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Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought

Posted Oct 18 2012 2:17pm
 Impact of deer that died of chronic wasting disease could hit 100 farms across the state


Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM


 By MARCUS SCHNECK, The Patriot-NewsThe Patriot-News



YORK SPRINGS -- The number of deer exposed to chronic wasting disease that are kept on private farms in Pennsylvania could be much larger than first thought, state officials said Wednesday night.


 Assistant State Veterinarian David Griswold told a public meeting organized by the state Game Commission that more than 100 farms across the state could be impacted because “deer farmers in Pennsylvania tend to move a lot of deer.



What was thought to be three farms affected by chronic wasting disease has turned out to be four. All are quarantined.
 After officials realized how many deer could have come into contact with another that died of the disease, “it quickly became clear how complicated this process can get very quickly,” Griswold said.


 Agency staff are methodically tracing every animal that came into contact with the dead deer in the last five to 10 years, he said.


 CWD is a fatal disease that affects the brain and nervous system of deer, elk and moose. It is characterized by loss of body condition, behavioral abnormalities and death.


 It cannot be transmitted to humans, health officials say.


 Get more information on chronic wasting disease here.


 There are more than 25,000 deer, elk and moose on more than 11,000 farms across the state, officials said.


 State officials also revealed that the site where the deer died is one of two owned by the same deer farmer.


 Both sites, in York and Adams counties, as well as the deer farm near Williamsport where the deer was born have been placed under state quarantine.


“Don’t buy and don’t sell until we know a whole lot more than we know now,” Griswold advised deer farmers. “Keep what you’ve got. I wouldn’t do anything else.


 “You could buy an animal that’s been on an exposed property, and now you’re part of the quarantine.”


 As for deer hunters, the Game Commission had better news.


 “We have not found it yet in the wild, and that’s the good news. Let’s keep in context that this is one deer in a captive farm that was infected with CWD,” Game Commission spokesman Jerry Feaser said.


 The commission has created a 600-square-mile disease-management area in Adams and York counties in hopes of stopping any spread of the disease.


 Any deer harvested during the deer rifle season in that area will have to be taken to a check station to be tested for the disease.




http://blog.pennlive.com/pa-sportsman/2012/10/pennsylvania_department_of_agriculture_reveals_a_fourth_site_involved_in_chronic_wasting_disease_sit.html




 > There are more than 25,000 deer, elk and moose on more than 11,000 farms across the state, officials said.



this is crazy. the states are going to have to regulate how many farms that are allowed, or every state in the USA will wind up being just one big private fenced in game farm.


kind of like they did with the shrimping industry in the bays, when there got to be too many shrimp boats, you stop issuing permits, and then lower the exist number of permits, by not renewing them, due to reduced permits issued.

 how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??


 11,000 game farms X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??



Tuesday, December 20, 2011


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.


 snip...see full text and much more here ;


  http://dnr.wi.gov/org/nrboard/2011/december/12-11-2b2.pdf



new url for this report here. I would download it. ...


 CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


Form 1100-001


(R 2/11)


NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM


SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update


FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING


TUESDAY


TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief


SUMMARY:


http://dnr.wi.gov/about/nrb/2011/december/12-11-2b2.pdf


  http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/12/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-wisconsin.html



2010 WISCONSIN CAPTIVE DEER ESCAPES


There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. ...


snip...


Deer, elk continue to escape from state farms

Article by: DOUG SMITH , Star Tribune Updated: March 14, 2011 - 12:08 PM

Curbing chronic wasting disease remains a concern; officials are increasing enforcement.

Almost 500 captive deer and elk have escaped from Minnesota farms over the past five years, and 134 were never recaptured or killed.

