Health knowledge made personal
Join this community!
› Share page:
Go
Search posts:

OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting

Posted Jun 11 2012 1:50pm
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting




I find it difficult to believe that every deer farmer in the state of Ohio is as up to snuff on saving us from CWD.


with some 303 deer farms and 34 elk farms in Ohio alone (2007 figures), and with a U.S. total of 5,654 deer farms and 1,917 elk farms (who knows how many undocumented farms), I also find it difficult that only some 100 captive herds are/we’re infected with CWD in North America.



however, these farms in Ohio have grown in numbers since 2007;



Ohio currently has 684 deer propagation farms and 29 hunting preserves that include whitetails.








Ohio –– Industry Leader


•• 15,084 deer kept on farms in Ohio


•• 695 deer farms in Ohio in 2009


•• 440 commercial deer farms in 2009



•• 14,209 deer kept on commercial farms

with farms of up to 390 deer in size


•• State of Ohio has 9% of commercial

deer farms within the U.S. in 2009


•• Deer farms located within 82 of 88 Ohio

counties as of 2009



follow the money $$$







In addition to complying with the requirements established by division (E) of this section, the holder of a wild animal hunting preserve license who has captive white-tailed deer in the preserve shall keep a record of all known escapes of those deer, deaths of those deer that were not a result of hunting, and laboratory results for testing for chronic wasting disease of those deer that is required by section 943.21 of the Revised Code and rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code.









> means an area of land that is surrounded by a fence that is at least six feet in height,



really?








only testing deer and or elk over 16 months old, we know this misses CWD cases. all animals, of all ages must be tested. the old excuse of there is no live test, is an old excuse. there are tests now. use them. every animal that is shot and killed on any farm should be tested before that animal leaves the facility. any dead animal found on farm must be reported and tested immediately, and this must be mandatory. records of dead, escapes, and live deer must be made mandatory, they must match up, and reported every year to the state. the SSS policy must be stopped. in my opinion...



without mandatory NAIS, with traceability, ie. tags, chips, etc., deer, elk farmers, ranchers, records can be manipulated. in my opinion...



until it is mandatory that all captive animals (live and dead), are tested every year, year in and year out, for CWD, this voluntary, on your honor regulations will never stop CWD. in my opinion...



mandatory of reporting of all escapees ___immediately___ to state officials, with immediate closer of that facility until said escape routes were found and fixed, with heavy fines for 1st offense. a second offense would mean closer of that facility at owners expense. NOT AT THE STATE EXPENSE. in my opinion...



only implementing enhanced mandatory regulations, only after a herd is designated CWD positive, is like closing the barn door, after the mad cows got loose. it is way too late by then. by then your herd is infected and or exposed, land and surrounding habitat infected. and who knows how many other animals were exposed and or infected i.e. rodents, scavengers, etc., in my opinion...



with anything that is voluntary, the system will always fail, one need not look any further than the BSE mad cow follies with SRM control, FEED control, and surveillance, and the faillures of all three (THIS IS NOT MY OPINION, THIS IS FACT VIA GAO AND OIG).



industry friendly voluntary programs for disease control is a disaster waiting to happen $$$




This site contains valuable information about Ohio's _voluntary_ National Animal Identification System (NAIS) in Ohio.










Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Wildlife Law Enforcement Annual Report July 1, 2008 – June 30, 2009



OHIO deer farmer with escapees, tells why he does NOT report escapes ;



> The owner was charged for failing to report the escape of the deer.



he just got caught.



how many more are out there in Ohio, and other states, that have not been caught, and are doing the same thing ??





Failure to report escaped deer results in criminal chargesfor commercial operator



Wildlife officers received notification that seven captive deer had escaped from a commercial deer propagator in Geauga County. Officers assisted in attempts to recapture the animals and monitored the situation for several weeks. Five of the seven deer were recaptured. The owner was charged for failing to report the escape of the deer. He stated that he was not going to report the escape fearing that the Division of Wildlife would require the deer to be killed.




http://dnr.state.oh.us/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=PSVWXhiY4rU%3D&tabid=4414







Enforcement and Surveillance



Numerous cases of non-CWD certified deer being moved to and from Ohio have been documented, as have cases of propagators taking or obtaining deer from the wild. Since July 1, 2007 wildlife officers have conducted 395 inspections of deer holding facilities. Forty-one issues or problems were documented and 16 charges were filed. Current cases involve cooperation with other states and with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Charges include conspiracy, violations of the Lacey Act and interstate transportation of non-CWD certified deer. In a Highland County case, our officers discovered illegal importation of deer from a CWD infected area resulting in a joint-agency decision to eradicate the herd. In another current case a propagator was convicted of 14 felony counts. The Division of Wildlife, with its significant numbers of well-trained law enforcement officers is uniquely suited to dealing with laws and rules dealing with captive cervids.







compensation is an important factor, if your going to depopulate and expect these farmers to comply, but you cannot do it at the price of a kill, in my opinion. testosterone is priceless, state funding is not. these game farms must be held accountable. i think an insurance policy someone brought up here that would cover just this, is an excellent idea, and before said game farm is approved, they should have to carry such a policy. you must have insurance for your vehicle to protect the other drivers from YOUR negligence, why not the same for game farmers and CWD. ...in my opinion.




Chronic Wasting Disease and Cervidae Regulations in North America MI Department of Natural Resources Contact: Melinda Cosgrove (cosgrovem1@michigan.gov 517-336-5043)



April 2011







State/Province


Ohio


Agency (with jurisdiction over captive cervids) and Contacts


Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife - Issues permits for white-tailed deer in captivity and carcass regulations. Contact: Ron Ollis, ron.ollis@dnr.state.oh.us. Department of Agriculture for import requirements and permits. Contact Cindy Bodie, bodie@agri.ohio.gov.


Standard Regulations * (listed only if different or in addition to those listed below)


Brucellosis within 30 days prior to entry or certified brucellosis free herd status. Negative whole herd tuberculosis test within 12 months prior to movemen and negative individual tuberculosis test within 90 days prior to entry or accredited herd status. Must be free of symptoms of CWD. No importations from quarantine premises or area.


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Regulation for Captive Cervids and Wildlife


CWD monitored herd status for 5 years OR no additions, except natural additions, within 12 months prior to entry, no exposure to CWD within 12 months prior to entry, no diagnosis, signs or evidence of CWD within 60 months prior to entry Documentation will be required prior to issuing permit. No importation from quarantined premises or area. Fence heights on capitve facility may be no less than 92 inches in height. Reporting of escapees mandatory and it is illegal to release a captive cervid into the wild.


In Process of Developing or Implementing New or Additional CWD Regulations


Agreement form must be completed. Participating herds require testing on all captive cervids over 16 months of age which die, perimeter fencing to prevent ingress/egress of cervids, annual herd inventory by state or federal personnel or accredited veterinarian, herd additions allowed from herd of equal or greater status, official ID on all animals 12 months of age and older and animals leaving the premises under 12 months of age.


CWD Testing Program for Captive Cervids


CWD monitoring of captive white-tailed deer is ___voluntary___.


CWD Testing Program for Wildlife


Target surveillance on free ranging white-tailed deer for CWD began in 2002 and is performed annually. 1000+ samples were collected and tested from hunterkilled (during the deer-gun season) and and road-killed deer (October to May). Suspect (sick looking or actig) free-ranging deer are also collected and tested throughout the year.


Baiting Banned


No ban at this time.


Feeding Banned


No ban at this time.


Ban on Movement of Animal Parts


Ohio Administrative Code 1501:31-19-02 makes it illegal for individuals to bring into Ohio deer, elk, and moose carcasses from certain portions of other states or provinces where chronic wasting disease has been identified unless all the soft tissue, lymph nodes and spinal column have been removed.


CWD Found in Captive Cervids


No


CWD Found in Free- Ranging Cervids


No


Chronic Wasting Disease and Cervidae Regulations in North America MI Department of Natural Resources


Contact: Melinda Cosgrove (cosgrovem1@michigan.gov 517-336-5043)




April 2011







Friday, March 16, 2012


OHIO TURNS OVER CERVID GAME FARMS (and CWD risk) TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, GOD HELP THEM


H. B. No. 389 As Passed by the Senate 129th General Assembly Regular Session 2011-2012 Am. H. B. No. 389




1533.71 or 1533.721 of the Revised Code;

(F) In addition to complying with the requirements established by division (E) of this section, the holder of a wild animal hunting preserve license who has captive white-tailed deer in the preserve shall keep a record of all known escapes of those deer, deaths of those deer that were not a result of hunting, and laboratory results for testing for chronic wasting disease of those deer that is required by section 943.21 of the Revised Code and rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code.




(B) Each holder of a captive white-tailed deer propagation license issued under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code shall maintain all records that are required in rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code. The records shall be kept permanently on the premises stated in the license and shall be open for inspection by any authorized representative of the department of agriculture at all reasonable times and of the division of wildlife at all reasonable times in conjunction with an active criminal investigation.




(C) The holder of a captive white-tailed deer propagation license shall not knowingly falsify any record or tag that is required in rules adopted under section 943.24 of the Revised Code or in rules adopted under section 1531.10 of the Revised Code.







