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OHIO TURNS OVER CERVID GAME FARMS (and CWD risk) TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, GOD HELP THEM

Posted Mar 16 2012 5:38pm
OHIO TURNS OVER CERVID GAME FARMS (and CWD risk) TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, GOD HELP THEM



As Passed by the Senate

129th General Assembly Regular Session 2011-2012 Am. H. B. No. 389

Representatives Hall, Okey

Cosponsors: Representatives Letson, Grossman, Boose, Conditt, Thompson, Buchy, Combs, Murray, O'Brien, Peterson, Hagan, C., McClain, Amstutz, Slaby, Landis, Adams, R., Barnes, Blessing, Bubp, Carney, Clyde, Derickson, Fedor, Fende, Gardner, Garland, Gerberry, Goyal, Hackett, Henne, Hill, Johnson, Kozlowski, Luckie, Lundy, Mallory, Milkovich, Newbold, Phillips, Pillich, Ramos, Roegner, Ruhl, Sears, Sprague, Szollosi, Uecker, Weddington, Young, Yuko Speaker Batchelder

Senators Hite, Schaffer, Balderson, Beagle, Burke, Cafaro, Coley, Faber, Gentile, LaRose, Niehaus, Patton, Seitz, Wagoner

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A BILL To amend sections 901.511, 918.12, 943.01, 1531.01, 1533.01, 1533.71, 1533.721, 1533.731, 1533.74, 1533.76, 1533.77, 1533.79, and 1533.99, to enact sections 943.20 to 943.26, and to repeal sections 1533.70, 1533.75, and 1533.80 of the Revised Code to establish requirements and procedures governing propagating and hunting captive deer and to revise the law governing wild animal hunting preserves.

BE IT ENACTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE STATE OF OHIO: Section 1. That sections 901.511, 918.12, 943.01, 1531.01, 1533.01, 1533.71, 1533.721, 1533.731, 1533.74, 1533.76, 1533.77, 1533.79, and 1533.99 be amended and sections 943.20, 943.21, 943.22, 943.23, 943.24, 943.25, and 943.26 of the Revised Code be enacted to read as follows: Sec. 901.511. (A) As used in this section: (1) "Agricultural product" means any of the following items that is produced for testing or research in the context of a product development program in conjunction or coordination with a private research facility, a university, or any federal, state, or local governmental agency or that is produced for personal, commercial, pharmaceutical, or educational purposes: field crop or field crop product; timber or timber product; forestry product; livestock or livestock product; meat or meat product; milk or dairy product; poultry or poultry product; equine animal; wool; fruit or vegetable crop; aquacultural product; horticultural crop, including plant materials grown in a greenhouse, nursery stock grown inside or outside of a container, ornamental grass, turf grass, ornamental trees, ornamental shrubs, or flowers; sod; mushrooms; viticultural product; apicultural product; tobacco; pasture; wild animal or domestic deer, as "wild animal" and "domestic deer" are defined in section 1531.01 of the Revised Code; monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status as defined in section 943.01 of the Revised Code; or any combination of those items.

snip...

Sec. 918.12. (A) An establishment, as defined in section 918.01 of the Revised Code, that slaughters or otherwise prepares meat of bison, cervidea, other bovidea, camelidae and hybrids thereof, ratites, domestic rabbits, monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status as defined in section 943.01 of the Revised Code, domestic deer, as defined in section 1531.01 of the Revised Code, or other animals determined by the director of agriculture by rule for human food purposes may receive voluntary state inspection, as defined in division (B) of section 918.01 of the Revised Code, if the establishment complies with sections 918.01 to 918.11 of the Revised Code and the rules adopted under those sections for establishments that slaughter or otherwise prepare for food purposes other animals and if the establishment complies with division (C) of this section.

snip...

Sec. 943.01. As used in sections 943.01 to 943.18 of the Revised Code this chapter: (A) "Animals" or "livestock" means horses, mules, and other equidae, cattle, sheep, and goats and other bovidae, swine and other suidae, poultry, alpacas, and llamas, and monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status. (B) "Dealer" or "broker" means any person found by the department of agriculture buying, receiving, selling, slaughtering, with the exception of those persons designated by division (B)(1) of section 918.10 of the Revised Code, exchanging, negotiating, or soliciting the sale, resale, exchange, or transfer of any animals in an amount of more than two hundred fifty head of cattle, horses, or other equidae or five hundred head of sheep, goats, or other bovidae, swine and other suidae, poultry, alpacas, or llamas, or monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status during any one year. "Dealer" or "broker" does not mean any of the following:

snip...

(E) "Captive whitetail deer licensee" means a person who has been issued a license under section 943.03 or 943.031 of the Revised Code and a license under section 1533.71 or 1533.721 of the Revised Code regarding monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status. (F) "Chronic wasting disease" has the same meaning as in 9 C.F.R. 55.1. (G) "Captive deer with status" means captive white-tailed deer that have been legally acquired or their offspring, are part of a herd that is monitored and tested for disease in accordance with rules, and are privately owned primarily for the purposes of agriculture, propagation, or providing captive deer to a wild animal hunting preserve licensed under section 1533.721 of the Revised Code. (H) "Captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status" means captive white-tailed deer that have been legally acquired or their offspring, are part of a herd that has been monitored and tested for disease in accordance with rules, including tested for chronic wasting disease for at least five consecutive years in accordance with rules, are privately owned primarily for the purposes of agriculture, propagation, or providing deer to a wild animal hunting preserve licensed under section 1533.721 of the Revised Code, and are certified "with status" in accordance with rules. (I) "Monitored captive deer" means whitetail deer that have been legally acquired or their offspring, are tested for chronic wasting disease in accordance with rules, and are held in private ownership for agricultural or personal purposes or in a wild animal hunting preserve licensed under section 1533.721 of the Revised Code. (J) "Rule" means a rule adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code. Sec. 943.20. (A) A person who wishes to propagate captive deer with status or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status shall obtain a license under section 943.03 or 943.031 of the Revised Code in addition to a captive white-tailed deer propagation license issued under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code. (B) A person who wishes to operate a wild animal hunting preserve as defined in section 1531.01 of the Revised Code on which monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status are released and hunted shall obtain a license under section 943.03 or 943.031 of the Revised Code in addition to a wild animal hunting preserve license issued under section 1533.721 of the Revised Code. Sec. 943.21. (A) A captive whitetail deer licensee shall have monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, and captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status in the licensee's herd tested for disease in accordance with rules. (B) A captive whitetail deer licensee shall provide the results of all testing required under this section to the director of agriculture. Sec. 943.22. The director of agriculture shall take actions that the director determines are necessary to mitigate or eliminate the presence of chronic wasting disease or other disease at a facility owned by a captive whitetail deer licensee regarding monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status if the director is notified of a positive result from a test for chronic wasting disease or other disease for a monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status at the facility. Sec. 943.23. A captive whitetail deer licensee shall comply with the requirements established in sections 943.20 to 943.26 of the Revised Code and in rules. The director of agriculture may suspend or revoke a license issued under section 943.03 or 943.031 of the Revised Code regarding monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status if the licensee fails to comply with those requirements. Sec. 943.24. The director of agriculture shall adopt rules in accordance with Chapter 119. of the Revised Code that establish all of the following: (A) Requirements governing health monitoring and disease testing of monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, and captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status, which testing may include, but is not limited to, testing for chronic wasting disease, brucellosis, and tuberculosis of such deer that are held at a facility licensed under section 1533.71 or 1533.721 of the Revised Code; (B) Requirements governing captive whitetail deer licensees, including record-keeping requirements related to health monitoring and disease testing of monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, and captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status; (C) Requirements and procedures that are necessary to preserve the health, safety, and welfare of monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status; (D) Requirements and procedures governing the transfer of living game and nonnative wildlife, as defined in section 1531.01 of the Revised Code, from one wild animal hunting preserve licensed under section 1533.721 of the Revised Code to another such wild animal hunting preserve; (E) Tagging requirements for captive deer with status and captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status for such deer that are propagated pursuant to a captive white-tailed deer propagation license issued under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code; (F) Requirements governing the certification of captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status; (G) Any other requirements or procedures that are necessary to administer and enforce sections 943.20 to 943.26 of the Revised Code. Sec. 943.25. The director of agriculture or the director's authorized representative may enter at reasonable times on the premises of a captive whitetail deer licensee to conduct investigations and inspections or to otherwise execute duties that are necessary for the administration and enforcement of sections 943.20 to 943.26 of the Revised Code and rules. Sec. 943.26. Notwithstanding section 943.04 of the Revised Code, all money collected through the issuance of licenses to captive whitetail deer licensees under this chapter shall be credited to the captive deer fund, which is hereby created in the state treasury. The director of agriculture shall use money in the fund to administer sections 943.20 to 943.26 of the Revised Code and rules.