So far this year, 17 deer have escaped, and officials are still searching for many of those.


 see ;


 Friday, September 28, 2012


Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/09/stray-elk-renews-concerns-about-deer.html




 Monday, June 11, 2012


OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting


  http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/06/ohio-captive-deer-escapees-and-non.html




*** Friday, October 12, 2012


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)” TO: comments@tahc.state.tx.us ; Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/10/texas-animal-health-commission-tahc-is.html




 snip...see full text and more here ;



*** Monday, October 15, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA GAME COMMISSION AND AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD MONITORING EFFORTS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 15, 2012
 Release #124-12


  http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/10/pennsylvania-game-commission-and.html




 *** Thursday, October 11, 2012


Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive


  http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/10/pennsylvania-confirms-first-case-cwd.html




Friday, August 31, 2012


COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/08/committee-on-captive-wildlife-and.html



Friday, August 24, 2012


Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America

  http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/08/diagnostic-accuracy-of-rectal-mucosa.html





2012 POTENTIAL FOR CWD TO HUMANS


Envt.06:


Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates


Emmanuel Comoy,1,† Valérie Durand,1 Evelyne Correia,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Jürgen Richt,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Juan-Maria Torres,5 Paul Brown,1 Bob Hills6 and Jean-Philippe Deslys1


1Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa, ON Canada; 3Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS USA; 4INRA; Jouy-en-Josas, France; 5INIA; Madrid, Spain; 6Health Canada; Ottawa, ON Canada


†Presenting author; Email: emmanuel.comoy@cea.fr


 The constant increase of chronic wasting disease (CWD) incidence in North America raises a question about their zoonotic potential. A recent publication showed their transmissibility to new-world monkeys, but no transmission to old-world monkeys, which are phylogenetically closer to humans, has so far been reported. Moreover, several studies have failed to transmit CWD to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease for which a zoonotic potential has been proven. We described the transmission of the atypical BSE-L strain of BSE to cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting a weak cattle-to-primate species barrier. We observed the same phenomenon with a cattleadapted strain of TME (Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy). Since cattle experimentally exposed to CWD strains have also developed spongiform encephalopathies, we inoculated brain tissue from CWD-infected cattle to three cynomolgus macaques as well as to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine or human PrP. Since CWD prion strains are highly lymphotropic, suggesting an adaptation of these agents after peripheral exposure, a parallel set of four monkeys was inoculated with CWD-infected cervid brains using the oral route. Nearly four years post-exposure, monkeys exposed to CWD-related prion strains remain asymptomatic. In contrast, bovinized and humanized transgenic mice showed signs of infection, suggesting that CWD-related prion strains may be capable of crossing the cattle-to-primate species barrier. Comparisons with transmission results and incubation periods obtained after exposure to other cattle prion strains (c-BSE, BSE-L, BSE-H and cattle-adapted TME) will also be presented, in order to evaluate the respective risks of each strain.



Envt.07:


Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease


Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany

 †Presenting author; Email: dausm@rki.de


 Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.


  http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/prion/Prion5-Supp-PrionEnvironment.pdf?nocache=1333529975







Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012



Samuel E. Saunders1, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, and Jason C. Bartz



Author affiliations: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, Nebraska, USA (S.E. Saunders, S.L. Bartelt-Hunt); Creighton University, Omaha (J.C. Bartz)



Synopsis



Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease



snip...




CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈ 100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).




 SNIP...




 Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).





PLEASE STUDY THIS MAP, COMPARE FARMED CWD TO WILD CWD...TSS




http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/11-0685-f1.htm





Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential. However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern...



snip...



Reasons for Caution There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions (3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2 strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human) genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies transmission potentials of CWD.



Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut degradation.



Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research, epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently identified,...



snip...





http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/11-0685_article.htm






PLUS, THE CDC DID NOT PUT THIS WARNING OUT FOR THE WELL BEING OF THE DEER AND ELK ;



Thursday, May 26, 2011


Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey


Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html



NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;



Wednesday, March 18, 2009


Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html



now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ??


 “Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”



From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)

Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??

Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

From: "Belay, Ermias"

To:

Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Dear Sir/Madam,

In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.

That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention



-----Original Message-----

From:

Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

To: rr26k@nih.gov ; rrace@niaid.nih.gov ; ebb8@CDC.GOV

Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS

Thursday, April 03, 2008

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

Sigurdson CJ.


 snip...


