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Procedures for identifying infectious prions after passage through the digestive system of an avian species

Posted Dec 06 2013 5:33pm
J Vis Exp. 2013 Nov 6;(81). doi: 10.3791/50853.

 

Procedures for identifying infectious prions after passage through the digestive system of an avian species.

 

Fischer JW, Nichols TA, Phillips GE, Vercauteren KC. Source Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, USDA.

 

Abstract

 

Infectious prion (PrP(Res)) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases(1). Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal(2,3) as well as from environmental sources(4-6). Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrP(Res) material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrP(Res) material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger(7). We describe procedures used to document passage of PrP(Res) material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice.

 


 

 

as the crow flies, Jimmy crack corn, and they don't care CWD

 

 

Prion. 2013 Jul 3;7(4). [Epub ahead of print]

 

Could avian scavengers translocate infectious prions to disease-free areas initiating new foci of chronic wasting disease?

 

Fischer JW, Phillips GE, Nichols TA, Vercauteren KC. Source United States Department of Agriculture; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Wildlife Services; National Wildlife Research Center; Fort Collins, CO USA.

 

Abstract Mechanisms for the spread of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) in North American cervids, are incompletely understood, but primary routes include horizontal and environmental transmission. Birds have been identified as potential vectors for a number of diseases, where they ingest or are exposed to infected material and later shed the disease agent in new areas after flying substantial distances. We recently identified American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) as having the potential to translocate infectious prions in their feces. Our results suggest that this common, migratory North American scavenger is capable of translocating infectious prions to disease-free areas, potentially seeding CWD infection where no other initial source of pathogen establishment is forthcoming. Here we speculate on the role avian scavengers, like American crows, might play in the spatial dissemination of CWD. We also consider the role mammalian scavengers may play in dispersing prions.

 

KEYWORDS: American crows, CWD, Corvus brachyrhynchos, TSE, disease transmission, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy

 

PMID: 23822910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 


 

 

Greetings,

 

 

this is another example of why it is so important to properly dispose of carcasses, due to CWD risk factor, and if you bury it (incineration is much better), if you bury it, you better bury it deep, deep, deep, so scavengers cannot smell it and dig it up later, however, you risk tainting your water table with the CWD TSE prion in doing so.

 

I have also witnessed birds eating pet food. I have witnessed in a domestic aspect, and in the wild while hunting at livestock feeding stations.

 

so really, since in the USA, it is still legal to feed cervids back to cervids (as in ruminant/cervid protein), even if it is from a HIGH RISK CWD AREA, it would be futile to try and stop scavengers from eating CWD infected cervids, when humans are doing this through legal feed for cervids, that contain cervids from high risk CWD areas. ...

 

just my take...

 

kind regards, terry

 

 

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

 

Prion Remains Infectious after Passage through Digestive System of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)

 


 

 

Sunday, November 01, 2009

 

AS THE CROW FLIES, SO DOES CWD

 

American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and potential spreading of CWD through feces of digested infectious carcases

 


 

 

Monday, July 13, 2009

 

Deer Carcass Decomposition and Potential Scavenger Exposure to Chronic Wasting Disease

 


 

 

Sunday, July 07, 2013

 

Could avian scavengers translocate infectious prions to disease-free areas initiating new foci of chronic wasting disease?

 

Prion. 2013 Jul 3;7(4). [Epub ahead of print]

 


 

 

another fine example letter. this one will floor you. 'Jimmy crack corn, and they don't care' no big deal, just flush those mixers with corn, then feed the corn to the deer. NOooooo problem.

 

 

Subject: ''MORE'' 'VIOLATORS' of Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed--U.S.A. (more and more MAD COW FEED RULES BROKEN IN U.S.A.]

 

Date: Tue, 24 Apr 2001 09:45:15 –0700

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

 

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

 

To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de References: 1 , 2

 

######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

 

Greetings again List Members,

 

''MORE'' violations and warning letters over FDA MAD COW feed ban regulations that have not been complied with since the Aug. 4, 1997 'partial' feed ban was implemented...

 

they implemented something, then forgot to enforce it $$$$$

 

another fine example letter. this one will floor you. 'Jimmy crack corn, and they don't care' no big deal, just flush those mixers with corn, then feed the corn to the deer. NOooooo problem.

 

these people must be brain dead??