snip...

(DDD) "Wholly enclosed preserve" means an area of land that is surrounded by a fence that is at least six feet in height, unless otherwise specified in division rule, and is constructed of a woven wire mesh, or another enclosure that the division of wildlife may approve, where game birds, game quadrupeds, reptiles, amphibians, or fur-bearing animals are raised and may be sold under the authority of a commercial propagating license or captive white-tailed deer propagation license obtained under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code.

snip...

(FFF) "Wild animal hunting preserve" means an area of land where game, captive white-tailed deer, and nonnative wildlife, other than game birds, are released and hunted as authorized by a wild animal hunting preserve license obtained under section 1533.721 of the Revised Code. (GGG) "Captive white-tailed deer" means legally acquired deer that are held in private ownership at a facility licensed under section 943.03 or 943.031 of the Revised Code and under section 1533.71 or 1533.721 of the Revised Code.

snip...

(3) "Captive white-tailed deer propagation license" permitting the licensee to propagate captive white-tailed deer, hold the animals in captivity, and sell the animals and carcasses. The fee for such a license is forty dollars. The license is valid until a licensee ceases to hold captive white-tailed deer or the license is revoked, whichever occurs earlier. (B)(1) A person who wishes to obtain a captive white-tailed deer propagation license, prior to applying for the license, shall construct an authorized enclosure that is surrounded by a fence that is eight feet in height with a minimal deviation not to exceed four per cent, is constructed in a manner that prevents ingress and egress of deer, and is constructed of materials that are approved by the chief of the division of wildlife in consultation with the animal and plant health inspection service in the United States department of agriculture, the department of agriculture, and representatives of the cervid industry in this state. (2) After constructing an authorized enclosure in accordance with division (B)(1) of this section and division rules, the person may submit an application for a captive white-tailed deer propagation license. (3) Not later than thirty days after the submission of the application, a representative from the division shall inspect the authorized enclosure to ensure compliance with division (B)(1) of this section and division rules. If the applicant's authorized enclosure is not in compliance with all of the applicable requirements, the representative shall inform the applicant in writing of the deficiencies not later than ten business days after the inspection. If the applicant corrects the deficiencies, the applicant shall request a reinspection. The reinspection shall be conducted in accordance with this division not later than thirty days after the request for reinspection. If the applicant's authorized enclosure complies with all of the applicable requirements, the chief shall review the application and shall issue or deny the license. If the chief denies the license, the chief shall return the application to the applicant with an explanation of the reasons for denial. The applicant may correct the deficiencies in the application and submit a revised application. If the applicant corrects the deficiencies, the chief shall issue the license as provided in this section. (4) Upon receipt of a captive white-tailed deer propagation license, receipt of a license under section 943.03 or 943.031 of the Revised Code, and a demonstration to the chief or the chief's designee that each captive white-tailed deer held by the licensee was legally acquired, the licensee may place all of the licensee's deer in the authorized enclosure. The licensee thereafter shall comply with this chapter and Chapter 1531. of the Revised Code, division rules, sections 943.20 to 943.26 of the Revised Code, and rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code. (C) The division may inspect a facility to which a captive white-tailed deer propagation license has been issued only at reasonable times and when the inspection is in connection with a criminal investigation. (D) The chief, with the approval of the director of agriculture, may suspend or revoke a captive white-tailed deer propagation license issued to a person who also has been issued a valid license under section 943.03 or 943.031 of the Revised Code for the same facility if the person fails to comply with this chapter and Chapter 1531. of the Revised Code, division rules, sections 943.20 to 943.26 of the Revised Code, and rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code.

snip...

(D) No person shall remove living game or nonnative wildlife from a wild animal hunting preserve unless the game or nonnative wildlife are being transferred to another wild animal hunting preserve in accordance with rules adopted by the director of agriculture under section 943.24 of the Revised Code. (E) The holder of a wild animal hunting preserve license shall keep a record of all animals that have been released into the preserve. The record shall include all of the following: (1) The date on which each animal was released into the preserve; (2) The number of each species of animals; (3) The number of males and females of each species of animals; (4) The name and address of each person from whom each animal was obtained. The licensee shall record in a manner specified by the division the name and address of each person that takes any game or nonnative wildlife from the preserve. The licensee shall maintain those records for a period of two years and make them available for inspection by the division at all reasonable times in conjunction with an active criminal investigation. (F) In addition to complying with the requirements established by division (E) of this section, the holder of a wild animal hunting preserve license who has captive white-tailed deer in the preserve shall keep a record of all known escapes of those deer, deaths of those deer that were not a result of hunting, and laboratory results for testing for chronic wasting disease of those deer that is required by section 943.21 of the Revised Code and rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code.

snip...

(B) Each holder of a captive white-tailed deer propagation license issued under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code shall maintain all records that are required in rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code. The records shall be kept permanently on the premises stated in the license and shall be open for inspection by any authorized representative of the department of agriculture at all reasonable times and of the division of wildlife at all reasonable times in conjunction with an active criminal investigation. (C) The holder of a captive white-tailed deer propagation license shall not knowingly falsify any record or tag that is required in rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code or in rules adopted under section 1531.10 of the Revised Code. Sec. 1533.79. (A) The chief of the division of wildlife may adopt, amend, and rescind such rules as he the chief considers necessary to control or eradicate parasites and diseases of domesticated or semi-wild game birds, game quadrupeds other than captive white-tailed deer, fur-bearing animals, or nonnative wildlife on the lands subject to sections 1533.70 1533.71 to 1533.80 1533.79 of the Revised Code. (B) This chapter and Chapter 1531. of the Revised Code and division rules do not supersede the authority of the director of agriculture under Chapter 941. of the Revised Code to prevent the spread of dangerously contagious or infectious diseases and to provide for the control and eradication of such diseases.

snip...



http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/bills.cfm?ID=129_HB_389



> means an area of land that is surrounded by a fence that is at least six feet in height,

really?

by signing this bill, the Governor of Ohio risk the wild deer herds to CWD, and in doing so, will risk humans to CJD.

I strenuously urge the Good Governor of Ohio to read carefully, the science, and history of CWD in game farms, and the risk factors there from that the CDC just put out. first my comment on why I think the department of agriculture is a bad choice to manage game farms. ...

USDA VS DNR

from a TSE Prion aka mad cow disease point of regulatory efforts, the USDA et al fumbled, bumbled, lost the football so many times, well, see for yourself. there is too much evidence to post here, for those interested, please see below, these links will lead you to that evidence. in short, the USDA (USA) had the gold card for trading, and boasted all the time about it, up and until that fateful day in Dec. of 2003. all things changed, you see, the gold card consisted of the USDA being able to corner the markets. simply because the USDA never intended to find any BSE with the infamous, enhanced, 2004 BSE surveillance program. from day one that program was set up to fail, and the BSE Harvard Risk assessment proved this. from bumbled testing protocols where you never would have a positive, only testing one part of the brain, with only the less sensitive testing, or, where the gosh darn guy collecting the suspect mad cow brains for the USDA to be tested, IS BRINGING ONLY HEALTHY BRAINS TO BE TESTED, to a failed BSE feed ban. the august 4, 1997, partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban was nothing but ink on paper. where as late as 10 years after said mad cow feed ban, some 10,000,000 pounds of suspect, banned, mad cow feed was fed out in commerce, where today, said feed ban still fails. remember .005 grams of BSE TSE prion tainted feed, is enough to kill a small herd of cows. from that Washington mad cow old dave capped, to the 1st documented mad cow in Texas they covered up i.e. stumbling and staggering highly suspect mad cow that officials in Austin made the final decision to rush that madcow to the render, to be chopped up for pet food, BEFORE ANY TEST COULD BE DONE. next mad cow in Texas, i.e. the infamous FONG madcow ............maybe flounder’s MADCOW too, that stumbling and staggering mad cow...went missing in action for a bit. I confirmed it some 7 months before myself and others finally got the USDA to confirm that madcow via Weybridge, and literally, an act of Congress, thanks to the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG, and some scientist around the world...and me too...really, that’s my dang madcow. 7 months later, and after the gosh darn USDA during this 7 months, where that texas madcow tissue samples sat up on a shelf, or in a freezer, for the BSE MRR to be ratified. and it was. this made legal, the trading of all strains of TSE Prion mad cow disease to be traded globally, the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Minimal Risk Region i.e. BSE MRR. IT did away with the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Geographical Risk Assessments i.e BSE GBR. the BSE GBR was set forth with real science put forth, the BSE MRR was junk science, set up for trade $$$ you see, humans are expendable, due to the long incubation period. a few body bags will not matter. but they are slowly mounting, and the huge human health risk factor here is the iatrogenic aspect, i.e. friendly fire, pass it forward mode, i.e. blood, tissue, surgery, dental, that’s when all this becomes every persons problem. see correspondence between myself and TAHC. well, from there we go to Alabama. now, the Washington madcow was supposedly a Canadian mad cow sent to the USA. the USA and Canada traded cattle, livestock, feed, byproducts, like two lovers swapping spit. The Washington Canadian/USA madcow was a typical c-BSE madcow. Now, the second madcow in Texas, the one they finally decided to test after 7+ months, of a 48 hour confirmation turn around, so the BSE MRR policy could be ratified, was an atypical h-BSE madcow. moooving right along to the Alabama mad cow. the Alabama madcow was a strange type, it was atypical g-h-BSE i.e. genetic h-type atypical BSE. this is important, in the fact this cow matches exactly with the rising subtype of sporadic CJD in humans, what I call tpsCJD type pending sporadic CJD. right after that, the USDA decided to shut testing down to numbers so small (OIE standards), the odds of finding a madcow is nil. I am telling you, whether you want to hear it or not, North America, we have a problem, and the problem is slowly catching up with us $$$ really...



Thursday, February 23, 2012

EIGHT FORMER SECRETARIES OF AGRICULTURE SPEAKING AT USDA'S 2012 AGRICULTURE OUTLOOK FORUM INDUCTED INTO USA MAD COW HALL OF SHAME

http://madcowusda.blogspot.com/2012/02/eight-former-secretaries-of-agriculture.html




I would kindly and respectfully urge all of you to read the most up to date science on the Chronic Wasting Disease CWD and GAME FARMS.

The CDC just released a paper on the concern of these game farms and CWD, and also CWD to humans risk factor update.

I kindly urge you to look at the map ;

which came first, the cart or the horse ;

Colorado

Captive CWD discovered 1967

Free ranging CWD discovered 1981

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/11-0685-f1.htm




PLEASE STUDY THIS MAP !

SEE CWD MAP, RELATE TO DATES OF GAME FARM INFECTION, TO DATE OF INFECTION RATE IN WILD, SURROUNDING SAID INFECTED GAME FARMS. ...TSS

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/11-0685-f1.htm




*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD CDC REPORT MARCH 2012 ***

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease

CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/ahead-of-print/article/18/3/11-0685_article.htm




SNIP...

Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).

SNIP...

CWD Zoonotic Potential, Species Barriers, and Strains

Current Understanding of the CWD Species Barrier

Strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of BSE to humans has led to concerns about zoonotic transmission of CWD (2,3). As noted above, CWD prions are present nearly ubiquitously throughout diseased hosts, including in muscle, fat, various glands and organs, antler velvet, and peripheral and CNS tissue (2,14,15). Thus, the potential for human exposure to CWD by handling and consumption of infectious cervid material is substantial and increases with increased disease prevalence.

Interspecies transmission of prion diseases often yields a species-barrier effect, in which transmission is less efficient compared with intraspecies transmission, as shown by lower attack rates and extended incubation periods (3,28). The species barrier effect is associated with minor differences in PrPc sequence and structure between the host and target species (3). Prion strain (discussed below) and route of inoculation also affect the species barrier (3,28). For instance, interspecies transmission by intracerebral inoculation is often possible but oral challenge is completely ineffective (29).

Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential. However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern.

Interspecies transmission of CWD to noncervids has not been observed under natural conditions. CWD infection of carcass scavengers such as raccoons, opossums, and coyotes was not observed in a recent study in Wisconsin (22). In addition, natural transmission of CWD to cattle has not been observed in experimentally controlled natural exposure studies or targeted surveillance (2). However, CWD has been experimentally transmitted to cattle, sheep, goats, mink, ferrets, voles, and mice by intracerebral inoculation (2,29,33).

CWD is likely transmitted among mule, white-tailed deer, and elk without a major species barrier (1), and other members of the cervid family, including reindeer, caribou, and other species of deer worldwide, may be vulnerable to CWD infection. Black-tailed deer (a subspecies of mule deer) and European red deer (Cervus elaphus) are susceptible to CWD by natural routes of infection (1,34). Fallow deer (Dama dama) are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral inoculation (35). Continued study of CWD susceptibility in other cervids is of considerable interest.

Reasons for Caution

There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions (3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2 strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human) genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies transmission potentials of CWD.

Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut degradation.

Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research, epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently identified,

SNIP...




*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD CDC REPORT MARCH 2012 ***

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease

CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/ahead-of-print/article/18/3/11-0685_article.htm



see much more here ;

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/occurrence-transmission-and-zoonotic.html



Thursday, February 09, 2012

50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/50-game-farms-to-date-in-usa-infected.html



I would kindly and respectfully urge all of you to read the most up to date science on the Chronic Wasting Disease CWD and GAME FARMS.

The CDC just released a paper on the concern of these game farms and CWD, and also CWD to humans risk factor update.

I kindly urge you to look at the map ;

which came first, the cart or the horse ;

Colorado

Captive CWD discovered 1967

Free ranging CWD discovered 1981

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/11-0685-f1.htm




PLEASE STUDY THIS MAP !

SEE CWD MAP, RELATE TO DATES OF GAME FARM INFECTION, TO DATE OF INFECTION RATE IN WILD, SURROUNDING SAID INFECTED GAME FARMS. ...TSS

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/11-0685-f1.htm




*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD CDC REPORT MARCH 2012 ***

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease

CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/ahead-of-print/article/18/3/11-0685_article.htm




SNIP...

Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).

SNIP...

CWD Zoonotic Potential, Species Barriers, and Strains

Current Understanding of the CWD Species Barrier

Strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of BSE to humans has led to concerns about zoonotic transmission of CWD (2,3). As noted above, CWD prions are present nearly ubiquitously throughout diseased hosts, including in muscle, fat, various glands and organs, antler velvet, and peripheral and CNS tissue (2,14,15). Thus, the potential for human exposure to CWD by handling and consumption of infectious cervid material is substantial and increases with increased disease prevalence.

Interspecies transmission of prion diseases often yields a species-barrier effect, in which transmission is less efficient compared with intraspecies transmission, as shown by lower attack rates and extended incubation periods (3,28). The species barrier effect is associated with minor differences in PrPc sequence and structure between the host and target species (3). Prion strain (discussed below) and route of inoculation also affect the species barrier (3,28). For instance, interspecies transmission by intracerebral inoculation is often possible but oral challenge is completely ineffective (29).

Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential. However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern.

Interspecies transmission of CWD to noncervids has not been observed under natural conditions. CWD infection of carcass scavengers such as raccoons, opossums, and coyotes was not observed in a recent study in Wisconsin (22). In addition, natural transmission of CWD to cattle has not been observed in experimentally controlled natural exposure studies or targeted surveillance (2). However, CWD has been experimentally transmitted to cattle, sheep, goats, mink, ferrets, voles, and mice by intracerebral inoculation (2,29,33).

CWD is likely transmitted among mule, white-tailed deer, and elk without a major species barrier (1), and other members of the cervid family, including reindeer, caribou, and other species of deer worldwide, may be vulnerable to CWD infection. Black-tailed deer (a subspecies of mule deer) and European red deer (Cervus elaphus) are susceptible to CWD by natural routes of infection (1,34). Fallow deer (Dama dama) are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral inoculation (35). Continued study of CWD susceptibility in other cervids is of considerable interest.

Reasons for Caution

There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions (3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2 strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human) genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies transmission potentials of CWD.

Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut degradation.

Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research, epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently identified,

SNIP...




*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD CDC REPORT MARCH 2012 ***

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease

CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/ahead-of-print/article/18/3/11-0685_article.htm




see much more here ;

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/occurrence-transmission-and-zoonotic.html




Thursday, February 09, 2012

50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/50-game-farms-to-date-in-usa-infected.html




and when these game farms claim they are testing, and everything is o.k., think again...

Saturday, February 04, 2012

Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/wisconsin-16-age-limit-on-testing-dead.html





Thursday, February 09, 2012

Colorado Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/colorado-farm-raised-deer-farms-and-cwd.html





Monday, February 13, 2012

Stop White-tailed Deer Farming from Destroying Tennessee’s Priceless Wild Deer Herd oppose HB3164

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/stop-white-tailed-deer-farming-from.html





Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Oppose Indiana House Bill 1265 game farming cervids

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/oppose-indiana-house-bill-1265-game.html





Wednesday, February 15, 2012

West Virginia Deer Farming Bill backed by deer farmers advances, why ? BE WARNED CWD

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/02/west-virginia-deer-farming-bill-backed.html





Sunday, January 22, 2012

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/01/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-cervids.html





Thursday, January 26, 2012

The Risk of Prion Zoonoses

Science 27 January 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6067 pp. 411-413 DOI: 10.1126/science.1218167

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/01/risk-of-prion-zoonoses.html





Thursday, January 26, 2012

Facilitated Cross-Species Transmission of Prions in Extraneural Tissue

Science 27 January 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6067 pp. 472-475 DOI: 10.1126/science.1215659

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/01/facilitated-cross-species-transmission.html




Tuesday, February 14, 2012

White House budget proposes cuts to ag programs including TSE PRION disease aka mad cow type disease

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/02/white-house-budget-proposes-cuts-to-ag.html





Tuesday, February 14, 2012

White House budget proposes cuts to ag programs including TSE PRION disease aka mad cow type disease

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/02/white-house-budget-proposes-cuts-to-ag.html




National Wildlife Health Center

Open-File Report 2012–1036

U.S.

Enhanced Surveillance Strategies for Detecting and Monitoring Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Cervids

snip...

In addition to locations of known CWD-positive individuals, other spatial risk factors related to CWD exposure should be considered. For example, the risk of free-ranging animals being exposed to CWD is likely greater in areas where captive cervid facilities have or had CWD-positive animals. Current evidence indicates that CWD infection rates are much higher in captive facilities than in wild populations (Keane and others, 2008), and perhaps this is driven by environmental contamination (Miller and others, 2006). This higher rate of infection in captive animals can increase the risk of disease exposure to surrounding wild populations. Furthermore, movement of infectious animals, carcasses, or other materials across the landscape, naturally or with human assistance, likely increases the risk to uninfected populations. The frequent movement of farmed elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer between production facilities, the concentration of infected animals on some facilities, and the possibility of their escape into the wild increases the risk of spreading CWD to uninfected populations of free-ranging animals. Because the infectious prions may persist in the environment for long periods, the introduction of either captive or free-ranging uninfected animals into a contaminated environment could increase their risk of infection. For example, locations from which sheep have been removed may remain contaminated with scrapie agent for more than 15 years (Georgsson and others, 2006). ...

snip...see full text ;

Saturday, March 10, 2012

Enhanced Surveillance Strategies for Detecting and Monitoring Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Cervids Open-File Report 2012–1036 National Wildlife Health Center

Open-File Report 2012–1036

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/03/enhanced-surveillance-strategies-for.html




a few things to consider please. one, CWD has already been transmitted to many cattle in the lab (86% in one study). the oral route would have a much longer incubation period, but we already know that CWD will transmit back to cervids via the oral route, very efficiently. the threat of spreading CWD via close contact, like at feeding grounds is great. every bit of science to date shows this. so to congregate deer together by unnatural means is not smart in my opinion. another fear has come to pass as well, another strain of CWD, yes a second strain. and just recently science has shown that a natural case of BSE has been transmitted to a GOAT. These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=194089




UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;

----- Original Message -----

From: David Colby

To: flounder9@verizon.net

Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX

Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM

Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations

Dear Terry Singeltary,

Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.

Warm Regards, David Colby

--

David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware

====================END...TSS==============



SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;

http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2011/01/enlarging-spectrum-of-prion-like.html




UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN

Wednesday, September 08, 2010

CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html




Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Wisconsin Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/11/wisconsin-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cwd.html




Sunday, November 13, 2011

COLORADO CWD CJD TSE PRION REPORTING 2011

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/11/colorado-cwd-cjd-tse-prion-reporting.html



PLUS, THE CDC DID NOT PUT THIS WARNING OUT FOR THE WELL BEING OF THE DEER AND ELK ;

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html




NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html



now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago. see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ??

“Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”

From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)

Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??

Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

From: "Belay, Ermias"

To:

Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Dear Sir/Madam,

In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.

That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

-----Original Message-----

From:

Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

To: rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV

Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS

Thursday, April 03, 2008

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease

Sigurdson CJ.

snip...

*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,



snip...


full text ;

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/04/prion-disease-of-cervids-chronic.html





CJD9/10022

October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT

Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.

http://web.archive.org/web/20030511010117/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00003001.pdf




THIRD CJD REPORT UK 1994

snip...

Consumption of venison and veal was much less widespread among both cases and controls. For both of these meats, there was evidence of a trend with increasing frequency of consumption being associated with increasing risk of CJD. These associations were largely unchanged when attention was restricted to pairs with data obtained from relatives. ...

http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/Archive%20reports/report3.pdf




Saturday, March 5, 2011

MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html



Sunday, August 21, 2011

The British disease, or a disease gone global, The TSE Prion Disease

(see video here)

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/08/british-disease-or-disease-gone-global.html





Sunday, February 12, 2012

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined1 (August 19, 2011) including Texas

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/02/national-prion-disease-pathology.html





kind regards, terry


layperson


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
flounder9@verion.net
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