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PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD

Posted Nov 13 2012 10:26pm
Another deer linked to site of Pennsylvania's first confirmed case of chronic wasting disease is reported as escaped into the wild


Published: Tuesday, November 13, 2012, 6:20 PM Updated: Tuesday, November 13, 2012, 6:28 PM



By MARCUS SCHNECK, The Patriot-News



Another deer linked to the captive herd in New Oxford, Adams County, where Pennsylvania saw its first two confirmed cases of the deadly chronic wasting disease over the past month, has been reported as escaped from a deer farm in Alexandria, Huntingdon County.


The escapee – designated as Purple 4 in the state's deer farming industry – escaped from the Gordon Trimer enclosure at 4794 Trimers Rd, Alexandria, according to Mathew Meals, deputy secretary of the state Department of Agriculture.


He said prior to its escape into the wild "several months ago," the deer was sold or otherwise transferred to Trimer from the Freedom Whitetails facility of Travis Rhodes at 694 Johnstown Road, East Freedom. Rhodes had acquired the deer from the Ronald Rutters herd at 1491 New Chester Road, New Oxford.


Meals noted that the Alexandria operation did not have the required license for operating a deer farm from Ag and the situation there is "under investigation by the department."


Indications of an additional unlicensed operation surfaced at the second of three public meetings about CWD, last Thursday in York, when "a gentlemen stood up and said that he has deer and was not licensed," said Meals.


"He did not stick around long enough for us to get his information," he added, but additional information about that potential site also is under investigation by Ag.


The Alexandria and East Freedom deer operations, as well as 27 other sites in 16 counties, have been placed under quarantine because Ag's "track back" efforts have determined that deer at those facilities came into contact with deer from the New Oxford enclosure, which also is under quarantine.


The quarantines are part of the state's planned multi-agency response to the confirmation of CWD within the state, which occurred for the first time Oct. 10 in a test on a 3.5-year-old doe that died Oct. 4 at the New Oxford operation.


Other parts of the state's response to the confirmation of the deadly brain disease have included the creation of a 600-square-mile chronic wasting disease management area in Adams and York counties, the creation of a CWD check station for hunter-harvested deer in the DMA and three public meetings within that area that have drawn hundreds of local residents.


A second deer in the captive herd at New Oxford was confirmed Nov. 7 to have been infected with CWD. Meals described it as "a 2-year-old male in great health. It had no external signs whatsoever."


Ag is one of the agencies cooperating in the response plan because it has responsibility for regulating captive deer and deer farms, of which there are estimated to be more 23,000 on 1,100 Pennsylvania properties.


As part of that responsibility, the department is tracing other captive deer that may have come into contact with deer from the New Oxford farm.


Meals also reported at the most recent meeting, on Monday evening in New Oxford, that the doe that escaped from the New Oxford enclosure Oct. 18, when staff from Ag and USDA's Wildlife Services were killing the remaining animals in that captive herd for CWD testing, remains at large.


There is no live-test available for suspect animals.


Part of the state's response plan called for the "depopulation" of all deer on the farm of the initial CWD confirmation, which is now referred to as "the index farm," according to Meals.


The other seven deer killed Oct. 18 did not test positive for the disease, according to Ag.


However, a ninth deer, a doe known as Pink 23, escaped from the enclosure while the agents were culling the herd for testing. It remains free in the wild.


Although several men at Monday's meeting expressed anger over the escape, it was clear that few want that escapee found more than Ag.


Declining to discuss specifics because of public safety concerns, Meals nonetheless noted, "Our staff are out there constantly, along with Wildlife Services, trying to hunt that animal down."


In addition, he said, "there are (game) cameras plastered all over that area, and we have not had one sighting."


Making the effort to locate the escaped deer all the more difficult is the small size of the ear tag that would identify Pink 23 for searchers. Meals said "the tag is about the size of a 50-cent piece"



Related topics: adams county, chronic wasting disease, deer, deer farm, deer hunting, huntingdon county, pennsylvania, york county







PENNSYLVANIA Chronic Wasting Disease Quarantined Deer Farms Updated: Nov. 7. 2012






Map






The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture is required to license and inspect Cervidae Livestock Operations, and to issue permits prior to importation of Cervidae into the Commonwealth. A permittee must receive a permit number before the animal is imported into Pennsylvania. Additionally, testing requirements for imports are established by the Bureau of Animal Health and Diagnostic Services.










