, 2010 and April 2011, respectively).





To date, 52 farmed/captive cervid herds have been identified in 11 states: CO, KS, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, NY, OK, SD, WI.





Thirty-nine were elk herds and 13 were WTD herds. At this time, eight CWD positive herds remain – six elk herds in Colorado and the two elk herds in Nebraska.





Wild Cervid surveillance: In FY 2009 funding supported surveillance in approximately 74,330 wild cervids in 47 cooperating States. Wild cervid CWD surveillance totals are pending for fiscal year 2010 (2010 – 2011 calendar year) due to seasonal surveillance activities and completion of final cooperative agreement reporting to APHIS.





In fiscal year 2011, there are 15 ‘tier 1’ States, 20 ‘tier 2’ States, and 15 ‘tier 3’ States. Two new ‘tier 1’ States, Minnesota and Maryland, were added in fiscal year 2011 based on the new CWD detections in a free-ranging white-tailed deer in southeastern Minnesota and in western Maryland. Consequently, Delaware was upgraded to ‘tier 2’ status as an adjacent State to Maryland. For FY 2011, 45 States and 32 Tribes will receive cooperative agreement funds to complete wild cervid surveillance and other approved work plan activities. Based on FY 2012 projected budget reductions, future cooperative agreement funds will be eliminated.





APHIS CWD Funding: In FY2011, APHIS received approximately $15.8 million in appropriated funding for the CWD Program. The President’s FY 2012 budget proposes to reduce program funding for CWD by $13.9 million, leaving the program with a request of $1.925 million to provide some level of Federal coordination for the national herd certification program (HCP).





Consequently, APHIS is planning to amend its role in the program to one of Federal coordination. Based on the projected FY 2012 budget, funding for CWD cooperative agreements and indemnity funding for States and Tribes will be eliminated. Under this scenario, the States or cervid industry producers will likely be responsible for the costs of surveillance testing and indemnity for appraisal, depopulation, and disposal of CWD-positive animals.





Commodity Health Line Structure: In the FY 2012 budget, livestock commodities regulated by USDA have been organized into ‘Commodity Health Line’ structures or groupings. APHIS’ Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant (ECSR) Health line supports efforts to protect the health and thereby improve the quality and productivity of the equine, cervid and small ruminant industries. Activities supported by the ECSR Health line range from monitoring and surveillance to investigation and response actions undertaken when health issues relevant to the industry are identified. APHIS also maintains regulations and program standards which guide ECSR activities at both the Federal and State/Tribal level.





The ECSR Health line funds essential activities necessary to maintain current ECSR surveillance and program operations while providing the flexibility to respond to new and emerging industry-specific health concerns. APHIS’ current activities include Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Slaughter Horse Transport, and Brucellosis/Tuberculosis in cervids. Overall, APHIS will use funding from the ECSR Health Line Item to support Agency efforts in the following mission areas: prevention, preparedness and communication; monitoring, surveillance and detection; response and containment; and continuity of business, mitigation and recovery





Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)




Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.




Committee Business:




The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:




Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids




Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement




Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids















how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??


? game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??


Tuesday, December 20, 2011


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.


Form 1100-001


(R 2/11)


NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM


SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update


FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING


TUESDAY


TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief




SUMMARY:


















*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.










2011



*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.










SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS

























Tuesday, June 05, 2012


Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session










Friday, August 31, 2012


COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review










Friday, August 24, 2012


Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America












Thursday, March 14, 2013


TEXAS DEER BREEDERS CHEER TWO NEW BILLS SB 1444 AND HB 2092 THAT COULD HELP POTENTIALLY ENHANCE CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD











Tuesday, December 18, 2012


*** A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk













2012 CDC REPORT ON CWD


Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012 Synopsis Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease



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Prevalence and Surveillance


Originally recognized only in southeastern Wyoming and northeastern Colorado, USA, CWD was reported in Canada in 1996 and Wisconsin in 2001 and continues to be identified in new geographic locations (Figure 1, panel A). CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).



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CWD surveillance programs are now in place in almost all US states and Canadian provinces (Figure 2, panel A). More than 1,060,000 free-ranging cervids have reportedly been tested for CWD (Figure 2, panel B) and ≈6,000 cases have been identified (Figure 2, panel C) according to data from state and provincial wildlife agencies.



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Testing of captive cervids is routine in most states and provinces, but varies considerably in scope from mandatory testing of all dead animals to voluntary herd certification programs or mandatory testing of only animals suspected of dying of CWD.



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Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5). In addition, CWD-infected deer are selectively preyed upon by mountain lions (5), and may also be more vulnerable to vehicle collisions (10). Long-term effects of the disease may vary considerably geographically, not only because of local hunting policies, predator populations, and human density (e.g., vehicular collisions) but also because of local environmental factors such as soil type (11) and local cervid population factors, such as genetics and movement patterns (S.E. Saunders, unpub. data).



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Controlling the spread of CWD, especially by human action, is a more attainable goal than eradication. Human movement of cervids has likely led to spread of CWD in facilities for captive animals, which has most likely contributed to establishment of new disease foci in free-ranging populations (Figure 1, panel A). Thus, restrictions on human movement of cervids from disease-endemic areas or herds continue to be warranted. Anthropogenic factors that increase cervid congregation such as baiting and feeding should also be restricted to reduce CWD transmission. Appropriate disposal of carcasses of animals with suspected CWD is necessary to limit environmental contamination (20), and attractive onsite disposal options such as composting and burial require further investigation to determine contamination risks. The best options for lowering the risk for recurrence in facilities for captive animals with outbreaks are complete depopulation, stringent exclusion of free-ranging cervids, and disinfection of all exposed surfaces. However, even the most extensive decontamination measures may not be sufficient to eliminate the risk for disease recurrence (20; S.E. Saunders et al. unpub. data)





























Saturday, March 10, 2012



*** CWD, GAME FARMS, urine, feces, soil, lichens, and banned mad cow protein feed CUSTOM MADE for deer and elk












Friday, February 08, 2013


*** Behavior of Prions in the Environment: Implications for Prion Biology











Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species











Sunday, November 11, 2012


*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012











Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012











Thursday, February 14, 2013


The Many Faces of Mad Cow Disease Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE and TSE prion disease














TSS
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