Health knowledge made personal
Join this community!
› Share page:
Go
Search posts:

North Carolina Wildlife Commission Seeks to Test 3,000 Deer for Deadly Disease CWD

Posted Sep 19 2013 12:12pm
Sent: Thursday, September 19, 2013 11:11 AM
Subject: North Carolina Wildlife Commission Seeks to Test 3,000 Deer for Deadly Disease CWD
 

Wildlife Commission Seeks to Test 3,000 Deer for Deadly Disease
 
on Sep 18, 2013 12:14 PM • Views 454
 
Media Contact: Dr. Maria Palamar 919-707-0056
 
maria.palamar@ncwildlife.org RALEIGH, N.C. (Sept. 18, 2013) — The N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission is asking whitetail hunters to allow staff to sample their deer harvests this fall for the agency’s statewide Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) surveillance effort.
 
CWD is a fatal disease, although deer may not show symptoms for five years or more. No treatment or cure for CWD exists. Direct, animal-to-animal contact is a means of transmission, but evidence also suggests that contaminated environments present risks. Humans are not known to contract CWD.
 
Although CWD has not been detected in North Carolina, deer populations have tested positive for the disease in Virginia, West Virginia and 20 other states, as well as two Canadian provinces. The Wildlife Commission conducts surveillance of the white-tailed deer population to monitor for the presence of the disease and prevent its spread if it were detected in the state’s deer population.
 
The Commission has been conducting CWD surveillance of white-tailed deer since 1999, including two statewide sampling efforts in 2003 and 2008, and smaller scale subsampling efforts in other years. The 2013 surveillance effort will be the most extensive yet as Commission staff seeks to collect samples from a minimum of 3,000 deer from across the state.
 
Public assistance in this effort will be essential to help the Commission meet its goal, according to Maria Palamar, the Commission’s wildlife veterinarian.
 
“If you, or someone you know, harvests deer this fall and are willing to donate samples, please contact the Wildlife Commission promptly,” Palamar said. “We’ll collect the brain stem and retropharyngeal lymph nodes to submit for laboratory testing. Collection of these tissues does not interfere with a hunter’s ability to retain the antlers or consume the meat.”
 
Hunters who want to assist the Commission in this effort should contact their local district wildlife biologists to discuss the collection process. Contact information for each of the Commission’s nine district biologists, as well as the three regional wildlife supervisors, can be found on this map. Hunters can also call the Commission’s Division of Wildlife Management at 919-707-0050.
 
Along with providing an actual tissue sample, you will be asked to provide your name and contact information and the exact location where the deer was killed, the date of the kill, and the sex. Suitable samples can be taken from any deer 1½ years or older. While younger deer (i.e., button bucks) can potentially have the disease, it will not have progressed far enough that it can be detected in the testing.
 
For more information on hunting in North Carolina, visit the Commission’s hunting page, or call the Division of Wildlife Management, 919-707-0050.
 
 
 
Wildlife Commission Seizes Illegally Held Deer
 
on Mar 16, 2012 11:09 AM • Views 4163
 
Media Contact: Carolyn Rickard 919-707-0124 carolyn.rickard@ncwildlife.org RALEIGH, N.C. (March 15) — The N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission on Thursday, March 15 seized and euthanized four adult white-tailed deer being held without permit or license in Iredell County.
 
Wildlife Law Enforcement Officers obtained a search warrant, and biologists from the Wildlife Management Division used immobilization drugs to remove the captive deer safely from the property.
 
According to North Carolina law, it is illegal to hold or confine deer, elk or other cervid animals in the state without a permit or license, with strict requirements necessary to safeguard the health and safety of wildlife resources, livestock and humans.
 
Further, since 2002, except for fawns taken to licensed rehabilitators, it has been illegal to transfer deer between facilities. These measures have been in place to prevent introduction and spread of wildlife diseases including chronic wasting disease.
 
CWD is a contagious and progressive disease that typically induces chronic weight loss leading to death in the infected animal. The majority of infected animals also experience behavioral changes. Currently, the only way to diagnose is through a post-mortem examination. More information on the effects of CWD and other wildlife diseases is available from the Wildlife Commission at www.ncwildlife.org, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/cwd/ and the national CWD Alliance at www.cwd-info.org.
 