Sec. 943.24. The director of agriculture shall adopt rules in accordance with Chapter 119. of the Revised Code that establish all of the following:


(A) Requirements governing health monitoring and disease testing of monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, and captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status, which testing may include, but is not limited to, testing for chronic wasting disease, brucellosis, and tuberculosis of such deer that are held at a facility licensed under section 1533.71 or 1533.721 of the Revised Code;


(B) Requirements governing captive whitetail deer licensees, including record-keeping requirements related to health monitoring and disease testing of monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, and captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status;


(C) Requirements and procedures that are necessary to preserve the health, safety, and welfare of monitored captive deer, captive deer with status, or captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status;


(D) Requirements and procedures governing the transfer of living game and nonnative wildlife, as defined in section 1531.01 of the Revised Code, from one wild animal hunting preserve licensed under section 1533.721 of the Revised Code to another such wild animal hunting preserve;


(E) Tagging requirements for captive deer with status and captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status for such deer that are propagated pursuant to a captive white-tailed deer propagation license issued under section 1533.71 of the Revised Code;


(F) Requirements governing the certification of captive deer with certified chronic wasting disease status;


(G) Any other requirements or procedures that are necessary to administer and enforce sections 943.20 to 943.26 of the Revised Code.












full text ;










July 1, 2008 – June 30, 2009



Failure to report escaped deer results in criminal charges for commercial operator


Wildlife officers received notification that seven captive deer had escaped from a commercial deer propagator in Geauga County. Officers assisted in attempts to recapture the animals and monitored the situation for several weeks. Five of the seven deer were recaptured. The owner was charged for failing to report the escape of the deer. He stated that he was not going to report the escape fearing that the Division of Wildlife would require the deer to be killed.


snip...


Reported wild record class buck turns out to be hunting preserve deer


On December 8, 2008, Robert McCarley, of Circleville, legally killed a 220-class whitetailed buck deer with a rifle on a pay-to-hunt shooting preserve in Holmes County.


The next day Mr. McCarley falsely reported to an official Division of Wildlife deer check station that he had killed the record class 17-point buck with a bow in southern Franklin County as a free-ranging deer.


On January 2, 2009, the story of the big buck hit major outdoor media outlets around the state. Shortly thereafter the Division of Wildlife began to receive numerous tips that the buck was taken on a shooting preserve.


Based on a tip, in early January, wildlife investigators made contact with the owner of Whitetail Haven, the shooting preserve in Holmes County where the deer was taken. The owner verified the big buck was killed inside his preserve for a fee of $12,500.


snip...


In early February 2009, another wildlife officer developed information that Mr. McCarley’s 2006 record book deer had also been taken on a shooting preserve and was falsely reported as a free ranging wild kill.


Subsequently, Mr. McCarley was charged in Circleville Municipal Court on one count of providing false information to an official deer check station. The misdemeanor offense resulted in fines and costs of $375, a three-year hunting license suspension, two years probation, 30 days in jail, suspended, and an apology letter to Ohio’s sportsmen.







Chronic Wasting Disease National Program for Farmed and Captive Cervids Update


Patrice N. Klein; National Center for Animal Health Programs, USDA-APHIS-VS


In FY2010, APHIS received approximately $16.8 million in appropriated funding for the CWD Program, including $1.0 million in congressional earmarks. The FY2011 President’s proposed budget for the CWD Program is $14.2 million (exclusive of any congressional earmarks). In the first quarter of FY2011, the federal government is operating on a Continuing Resolution based on a quarterly percentage of the FY10 budget.


CWD Rule Update: Public comments received on the proposed amendments to the 2006 CWD rule were categorized, reviewed, and responses were drafted. Issues that may impact the amended final rule and CWD Program implementation include the President’s Memo on federal preemption (May 20, 2009), budgetary constraints, and ongoing need for additional research to better understand the science for prevention and control of CWD. A draft of the amended CWD final rule is in clearance in November 2010.


Surveillance testing: Through FY2009, VS conducted surveillance testing on more than 23,000 farmed and captive cervids by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) standard protocol. In FY2010, approximately 20,000 farmed and captive cervids were tested by IHC for CWD with funding to cover lab costs provided through NVSL.


Status: CWD was detected in one captive white-tailed deer (WTD) herd in Missouri in February 2010. To date, 50 farmed/captive cervid herds have been identified in 11 states: CO, KS, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, NY, OK, SD, WI. Thirty-seven were elk herds and 13 were WTD herds. At this time, six CWD positive elk herds remain in Colorado and one WTD herd remains in MO. VS has continued to offer indemnity for appraised value of the animals and to cover costs of depopulation, disposal, and testing of CWD-positive and exposed herds. Indemnity is provided based on availability of federal funding.


Controlling Disease at the Fence: Research Questions, Answers, and on to More Questions


Kurt VerCauteren, National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS-WS


In recent years the National Wildlife Research Center has collaborated with many privately owned elk and deer producers to investigate many aspects regarding the potential for disease transmission between free-ranging and captive cervids. A suite of studies began with a fenceline-interaction evaluation designed to determine if and to what extent interactions occurred along perimeter fences. We found through 1 year of video monitoring that interactions between captive and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were relatively rare (2 direct contacts and 7 indirect contacts). Interactions between captive and free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus), though, were relatively common (77 direct contacts and 274 indirect contacts). To address this issue, we proceeded to design and evaluate a cost-effective baited-electric fence that could be added to an existing single perimeter fence to minimize potential interactions. Our case study documented that once exposed to the electric fence individual elk learned to respect it and were completely deterred thereafter. The ambiguous question of how high white-tailed deer can jump was next on our list of pursuits to further evaluate risk associated with perimeter fences. Following a controlled evaluation involving 43 white-tailed deer motivated to jump progressively higher fences, we determined that a 2.1-m-high fence presents a considerable barrier. We also teamed up with colleagues to develop the rectal biopsy antemortem test for identifying CWD-infected individuals, collecting over 1,500 rectal biopsies from captive cervids to date. We have incorporated the procedure into our research and continue to work toward assessing its utility relative to management. To prepare for instances when disease is introduced into the wild at a pointsource, we initiated a study evaluating rapid containment of white-tailed deer and demonstrated the efficacy of 2.1-m-high polypropylene mesh fence for emergency containment. A study we hope to do will document how captive white-tailed deer respond following “escape” from a captive deer facility. The study would give us an understanding of how easily these deer can be recaptured and how readily they integrate into the local free-ranging deer herd. The progression of research that we have conducted to date has provided insight into what occurs along perimeter fences at captive cervid facilities and is enabling producers and management agencies to make more informed decisions relative to protecting valuable resources inside and outside fences. We will briefly discuss these studies and more.



***again I bring this study to your attention***



White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection


Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.


see full text ;






and again, here’s why I brought it to your attention ;



*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.


(PLEASE NOTE SOME OF THESE OLD UK GOVERNMENT FILE URLS ARE SLOW TO OPEN, AND SOMETIMES YOU MAY HAVE TO CLICK ON MULTIPLE TIMES, PLEASE BE PATIENT, ANY PROBLEMS PLEASE WRITE ME PRIVATELY, AND I WILL TRY AND FIX OR SEND YOU OLD PDF FILE...TSS)







Ohio’s Fatal Attractions


An overview of captive wildlife issues in Ohio


April 4, 2011


Updated March 20, 2012








CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈ 100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).





SNIP...





Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).





PLEASE STUDY THIS MAP, COMPARE FARMED CWD TO WILD CWD...TSS










Saturday, February 18, 2012



Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease



CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012





CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).












Thursday, February 09, 2012



50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE







Tuesday, June 05, 2012


Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session






Saturday, June 09, 2012


USDA Establishes a Herd Certification Program for Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States






Detection of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Water from a CWD-Endemic Area



65



Tracy A. Nichols*1,2, Bruce Pulford1, Christy Wyckoff1,2, Crystal Meyerett1, Brady Michel1, Kevin Gertig3, Jean E. Jewell4, Glenn C. Telling5 and M.D. Zabel1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA 2National Wildlife Research Center, Wildlife Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 3Fort Collins Water and Treatment Operations, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 4 Department of Veterinary Sciences, Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82070, USA 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Molecular Genetics and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40536, USA * Corresponding author- tracy.a.nichols@aphis.usda.gov



Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only known transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife. Experimental and epidemiological data indicate that CWD can be transmitted horizontally and via blood and saliva, although the exact mode of natural transmission remains unknown. Substantial evidence suggests that prions can persist in the environment, implicating it as a potential prion reservoir and transmission vehicle. CWD- positive animals can contribute to environmental prion load via biological materials including saliva, blood, urine and feces, shedding several times their body weight in possibly infectious excreta in their lifetime, as well as through decomposing carcasses. Sensitivity limitations of conventional assays hamper evaluation of environmental prion loads in water. Here we show the ability of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify minute amounts of CWD prions in spiked water samples at a 1:1 x106 , and protease-resistant prions in environmental and municipal-processing water samples from a CWD endemic area. Detection of CWD prions correlated with increased total organic carbon in water runoff from melting winter snowpack. These data suggest prolonged persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission.



snip...



The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.



snip...end...full text at ;












what about rodents there from?


4 American rodents are susceptible to CWD to date. are those double fences going to stop these rodents from escaping these game farms once becoming exposed to CWD?



Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents


Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email: cjohnson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in "rigid loop" structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.






please see ;








Saturday, February 04, 2012


Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised







kind regards, terry




Post a comment
Write a comment: