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Organ distribution of prion proteins in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Posted Apr 06 2010 9:07am
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 214 - 222, April 2003

doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00578-4Cite or Link Using DOI

Organ distribution of prion proteins in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Original Text

Dr I Ramasamy a , M Law b, S Collins c, F Brook a

Summary

In this article we give an overview of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, with emphasis on the evidence for the distribution of abnormal prions in tissues. The normal prion protein is distributed ubiquitously throughout human body tissues. Endogenous expression of the normal prion protein, as well as auxiliary proteins, plays a part in accumulation of the abnormal prion protein. As exemplified by variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) the abnormal prion protein can accumulate in the host lymphoid system, in particular the follicular dendritic cells. The route for the disease-related prion neuroinvasion is likely to involve the peripheral nervous system. An alternative route may involve blood constituents. Both animal studies and studies on vCJD patients suggest a potential for abnormal prion distribution in several peripheral tissues other than the lymphoreticular system. In human beings the abnormal prion has been reported in the brain, tonsils, spleen, lymph node, retina, and proximal optic nerve. Infectivity, although present in peripheral tissues, is at lower levels than in the central nervous system (CNS). Animal models suggest that the growth of infectivity in the CNS is likely to be gradual with maximum values during the clinical phase of disease. That tissues may harbour the abnormal prion, at different levels of infectivity, during the incubation period of the disease raises concerns of iatrogenic transmission of the disease either after surgery, blood transfusion, or accidental organ transplantation from donors in the preclinical phase of the disease.


http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(03)00578-4/fulltext#article_upsell


Cadaver corneal transplants -- without family permission

Houston, Texas channel 11 news 28 Nov 99

Reported by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. son of CJD victim

"It was a story about how the Lions eye bank were harvesting corneas from victims in the Morgue, without their consent. Under Texas law, this appears to be legal (remember Texas has the Veggie liable law). Even if Family says no, this appears to happen, from what the news story said. They said the only way to prevent this, is to fill out a form, stating not to have this done. So if you don't fill out the form, they can do this. How many people don't know about the form?

This is not only disgusting and appalling, it could be highly infectious. Without proper background checking of the donors, on their physical history, checking on past dementia, and/or family history, some of these unfortunate victims, could be passing a human TSE.

Response Jill Spitler Clevelland Eye Bank
"No, we are not stealing.........Yes, you do have such a law in the state of Texas, but not all your state Eye Banks utilize the law. The Eye Bank that you're speaking of is only one of 43 certified Eye Bank throughout the USA.

And there are measure taken per the Medical Standards of the Eye Bank Association of America, the certifying body for eye banks and per FDA regulations to address those concerns that you speak of.

I would suggest that those interested/concern with transplant contact their local agencies. The Eye Bank Association of America has a web. site . Further if anyone has problems contacting or finding out about their local organization(s), call me or e-mail me I would be glad to help. My e-mail address is jill@clevelandeyebank.org"

Terry Singeltary responds
"Explain this to the family in Houston who went to their loved ones funeral, only to find out that the loved one that was in the casket, had their corneas removed without their permission, without the consent of the victim or it's family. They would not have known it, only for the funny look the victim had. So, they questioned, only to find out, the corneas, had in fact, been removed without consent.

I call that stealing, regardless what the law states. This type of legal grave robbing is not a logical thing to do without knowing any type of background of the victims medical past, which really will not prove anything due to the incubation period. Eye tissue being potentially a highly infective source, there are risks here.

Should they not at least know of the potential ramifications of TSE's (the person receiving the corneas)?

Should there not be some sort of screening?

Should there be some sort of moral issue here? If this is the case, and in fact, they can come take your corneas, without your consent, then what will they start taking next, without your consent?

Lets look at a hypothetical situation: What would happen if my Mom (DOD 12-14-97 hvCJD) would have gotten into a car wreck and died, before the symptoms of CJD appeared. Not much money, so there was no autopsy. What would have happened to that recipient of those infecting corneas?"