2011






7. Nothing in sections 1 through 6 of this act shall be construed to:


a. affect the authority of the Department of Environmental Protection and the Fish and Game Council to promulgate rules and regulations concerning the possession of cervids that are not part of a Cervidae livestock operation; or


b. exempt any person from the provisions of Title 23 of the Revised Statutes, or any rules or regulations adopted pursuant thereto, concerning the release or escape of farmed cervids into the wild.


8. Notwithstanding the provisions of R.S.23:3-28 through R.S.23:3-39, or any rule or regulation adopted pursuant thereto, to the contrary, the Department of Environmental Protection and the Fish and Game Council shall have no authority to promulgate rules or regulations concerning Cervidae livestock operations that receive a license from the Department of Agriculture pursuant to sections 1 through 7 of P.L. , c. (C. ) (pending before the Legislature as this bill).



9. This act shall take effect immediately.



snip...



This bill is similar to legislation, HB 1580, enacted in Pennsylvania in 2006, which provides that Cervidae livestock operations are to be considered normal agricultural operations and gives the responsibility for regulating these operations to the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture.







HB 1580







Chronic Wasting Disease Program Description [Bureau of Animal Health & Diagnostic Services]



snip...



CWD Herd Certification Program (HCP) - Is a program of surveillance and related actions designed to determine the CWD status of farmed or captive deer and elk herds. Herds that complete five years of the program with no evidence of CWD will be designated as certified.


Herds start at 1st year status, and advance to the next level annually. After five consecutive years on the HCP, a certified status is achieved; Immediately report any cervid that shows signs that are consistent with CWD (such as pneumonia, staggering, drooling, wasting, or unusual behavior) to the department; Testing of CWD susceptible species, 12 months of age or older, that dies for any reason (including slaughter/harvest). Submit either the obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes in formalin within 30 days or the whole carcass or head within three days of death; Two forms of identification on all cervids 12 months of age and older. One must be an official identification, the other can be a farm tag as long as it is unique and individual to the animal and to the herd; Must submit an inventory annually on the anniversary date showing deletions/additions and the sources or destination of each. Additions must be of equal or higher value. Must report untestables and escapes immediately; Inspections done annually; Fence height must be 8' and 10' recommended; and Intrastate and Interstate movement is permitted


CWD Herd Monitored Program (HMP) - Is a program of surveillance and related actions designed to monitor farmed or captive deer and elk herds for CWD. It differs from the HCP with requirements and a certified status cannot be achieved with this program. Live animals cannot move from this program unless 30 have been tested for CWD. Then they can move to shooting preserve or slaughter facility only. CWD testing requirements for susceptible species 12 months of age and older are:



snip...


see full text ;










PA CWD RESPONSE PLAN JULY 2011



Pennsylvania has the second largest domestic cervid industry in the country. There are over 1,000 domestic cervid breeding farms, hobby farms, and shooting preserves in the Commonwealth. Inter- and intrastate movement of these domestic cervids is a significant risk factor that relates to the introduction and amplification of this disease.



snip...



ALSO, SEE PAGE 24 FOR FARMED CERVIDAE PA ;







Pennsylvania Game Commission CWD






PENNSYLVANIA CWD RESPONSE PLAN JULY 2011 (BOTTOM OF PAGE)






NEWS RELEASES






WHITE-TAILED DEER






ELK






FIELD REPORTS








> Ag is one of the agencies cooperating in the response plan because it has responsibility for regulating captive deer and deer farms, of which there are estimated to be more 23,000 on 1,100 Pennsylvania properties.




Tuesday, November 06, 2012


PA Department of Agriculture investigating possible 2nd case of chronic wasting disease






Thursday, November 01, 2012


PA GAME COMMISSION TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD Release #128-12






Friday, October 26, 2012


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PENNSYLVANIA GAME FARMS, URINE ATTRACTANT PRODUCTS, BAITING, AND MINERAL LICKS






Tuesday, October 23, 2012


PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free






Monday, October 15, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA GAME COMMISSION AND AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD MONITORING EFFORTS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 15, 2012 Release #124-12






Thursday, October 11, 2012


Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive






Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought


Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM






USDA-APHIS-VS Chronic Wasting Disease National Program


Patrice N. Klein of USDA APHIS VS – National Center for Animal Health Programs provided an update on the agency’s CWD–related activities:


CWD Rule Update: The amended final rule on chronic wasting disease (CWD) is currently in departmental clearance. The rule will set minimum standards for interstate movement and establish the national voluntary Herd Certification Program (HCP). Farmed/captive cervid surveillance testing: Through FY2010, VS conducted surveillance testing on approximately 20,000 farmed /captive cervids by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) standard protocol. As of September 15, 2011, approximately 19,000 farmed /captive cervids were tested by IHC for CWD with funding to cover lab costs provided through NVSL.


Farmed/captive cervid CWD status: The CWD positive captive white-tailed deer (WTD) herd reported in Missouri (February 2010) was indemnified and depopulation activities were completed in June 2011. All depopulated animals were tested for CWD and no additional CWD positive animals were found.


In FY 2011, CWD was reported in two captive elk herds in Nebraska (December, 2010 and April 2011, respectively).


To date, 52 farmed/captive cervid herds have been identified in 11 states: CO, KS, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, NY, OK, SD, WI.


Thirty-nine were elk herds and 13 were WTD herds. At this time, eight CWD positive herds remain – six elk herds in Colorado and the two elk herds in Nebraska.


Wild Cervid surveillance: In FY 2009 funding supported surveillance in approximately 74,330 wild cervids in 47 cooperating States. Wild cervid CWD surveillance totals are pending for fiscal year 2010 (2010 – 2011 calendar year) due to seasonal surveillance activities and completion of final cooperative agreement reporting to APHIS.


In fiscal year 2011, there are 15 ‘tier 1’ States, 20 ‘tier 2’ States, and 15 ‘tier 3’ States. Two new ‘tier 1’ States, Minnesota and Maryland, were added in fiscal year 2011 based on the new CWD detections in a free-ranging white-tailed deer in southeastern Minnesota and in western Maryland. Consequently, Delaware was upgraded to ‘tier 2’ status as an adjacent State to Maryland. For FY 2011, 45 States and 32 Tribes will receive cooperative agreement funds to complete wild cervid surveillance and other approved work plan activities. Based on FY 2012 projected budget reductions, future cooperative agreement funds will be eliminated.


APHIS CWD Funding: In FY2011, APHIS received approximately $15.8 million in appropriated funding for the CWD Program. The President’s FY 2012 budget proposes to reduce program funding for CWD by $13.9 million, leaving the program with a request of $1.925 million to provide some level of Federal coordination for the national herd certification program (HCP).


Consequently, APHIS is planning to amend its role in the program to one of Federal coordination. Based on the projected FY 2012 budget, funding for CWD cooperative agreements and indemnity funding for States and Tribes will be eliminated. Under this scenario, the States or cervid industry producers will likely be responsible for the costs of surveillance testing and indemnity for appraisal, depopulation, and disposal of CWD-positive animals.


Commodity Health Line Structure: In the FY 2012 budget, livestock commodities regulated by USDA have been organized into ‘Commodity Health Line’ structures or groupings. APHIS’ Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant (ECSR) Health line supports efforts to protect the health and thereby improve the quality and productivity of the equine, cervid and small ruminant industries. Activities supported by the ECSR Health line range from monitoring and surveillance to investigation and response actions undertaken when health issues relevant to the industry are identified. APHIS also maintains regulations and program standards which guide ECSR activities at both the Federal and State/Tribal level.


The ECSR Health line funds essential activities necessary to maintain current ECSR surveillance and program operations while providing the flexibility to respond to new and emerging industry-specific health concerns. APHIS’ current activities include Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Slaughter Horse Transport, and Brucellosis/Tuberculosis in cervids. Overall, APHIS will use funding from the ECSR Health Line Item to support Agency efforts in the following mission areas: prevention, preparedness and communication; monitoring, surveillance and detection; response and containment; and continuity of business, mitigation and recovery


Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)


Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.


Committee Business:


The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:


Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids


Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement


Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids







how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??


? game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??




Tuesday, December 20, 2011


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.


Form 1100-001


(R 2/11)


NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM


SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update


FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING


TUESDAY


TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief


SUMMARY:











*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.






2011


*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.







Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions


Marcelo A. Barria1, Glenn C. Telling2, Pierluigi Gambetti3, James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1,* 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer’s disease and related Brain disorders, Dept of Neurology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA 3Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA 4Dept of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Running Title: Conversion of human PrPC by cervid PrPSc Keywords: Prion / transmissible spongiform encephalopathy / infectivity / misfolded prion protein / prion strains * To whom correspondence should be addressed. University of Texas Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030. Tel 713-5007086; Fax 713-5000667; E-mail Claudio.Soto@uth.tmc.edu The latest version is at http://www.jbc.org/cgi/doi/10.1074/jbc.M110.198465 JBC Papers in Press.


Published on January 4, 2011 as Manuscript M110.198465 Copyright 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. 5, Downloaded from www.jbc.org by guest, on November 11, 2012 2


Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. Determining the risk of transmission of CWD to humans is of utmost importance, considering that people can be infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the misfolded form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc. Our results also have profound implications for understanding the mechanisms of prion species barrier and indicate that the transmission barrier is a dynamic process that depend on the strain and moreover the degree of adaptation of the strain. If our findings are corroborated by infectivity assays, they will imply that CWD prions have the potential to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation.


Various studies aimed to analyze the transmission of CWD to transgenic mice expressing human PrP have consistently given negative results (9-11), indicating a strong species barrier. This conclusion is consistent with our many failed experiments to attempt converting human PrPC with natural CWD, even after pushing the PMCA conditions (see figure 1). We found successful conversion only after adaptation of the CWD prion strain by successive passages in vitro or in cervid transgenic mice. We are not aware that in any of the transgenic mice studies the inoculum used was a previously stabilized CWD strain. Although, it has been shown that strain stabilization in vitro by PMCA (17;26) and in vivo using experimental rodents (36) has similarities with the strain adaptation process occurring in natural hosts, we cannot rule out that the type of CWD strain adaptation that is required to produce strains transmissible to humans may take much longer time in cervids or not occur at all. An important experiment will be to study transmissibility to humanized transgenic mice of CWD passed experimentally in deer several times. Besides the importance of our results for public health in relation to the putative transmissibility of CWD to humans, our data also illustrate a very important and novel scientific concept related to the mechanism of prion transmission across species barriers. Today the view is that species barrier is mostly controlled by the degree of similarity on the sequence of the prion protein between the host and the infectious material (4). In our study we show that the strain and moreover the stabilization of the strain plays a major role in the inter-species transmission. In our system there is no change on the protein sequence, but yet strain adaptation results in a complete change on prion transmissibility with potentially dramatic consequences. Therefore, our findings lead to a new view of the species barrier that should not be seen as a static process, but rather a dynamic biological phenomenon that can change over time when prion strains mature and evolve. It remains to be investigated if other species barriers also change upon progressive strain adaptation of other prion forms (e.g. the sheep/human barrier).


Our results have far-reaching implications for human health, since they indicate that cervid PrPSc can trigger the conversion of human PrPC into PrPSc, suggesting that CWD might be infectious to humans. Interestingly our findings suggest that unstable strains from CWD affected animals might not be a problem for humans, but upon strain stabilization by successive passages in the wild, this disease might become progressively more transmissible to man.







Generation of a New Form of Human PrPScin Vitro by Interspecies Transmission from Cervid Prions*


Marcelo A. Barria‡, Glenn C. Telling§, Pierluigi Gambetti¶, James A. Mastrianni‖ and Claudio Soto‡,1 + Author Affiliations


From the ‡Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, the §Departments of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, the ¶Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, and the ‖Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed: University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin St., Houston, TX 77030. Tel.: 713-500-7086; Fax: 713-500-0667; E-mail: claudio.soto@uth.tmc.edu.


Abstract


Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. Determining the risk of transmission of CWD to humans is of utmost importance, considering that people can be infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the misfolded form by CWD PrPSc, we performed experiments using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique, which mimics in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the conversion of human PrPC but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from that of any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc. Our results also have profound implications for understanding the mechanisms of the prion species barrier and indicate that the transmission barrier is a dynamic process that depends on the strain and moreover the degree of adaptation of the strain. If our findings are corroborated by infectivity assays, they will imply that CWD prions have the potential to infect humans and that this ability progressively increases with CWD spreading.











UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN


Wednesday, September 08, 2010 CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010






Tuesday, June 05, 2012


Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session






Friday, August 31, 2012


COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review






Friday, August 24, 2012


Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America






2010 WISCONSIN CAPTIVE DEER ESCAPES


There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. ...


snip...


Deer, elk continue to escape from state farms


Article by: DOUG SMITH , Star Tribune Updated: March 14, 2011 - 12:08 PM


Curbing chronic wasting disease remains a concern; officials are increasing enforcement.


Almost 500 captive deer and elk have escaped from Minnesota farms over the past five years, and 134 were never recaptured or killed.


So far this year, 17 deer have escaped, and officials are still searching for many of those.


see ;


Thursday, October 11, 2012


Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive






Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought


Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM






Tuesday, October 23, 2012


PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free






Wednesday, November 07, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA Second Adams County Deer Tests Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease






Friday, September 28, 2012


Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota






Monday, June 11, 2012


OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting






INDIANA 20 DEER ESCAPE TROPHY BUCK GAME FARM STATE OFFICIALS FEAR CWD RISK TO WILD






Friday, July 20, 2012


CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve






Wednesday, September 05, 2012


Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive






Friday, September 21, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD raises concerns about deer farms in Iowa






MORE CERVIDS ESCAPE GAME FARMS AND POTENTIALLY EXPOSE THE WILD HERD TO CWD AND OTHER DANGEROUS PATHOGENS



Two ‘elk’ slain near Antoich were European red deer that escaped from farm


BY DALE BOWMAN For Sun-Times Media November 8, 2012 10:28PM


Updated: November 9, 2012 2:31AM


It’s mistaken identity gone wild. Ron Mulholland thought he arrowed two wild elk last Friday from his deer stand on a farm outside of Antioch.


When James Minogue saw the story in Wednesday’s Sun-Times, he recognized the pair of breeding European red deer from the herd he helps manage for Avery Brabender on a farm in unincorporated Antioch. They, along with four others, escaped some time after Oct. 31 when a gate was opened or left open.


“It amazed me that they think they are elk and wild,’’ Minogue said.


However, elk and red deer are close enough to interbreed.


“I will talk to him,’’ Mulholland said. “I assumed they were wild and killed them. To me, they were elk. I don’t know. ... I feel bad for the guy that he would lose them. I reacted because I assumed it was an elk and I shot him.’’


“You don’t see elk in the wild in Illinois,’’ said Kevin Bettis, the duty officer in Springfield Thursday for the Illinois Conservation Police.


That’s tricky. A decade ago, Illinois didn’t have wolves or cougars, either. Both species now make regular appearances.


“These animals were hand-fed: We feed them bread, apples, corn,,’’ Minogue said. Another tricky part is neither elk nor European red deer are protected or regulated under Illinois’ wildlife code. But these European red deer are considered domesticated animals. The herd is registered with the Illinois Department of Agriculture.


“It is no different than shooting a cow,’’ Bettis said.


However, Capt. Neal Serdar of Region II (northeast Illinois) checked with CPOs in southern Illinois, where escaped animals of such sort are more a more frequent issue.


Then he said, “The individual who shot the two red deer did not break any laws.’’


The Illinois Conservation Police consider the case closed. Whether there is any civil case would seem tricky at best, since the animals were loose.


Minogue said they recaptured two of the red deer already. He said the reason there were no ear tags is because they are a “contained, monitored herd.’’


It sounds like both parties can work it out.


“If it gets down to that, I would give him the antlers,’’ Mulholland said. “But I kind of feel it is his responsibility.’’