 
 
N.C. Wildlife Update - 9/30/2011 WRC Captive Deer Policy Statement Dear Wildlife Stakeholder:
 
Recent actions by the N. C. Wildlife Resources Commission to confiscate and euthanize deer prompted numerous responses, some of which are based on incomplete or inaccurate information. Our actions were performed in the interest of wildlife conservation and public safety. Our officers and biologists implemented agency policies in strict accordance with state law and with the utmost professionalism, respect, and consideration. In keeping with the agency’s mission to conserve wildlife resources and to communicate the importance of healthy wildlife, I offer the following clarification of the reasons those actions were undertaken.
 
White-tailed deer are native wildlife that are important to the ecology of North Carolina and belong to all citizens of the State. To safeguard this public trust, it is unlawful for individuals to hold or confine deer without a permit. Requirements for holding deer in captivity are necessary to safeguard the health and safety of wildlife resources, livestock, and humans. North Carolina law requires that any deer, elk or other member of the family Cervidae held in captivity must be in a facility licensed by the WRC. Strict record keeping of the origin and movement of cervids, as well as health, status, and disposition of animals in a licensed facility is required. These requirements are in place to minimize the potential for transfer of dangerous wildlife diseases, including Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) and tuberculosis. They also are designed to provide early detection and containment of diseases should they be discovered. In addition to testing captive cervids, the Wildlife Resources Commission also tests free-ranging white-tailed deer in accordance with surveillance protocols established in North Carolina’s Chronic Wasting Disease Response Plan. For video information about CWD, click here.
 
Since the 1980s CWD has been detected in 19 states, including West Virginia (2005), Virginia (2010), and Maryland (2011). CWD is a fatal and debilitating disease that has caused serious ecological and economic impact in areas where it has become established. Due to the severity of the potential impacts from CWD, extensive surveillance programs that monitor CWD distribution and prevalence have been instituted nationwide. In order to minimize the threat of its importation and establishment, North Carolina in 2003 implemented stringent requirements and restrictions on importation and confinement of cervids. These requirements are instrumental in preventing the establishment of CWD. Modeling research in the state of Wisconsin where CWD was detected in 2002 suggests that, if left unmanaged, CWD will spread throughout Wisconsin resulting in an infection rate in adult deer of at least 40%. These research results are mirrored by current data in Colorado and Wyoming, where in some areas average infection rates exceed 40% across thousands of square miles, suggesting the disease continues to spread widely across the landscape. Our actions are intended to avoid these consequences in North Carolina.
 
There are two types of authorized facilities for holding deer in North Carolina. Both are required to be permitted or licensed and inspected for humane care and compliance with requirements for thorough record-keeping and disease testing. Fawn rehabilitators are specially trained to rehabilitate injured or orphaned white-tailed deer fawns. They are authorized to temporarily hold fawn deer for release back into the wild. Free-ranging adult deer held in captivity even for relatively short periods, can lose their natural fear of humans. These deer are not suitable for reintroduction into the wild and pose serious public safety risks including human injury and death.
 
The other authorized type of facility for holding deer in North Carolina is a captive cervid facility. North Carolina has more than 50 licensed captive cervid facilities including deer farming operations. These facilities operate within established guidelines, and the licensees recognize the need for proper enforcement in order to protect their property, as well as the public’s wildlife, from potentially devastating diseases.
 
Protecting and conserving the wildlife resources of the State is an important responsibility. In August 2011, our staff became aware of an individual possessing captive deer in Randolph County without license or permits. The facility operator had been notified on several occasions, dating back to 2003, that licensure and strict operational guidelines were required to hold deer in captivity. In February 2004, the operator was sent notification that he was ineligible to possess cervids in captivity. After learning of the presence of captive cervids at this location, we conducted due diligence in investigation, initiating legal process including obtaining a warrant, and continued close monitoring. In September 2011, nine deer were confiscated and euthanized with rifles and a shotgun so they could be tested for CWD. Firearms such as these are accepted forms of humane euthanasia for wildlife, and all personnel involved had been trained in the practice by a licensed veterinarian. Euthanasia was required because the origin of these deer could not be verified, and because continuous containment within the facility could not be assured. Unfortunately, there is no approved testing procedure available for live deer because protocol for CWD testing requires either a lymph node or brain tissue sample. Furthermore, the CWD incubation period can range from 16 months to five years; therefore, a negative test result for an individual deer from a group provides no assurance that the remaining deer in the group would test negative.
 