 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

 

April 9, 2001 WARNING LETTER

 

01-PHI-12 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED

 

Brian J. Raymond, Owner Sandy Lake Mills 26 Mill Street P.O. Box 117 Sandy Lake, PA 16145 PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT

 

Tel: 215-597-4390

 

Dear Mr. Raymond:

 

Food and Drug Administration Investigator Gregory E. Beichner conducted an inspection of your animal feed manufacturing operation, located in Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania, on March 23, 2001, and determined that your firm manufactures animal feeds including feeds containing prohibited materials. The inspection found significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, code of Federal Regulations, part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. The regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) . Such deviations cause products being manufactured at this facility to be misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(f), of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).

 

Our investigation found failure to label your swine feed with the required cautionary statement "Do Not Feed to cattle or other Ruminants" The FDA suggests that the statement be distinguished by different type-size or color or other means of highlighting the statement so that it is easily noticed by a purchaser.

 

In addition, we note that you are using approximately 140 pounds of cracked corn to flush your mixer used in the manufacture of animal feeds containing prohibited material. This flushed material is fed to wild game including deer, a ruminant animal. Feed material which may potentially contain prohibited material should not be fed to ruminant animals which may become part of the food chain.

 

The above is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deviations from the regulations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law. We have enclosed a copy of FDA's Small Entity Compliance Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation... blah, blah, blah...

 


 

 

-------- Original Message --------

 

Subject: MAD DEER FEED BAN WARNING LETTER RECALL 6 TONS DISTRIBUTED USA

 

Date: Wed, 20 Oct 2004 14:53:56 –0500

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." flounder@WT.NET

 

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE-L@UNI-KARLSRUHE.DE

 

To: BSE-L@UNI-KARLSRUHE.DE

 

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

 

PRODUCT

 

Product is __custom made deer feed__ packaged in 100 lb. poly bags. The product has no labeling. Recall # V-003-5.

 

CODE

 

The product has no lot code. All custom made feed purchased between June 24, 2004 and September 8, 2004.

 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

 

Farmers Elevator Co, Houston, OH, by telephone and letter dated September 27, 2004. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 

REASON

 

Feed may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues which is prohibited in ruminant feed.

 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

 

Approximately 6 tons.

 

DISTRIBUTION OH.

 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR October 20, 2004

 


 

 

################# BSE-L-subscribe-request@uni-karlsruhe.de #################

 

 

now, just what is in that deer feed? _ANIMAL PROTEIN_

 

 

Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES

 

Date: Sat, 25 May 2002 18:41:46 –0700

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

 

Reply-To: BSE-L

 

To: BSE-L

 

8420-20.5% Antler Developer For Deer and Game in the wild Guaranteed Analysis Ingredients / Products Feeding Directions

 

snip...

 

_animal protein_

 


 

 

REFERENCES

 

snip...see full text ;

 

 

-------- Original Message --------

 

Subject: DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

 

Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 –0500

 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: fdadockets@oc.fda.gov

 

Greetings FDA,

 

i would kindly like to comment on;

 

Docket 03D-0186

 

FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

 


 

 

Friday, December 14, 2012

 

 

DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012

 

snip...

 

In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.

 

Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:

 

1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and

 

2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.

 

Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.

 

The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.

 

Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.

 

There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.

 

snip...

 

36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.

 

snip...

 

The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).

 

snip...

 

In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.

 

snip...

 

In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.

 

snip...

 

Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.

 

 

snip...

 

 


 

 

SNIP...SEE ;

 

 

Friday, December 14, 2012

 

DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012

 


 

 

Wednesday, December 04, 2013

 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD and Land Value concerns ?

 


 

 

PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD

 

 

Thursday, August 08, 2013

 

Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America

 


 

 

Sunday, September 01, 2013

 

hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease

 


 

 

Wednesday, September 04, 2013

 

***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...

 


 

 

Monday, October 07, 2013

 

The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations

 


 

 

Friday, November 29, 2013

 

Identification of Misfolded Proteins in Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Prion Diseases

 

International Journal of Cell Biology

 


 

 

Thursday, December 05, 2013

 

National Scrapie Eradication Program October 2013 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2014 TSE PRION REPORT

 


 

 

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 233 / Wednesday, December 4, 2013

 

TO ALL IMPORTING COUNTRIES THAT IMPORTS FROM THE USA, BE WARNED, NEW MAD COW BSE REGULATIONS USDA, AND OIE, not worth the paper the regulations were wrote on, kind of like the mad cow feed ban of August 1997, nothing but ink on paper $$$

 

full text ;

 


 

 

Monday, December 02, 2013

 

A parliamentary inquiry has been launched today into the safety of blood, tissue and organ screening following fears that vCJD – the human form of ‘mad cow’ disease – may be being spread by medical procedures

 


 

 

Friday, November 22, 2013

 

Wasting disease is threat to the entire UK deer population

 


 

 

 

TSS
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