Thursday, February 09, 2012


50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE






Friday, February 03, 2012


Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al






CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS









Friday, February 03, 2012


Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al







Thursday, February 09, 2012


Colorado Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al







Tuesday, February 14, 2012


Oppose Indiana House Bill 1265 game farming cervids







Monday, February 13, 2012


Stop White-tailed Deer Farming from Destroying Tennessee’s Priceless Wild Deer Herd oppose HB3164







Wednesday, February 15, 2012


West Virginia Deer Farming Bill backed by deer farmers advances, why ? BE WARNED CWD







Wednesday, February 29, 2012


Sen. Tommy Gollott Mississippi proposes another bill to allow CWD in Mississippi via Game Farms







Wednesday, March 21, 2012


MICHIGAN SENATE BILL 27 TURNS OVER GAME FARMS and CWD RISK FACTORS THERE FROM, TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE $







Friday, March 16, 2012


OHIO TURNS OVER CERVID GAME FARMS (and CWD risk) TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, GOD HELP THEM


As Passed by the Senate


129th General Assembly Regular Session 2011-2012 Am. H. B. No. 389







Ohio ranks #3 in Deer and Elk Farms 2010


Deer farms in 82 of 88 counties in Ohio







Ohio’s Fatal Attractions


An overview of captive wildlife issues in Ohio


April 4, 2011


Updated March 20, 2012







Monday, June 11, 2012


OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting







Monday, November 12, 2012


NJ S2024 - Establishes licensing program in Department of Agriculture for farmed deer and other cervids in New Jersey






Monday, November 12, 2012


Tennessee The White-tailed Deer Breeding and Farming Act pushes to legalize deer farming 2012






Saturday, February 04, 2012


Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised






Wednesday, January 07, 2009


CWD to tighten taxidermy rules Hunters need to understand regulations






Friday, June 01, 2012


TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS






Friday, October 12, 2012


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”


TO: comments@tahc.state.tx.us;


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)







CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD RISK FACTORS FOR TRANSMISSION TO HUMANS




Envt.06:


Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates


Emmanuel Comoy,1,† Valérie Durand,1 Evelyne Correia,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Jürgen Richt,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Juan-Maria Torres,5 Paul Brown,1 Bob Hills6 and Jean-Philippe Deslys1


1Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa, ON Canada; 3Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS USA; 4INRA; Jouy-en-Josas, France; 5INIA; Madrid, Spain; 6Health Canada; Ottawa, ON Canada


†Presenting author; Email: emmanuel.comoy@cea.fr


The constant increase of chronic wasting disease (CWD) incidence in North America raises a question about their zoonotic potential. A recent publication showed their transmissibility to new-world monkeys, but no transmission to old-world monkeys, which are phylogenetically closer to humans, has so far been reported. Moreover, several studies have failed to transmit CWD to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease for which a zoonotic potential has been proven. We described the transmission of the atypical BSE-L strain of BSE to cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting a weak cattle-to-primate species barrier. We observed the same phenomenon with a cattleadapted strain of TME (Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy). Since cattle experimentally exposed to CWD strains have also developed spongiform encephalopathies, we inoculated brain tissue from CWD-infected cattle to three cynomolgus macaques as well as to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine or human PrP. Since CWD prion strains are highly lymphotropic, suggesting an adaptation of these agents after peripheral exposure, a parallel set of four monkeys was inoculated with CWD-infected cervid brains using the oral route. Nearly four years post-exposure, monkeys exposed to CWD-related prion strains remain asymptomatic. In contrast, bovinized and humanized transgenic mice showed signs of infection, suggesting that CWD-related prion strains may be capable of crossing the cattle-to-primate species barrier. Comparisons with transmission results and incubation periods obtained after exposure to other cattle prion strains (c-BSE, BSE-L, BSE-H and cattle-adapted TME) will also be presented, in order to evaluate the respective risks of each strain.


Envt.07:


Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease


Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany


†Presenting author; Email: dausm@rki.de


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.






Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012


Samuel E. Saunders1, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, and Jason C. Bartz


Author affiliations: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, Nebraska, USA (S.E. Saunders, S.L. Bartelt-Hunt); Creighton University, Omaha (J.C. Bartz)


Synopsis


Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease


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Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential. However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern...


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Reasons for Caution There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions (3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2 strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human) genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies transmission potentials of CWD.


Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut degradation.


Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research, epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently identified,...


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Friday, November 09, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species






Sunday, November 11, 2012


Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012










Saturday, October 6, 2012


TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2011 Annual Report










with kindest regards, terry


layperson


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net
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