*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,


 snip...

full text ;


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/04/prion-disease-of-cervids-chronic.html




CWD ongoing experiment on humans, long term $$$



Monday, November 14, 2011


WYOMING Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/11/wyoming-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cwd.html




Wednesday, November 16, 2011


Wisconsin Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/11/wisconsin-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cwd.html



Sunday, November 13, 2011


COLORADO CWD CJD TSE PRION REPORTING 2011


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/11/colorado-cwd-cjd-tse-prion-reporting.html




 UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;



CWD to cattle figures CORRECTION



Greetings,


I believe the statement and quote below is incorrect ;


"CWD has been transmitted to cattle after intracerebral inoculation, although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). This finding raised concerns that CWD prions might be transmitted to cattle grazing in contaminated pastures."


Please see ;


Within 26 months post inoculation, 12 inoculated animals had lost weight, revealed abnormal clinical signs, and were euthanatized. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of a unique pattern of the disease agent in tissues of these animals. These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.


  http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=194089



" although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). "


 shouldn't this be corrected, 86% is NOT a low rate. ...

kindest regards,



Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518


Thank you!


 Thanks so much for your updates/comments. We intend to publish as rapidly as possible all updates/comments that contribute substantially to the topic under discussion.


http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/letters/submit



re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations


1Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 Correspondence: stanley@ind.ucsf.edu


  http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/3/1/a006833.full.pdf+html



Mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk have been reported to develop CWD. As the only prion disease identified in free-ranging animals, CWD appears to be far more communicable than other forms of prion disease. CWD was first described in 1967 and was reported to be a spongiform encephalopathy in 1978 on the basis of histopathology of the brain. Originally detected in the American West, CWD has spread across much of North America and has been reported also in South Korea. In captive populations, up to 90% of mule deer have been reported to be positive for prions (Williams and Young 1980). The incidence of CWD in cervids living in the wild has been estimated to be as high as 15% (Miller et al. 2000). The development of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing cervid PrP, and thus susceptible to CWD, has enhanced detection of CWD and the estimation of prion titers (Browning et al. 2004; Tamgüney et al. 2006). Shedding of prions in the feces, even in presymptomatic deer, has been identified as a likely source of infection for these grazing animals (Williams and Miller 2002; Tamgüney et al. 2009b). CWD has been transmitted to cattle after intracerebral inoculation, although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). This finding raised concerns that CWD prions might be transmitted to cattle grazing in contaminated pastures.


snip...


http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/3/1/a006833.full.pdf+html




----- Original Message -----

From: David Colby To: flounder9@verizon.net

Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX

Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM

Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations

Dear Terry Singeltary,

Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter. Warm Regards, David Colby -- David Colby, PhDAssistant Professor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware


===========END...TSS==============



SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;


http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2011/01/enlarging-spectrum-of-prion-like.html


 UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN Wednesday, September 08, 2010 CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html




Sunday, August 19, 2012


Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculation 2012


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/08/susceptibility-of-cattle-to-agent-of.html




PO-081: Chronic wasting disease in the cat— Similarities to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE)


  http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/prion/04-Prion6-2-Pathogenesis-and-pathology.pdf


  http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/05/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-prion2012.html


  http://www.prion2011.ca/files/PRION_2011_-_Posters_(May_5-11).pdf


  http://felinespongiformencephalopathyfse.blogspot.com/2011/08/susceptibility-of-domestic-cats-to-cwd.html




PO-081: Chronic wasting disease in the cat— Similarities to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE)


http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/prion/04-Prion6-2-Pathogenesis-and-pathology.pdf


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/05/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-prion2012.html




Thursday, May 31, 2012


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PRION2012 Aerosol, Inhalation transmission, Scrapie, cats, species barrier, burial, and more


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/05/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-prion2012.html




 *** Saturday, October 6, 2012


 TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2011 Annual Report



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/10/transmission-differentiation-and.html




 TSS
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