Comment (webmaster): Actual transmission of CJD by means of corneal transplant may or may not be rare. The incidence of infectivity in older people could be fairly high; this is not to be confused with the lower incidence of symptomatic (clinical) CJD. It is very unlikely that familial CJD would have been diagnosed in earlier generations; however, without interviewing the family even known kindreds would not be excluded.

In blood donation, a much stricter policy is followed, even though corneal transplant may be far more dangerous (being a direct link to the brain and not going through purification steps).

Since highly sensitive tests for pre-clinical CJD are now available, it would make sense to screen corneas for CJD, just as they are screened for AIDS, hepatitus, and a host of other conditions.


http://mad-cow.org/~tom/dec99_news.html#bbb


please see full text here ;

Monday, August 31, 2009

HUMAN BODY PARTS FOR SALE TO THE HIGHEST BIDDER Inside a Creepy Global Body Parts Business


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/08/human-body-parts-for-sale-to-highest.html


THE LEGALITY OF STEALING ORGAN/TISSUE...

TEXAS STATUTES

Sec. 693.012. Removal of Corneal Tissue Permitted Under Certain Circumstances.

On a request from an authorized official of an eye bank for corneal tissue, a justice of the peace or medical examiner may permit the removal of corneal tissue if
(1) the decedent from whom the tissue is to be removed died under circumstances requiring an inquest by the justice of the peace or medical examiner;

(2) no objection by a person listed in Section 693.013 is known by the justice of the peace or medical examiner; and

(3) the removal of the corneal tissue will not interfere with the subsequent course of an investigation or autopsy or alter the decedent's postmortem facial appearance.

Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 678, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1989.

Note: This information includes legislation enacted through the 75th Congress. The 76th session of the Texas Legislature has concluded. The State of Texas has not yet made the new codes available to the public. Until they do, search the bill text for any changes or amendments.

Search 1999 Legislation for: 693.012

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TEXAS STATUTES Sec. 693.003. Consent Required in Certain Circumstances.

(a) A medical examiner or a person acting on the authority of a medical examiner may not remove a visceral organ unless the medical examiner or person obtains the consent of a person listed in Section 693.004.

(b) If a person listed in Section 693.004 is known and available within four hours after death is pronounced, a medical examiner or a person acting on the authority of a medical examiner may not remove a nonvisceral organ or tissue unless the medical examiner or person obtains that person's consent.

(c) If a person listed in Section 693.004 cannot be identified and contacted within four hours after death is pronounced and the medical examiner determines that no reasonable likelihood exists that a person can be identified and contacted during the four-hour period, the medical examiner may permit the removal of a nonvisceral organ or tissue.

Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 678, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1989.

Note: This information includes legislation enacted through the 75th Congress. The 76th session of the Texas Legislature has concluded. The State of Texas has not yet made the new codes available to the public. Until they do, search the bill text for any changes or amendments.

Search 1999 Legislation for: 693.003

--------------------------------------------------------

PLEASE NOTE; the bottom would only pertain to those who know of the law. if you don't know about it, you cannot dispute, so in four hours, they can legally remove body organs, as long as they don't disfigure. and who is to know the difference? makes me wonder of some of my dead relatives, and if they were burried with their eye's and or any of their organs. This is very disturbing, if not for moral reasons, but for the risk of dangerous pathogens (human TSE's, etc.) to be transmitted. only time will tell, but i am very disturbed. these laws are not morally correct. They should be re-written as to they cannot so easily take your organs, with no one knowing. The Family or Victim, must consent. There should be some kind of research on donor/family medical history... TSS

--------------------------------------------------------



Sec. 693.013. Persons Who May Object to Removal.

The following persons may object to the removal of corneal tissue
(1) the decedent's spouse;

(2) the decedent's adult children, if there is no spouse;

(3) the decedent's parents, if there is no spouse or adult child; or

(4) the decedent's brothers or sisters, if there is no spouse, adult child, or parent.

Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 678, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1989.

Note: This information includes legislation enacted through the 75th Congress. The 76th session of the Texas Legislature has concluded. The State of Texas has not yet made the new codes available to the public. Until they do, search the bill text for any changes or amendments.

Search 1999 Legislation for: 693.013

-------------------------------------------------------


to cover one's butt....



Sec. 693.014. Immunity From Damages in Civil Action.

(a) In a civil action brought by a person listed in Section 693.013 who did not object before the removal of corneal tissue, a medical examiner, justice of the peace, or eye bank official is not liable for damages on a theory of civil recovery based on a contention that the person's consent was required before the corneal tissue could be removed.

(b) Chapter 104, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, applies to a justice of the peace, medical examiner, and their personnel who remove, permit removal, or deny removal of corneal tissue under this subchapter as if the justice of the peace, medical examiner, and their personnel were state officers or employees.

Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 678, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1989.

Note: This information includes legislation enacted through the 75th Congress. The 76th session of the Texas Legislature has concluded. The State of Texas has not yet made the new codes available to the public. Until they do, search the bill text for any changes or amendments.

Search 1999 Legislation for: 693.014

[[[as you can see, they knew it was wrong when they wrote the laws. or they would not have covered the rear-ends so well...TSS]]]

---------------------------------------------------------

thanks again, kind regards, Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


############ http://mailhost.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/warc/bse-l.html ############


full text ;

Saturday, January 26, 2008

CJD HGH BODY SNATCHERS


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2008/01/cjd-hgh-body-snatchers.html



URGENT DATA ON ATYPICAL BSE RISK FACTORS TO HUMANS AND ANIMALS OIE REFUSE TO ACKNOWLEDGE $

position: Post Doctoral Fellow Atypical BSE in Cattle

Closing date: December 24, 2009

Anticipated start date: January/February 2010

Employer: Canadian and OIE Reference Laboratories for BSE CFIA Lethbridge Laboratory, Lethbridge/Alberta

snip...

To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE. When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

snip...


http://www.prionetcanada.ca/detail.aspx?menu=5&dt=293380&app=93&cat1=387&tp=20&lk=no&cat2



please see full text ;

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Atypical BSE in Cattle


http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2010/03/atypical-bse-in-cattle-position-post.html


Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America 14th

ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2010/02/transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy.html



TSE


http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/



Monday, October 19, 2009

Atypical BSE, BSE, and other human and animal TSE in North America Update October 19, 2009

snip...

I ask Professor Kong ;

Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment

''IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE? just curious.....''

Professor Kong reply ;

.....snip

''As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete.

Thanks for your interest.''

Best regards,

Qingzhong Kong, PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA

END...TSS

I look forward to further transmission studies, and a true ENHANCED BSE/atypical BSE surveillance program put forth testing all cattle for human and animal consumption for 5 years. a surveillance program that uses the most sensitive TSE testing, and has the personnel that knows how to use them, and can be trusted. I look forward to a stringent mad cow feed ban being put forth, and then strictly enforced. we need a forced, not voluntary feed ban, an enhanced feed ban at that, especially excluding blood. we need some sort of animal traceability. no more excuses about privacy. if somebody is putting out a product that is killing folks and or has the potential to kill you, then everybody needs to know who they are, and where that product came from. same with hospitals, i think medical incidents in all states should be recorded, and made public, when it comes to something like a potential accidental transmission exposure event. so if someone is out there looking at a place to go have surgery done, if you have several hospitals having these type 'accidental exposure events', than you can go some place else. it only makes sense. somewhere along the road, the consumer lost control, and just had to take whatever they were given, and then charged these astronomical prices. some where along the line the consumer just lost interest, especially on a long incubating disease such as mad cow disease i.e. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy. like i said before, there is much more to the mad cow story than bovines and eating a hamburger, we must start focusing on all TSE in all species. ...TSS



http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/10/atypical-bse-bse-and-other-human-and.html



TSS
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