Also in August, our staff learned of deer held in an unlicensed facility in Surry County. In this instance, two fawns had been held in captivity for several months with an adult male deer of unknown origin. If the fawns had been turned over to a licensed facility for rehabilitation when they were found they most likely could have been returned to the wild with a high chance for survival. However, due to the intense level of human interaction, all three deer were unlikely to survive in the wild. Additionally, because the fawns were commingled with a deer of unknown origin, their origin and health status could not be verified. As a result, the animals were euthanized with immobilizing drugs and a bolt gun.
 
The risks to wildlife resources and public safety from disease transmission and human habituation are very serious. It is unfortunate that the actions of otherwise well-meaning persons can result in the destruction of these resources. The WRC urges all NC citizens to learn more about issues associated with holding wildlife in captivity by visiting our website www.ncwildlife.org or calling 919-707-0050 for more information.
 
Gordon Myers Executive Director September 30, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Today there are approximately 1.25 million deer in North Carolina. (old stats...tss)
 
 
 
 
> North Carolina Wildlife Commission Seeks to Test 3,000 Deer for Deadly Disease CWD
 
 
 
Greetings North Carolina Officials and hunters et al,
 
 
I kindly submit the following updated science on CWD from the PRION2013
 
 
 
Sunday, August 25, 2013
 
***PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS
 
Prion2013 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission
 
 
 
Sunday, July 21, 2013
 
*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?
 
 
 
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
 
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...
 
 
 
Thursday, August 08, 2013
 
***PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS
 
Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America
 
 
 
Sunday, September 01, 2013
 
hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
 
 
 
Sunday, June 09, 2013
 
Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
 
 
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
 
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
 
 
 
Saturday, September 07, 2013
 
Georgia House Bill 1043 and Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
Greetings Honorable Representatives of the House, Game, Fish, & Parks,
 
 
 
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
 
PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free
 
 
 
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
 
Sunday, January 06, 2013
 
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
 
 
 
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
 
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
 
 
 
Monday, June 24, 2013
 
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
 
 
 
Saturday, June 29, 2013
 
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
 
 
 
Friday, August 02, 2013
 
The Fight to Keep Chronic Wasting Disease Out of Florida
 
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
 
 
 
pens, pens, PENS ??
 
 
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.
 
 
 
now, decades later ;
 
 
2012
 
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
 
Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA
 
snip...
 
The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.
 
 
 
2011
 
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.
 
 
 
Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
 
Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA
 
snip...
 
This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.
 
 
 
2011 Annual Report
 
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit
 
2011 Annual Report
 
In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.
 
snip...
 
4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.
 
 
 
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection
 
Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS
 
snip...
 
This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.
 
 
see full text ;
 
 
 
SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 20, 2013
 
atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
*** DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
snip...
 
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
 
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
 
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
 
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
 
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
 
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
 
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.
 
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
 
snip...
 
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.
 
snip...
 
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
 
snip...
 
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.
 
snip...
 
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.
 
snip...
 
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.
 
snip...
 
 
 
SNIP...SEE ;
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
 
 
Tuesday, September 17, 2013
 
***USAHA 116TH ANNUAL MEETING October 18 – 24, 2012 CWD, Scrapie, BSE, TSE prion (September 17, 2013)
 



Tuesday, November 13, 2012

North Carolina commission sets up task force on deer farming

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/11/north-carolina-commission-sets-up-task.html

 
 
Sunday, August 11, 2013
 
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013
 
***Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010
 
 
 
Saturday, July 6, 2013
 
*** Small Ruminant Nor98 Prions Share Biochemical Features with Human Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease and Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy
 
Research Article
 
 
 
Sunday, September 08, 2013
 
***Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via surgical instruments and decontamination possibilities for the TSE prion
 
 
 
lost my mom to hvCJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease hvCJD ‘confirmed’ 12/14/97. just made a promise to her. back then, there was not much information in the public domain about the TSE prion disease. I could not and still, to this day, don’t accept the bogus myth that 85%+ of all human TSE prion disease i.e. sporadic CJD, just happens, without route and source of anything, a happenstance of bad luck, a spontaneous event, of a miss-folding protein. and in fact, we are learning today that some of the sporadic CJDs are being linked to atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, cwd will be next, if it has not happened already. ...
 
 
layperson
 
 
kind regards, terry
 
 
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
 
 
Post a comment
Write a comment: