NC commission sets up task force on deer farming
Published 4:02 a.m., Saturday, November 10, 2012
RALEIGH, N.C. (AP) — The state Wildlife Resources Commission is setting up a task force to look into the issues involved in the licensing of deer farming operations in North Carolina.
Commission executive director Gordon Myers said Friday the panel tabled proposed changes that would have expanded importation of deer and licensing of deer farming. Instead, the commission will establish the task with members from the state Department of Agriculture, hunting groups, public health and other groups.
The task force will report back to the commission in May.
The Humane Society of the United States praised the decision, saying deer farming operations increase the risk of disease, including the fatal, incurable chronic wasting disease. The disease has been found in 22 states.
North Carolina has a moratorium on farms for deer and other cervids.
July 16, 2012
Fiscal Note for Proposed 15A NCAC 10B.0101 Importation of Wild Animals and Birds, 15A NCAC 10H.0301 General Requirements, 15A NCAC 10H.0302 Minimum Standards, and 15A NCAC 10H.0304 Captive Cervid Certification Program Contact: Tommy Clark North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (919) 707-0081 or email@example.com
SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED REGULATION
North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (WRC) is proposing to adopt amended rule text for the following rules; 15A NCAC 10B.0101 Importation of Wild Animals and Birds, 15A NCAC 10H.0301 General Requirements, 15A NCAC 10H.0302 Minimum Standards, and 15A NCAC 10H.0304 Captive Cervid Certification Program, (see proposed rule text in Appendix 1). Through passage of N.C.G.S. § 113-272.6 the legislature established that cervids could be held in captivity provided certain rules as established by the NCWRC were followed. While the General Assembly provided 2 legal opportunity for previously unlicensed cervid owners to become legal, it left licensing of future captive cervid facilities to the NCWRC. The changes to these rules cover basically four areas: 1) The WRC is amending rule text to allow for new captive cervid facilities to be constructed. This construction has been allowed in the past; however, a moratorium has been in place for a number of years. The current rule states that the captive cervid facility shall be surrounded by a fence of sufficient strength and design to contain the animal under any circumstances, at least eight feet high. The new parameters for allowed construction will be done in accordance to new standards in Rule 15A NCAC 10H .0302, in which the new fencing standards will be enhanced to help prevent wild deer and captive deer from coming into direct contact with each other, and potentially transmitting disease. This new standard will include the existing eight foot high fence standard and, in addition, a standard that includes three strands of electrified wire and two strands of non-electrified wire along either the inside or the outside perimeter to ensure no contact between wild deer and captive cervid. 2) The WRC is also amending rule text to allow for the expansion of existing cervid facilities. Under current rule, only licensees with certified herds may expand pen size or the number of pens on the licensed facility to increase the holding capacity of that facility. The proposed rule will allow any existing facility to expand, but it must adhere to the new fencing standards for new facilities. This new rule covers not only the expanded fencing area, but also directs the old fenced area to be retrofitted to meet the new standards. 3) The WRC is also amending rule text to allow importation of captive cervid as allowed in Rule 15A NCAC 10B .0101, yet only under strict guidelines. First, only those captive cervid licensees with certified herds will be allowed to import. Secondly, there will be absolutely no importation from any state or province in which Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) has already been detected. Importation of species in which CWD has not been documented by the scientific community has also been relaxed. 4) The proposed rule changes also addresses testing of cervids for CWD, the issuance of captivity licenses and the ability to transport cervids within the state. The proposed amendment for the transportation permit rule is that under current rule a cervid could only be transported from one certified herd to another certified herd in North Carolina. The proposal is that the destination herd for a cervid does not have to be certified.
HISTORY OF CWD PREVENTION IN THE STATE
snip...see full text ;
November 9, 2012
The Humane Society of the United States Applauds North Carolina Decision to Table Plans to Allow New Cervid Facilities
The Humane Society of the United States issued a statement in response to the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission’s tabling of proposed regulations to expand captive cervid facilities. The facilities would have kept deer, elk and other animals classified as cervids.
“Captive cervid facilities concentrate animals in unnaturally high densities, which puts both captive and native herds at risk of serious diseases like the fatal, incurable Chronic Wasting Disease,” said Kim Alboum, North Carolina state director for The HSUS. “Furthermore, expanding captive deer breeding could lead to a market for captive cervid trophy hunting ranches, which are currently illegal, in the state. The Humane Society of the United States is so pleased that the Commission has decided to put aside this reckless proposal which flies in the face of sound conservation.” Facts: The state of North Carolina currently has a moratorium on new captive cervid facilities; the proposed regulations would have allowed new facilities to open. Diseases such as tuberculosis, brucellosis and Chronic Wasting Disease have been diagnosed in captive wildlife, and cannot be contained by a fence. Chronic Wasting Disease has now been found in 22 states. In 13 of the states the disease has been found in captive populations. Chronic Wasting Disease can cost taxpayers millions of dollars in response efforts – the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources alone has spent over $35 million since 2002 fighting the disease. Animals in captive hunts are stocked inside fenced enclosures, allowing ranches to often offer guaranteed trophies, “100 percent success” rates, and advertise "no kill, no pay" policies. Captive hunts are generally reviled by the hunting community nationwide for violating the principle of fair chase. Hunting groups such as the Boone and Crockett Club and the Pope and Young Club, which maintain trophy records for big game hunting, will not consider animals shot at captive hunts for inclusion on their record lists. At more than 1,000 commercial captive hunt operations in the United States, trophy hunters pay to shoot native and exotic mammals confined in fenced enclosures. Many of the animals on these ranches have become accustomed to humans, making them easy targets for shooters.
Media Contact: Kaitlin Sanderson: 301-721-6463; firstname.lastname@example.org
USDA-APHIS-VS Chronic Wasting Disease National Program
Patrice N. Klein of USDA APHIS VS – National Center for Animal Health Programs provided an update on the agency’s CWD–related activities:
CWD Rule Update: The amended final rule on chronic wasting disease (CWD) is currently in departmental clearance. The rule will set minimum standards for interstate movement and establish the national voluntary Herd Certification Program (HCP). Farmed/captive cervid surveillance testing: Through FY2010, VS conducted surveillance testing on approximately 20,000 farmed /captive cervids by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) standard protocol. As of September 15, 2011, approximately 19,000 farmed /captive cervids were tested by IHC for CWD with funding to cover lab costs provided through NVSL.
Farmed/captive cervid CWD status: The CWD positive captive white-tailed deer (WTD) herd reported in Missouri (February 2010) was indemnified and depopulation activities were completed in June 2011. All depopulated animals were tested for CWD and no additional CWD positive animals were found.
In FY 2011, CWD was reported in two captive elk herds in Nebraska (December, 2010 and April 2011, respectively).
To date, 52 farmed/captive cervid herds have been identified in 11 states: CO, KS, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, NY, OK, SD, WI.
Thirty-nine were elk herds and 13 were WTD herds. At this time, eight CWD positive herds remain – six elk herds in Colorado and the two elk herds in Nebraska.
Wild Cervid surveillance: In FY 2009 funding supported surveillance in approximately 74,330 wild cervids in 47 cooperating States. Wild cervid CWD surveillance totals are pending for fiscal year 2010 (2010 – 2011 calendar year) due to seasonal surveillance activities and completion of final cooperative agreement reporting to APHIS.
In fiscal year 2011, there are 15 ‘tier 1’ States, 20 ‘tier 2’ States, and 15 ‘tier 3’ States. Two new ‘tier 1’ States, Minnesota and Maryland, were added in fiscal year 2011 based on the new CWD detections in a free-ranging white-tailed deer in southeastern Minnesota and in western Maryland. Consequently, Delaware was upgraded to ‘tier 2’ status as an adjacent State to Maryland. For FY 2011, 45 States and 32 Tribes will receive cooperative agreement funds to complete wild cervid surveillance and other approved work plan activities. Based on FY 2012 projected budget reductions, future cooperative agreement funds will be eliminated.
APHIS CWD Funding: In FY2011, APHIS received approximately $15.8 million in appropriated funding for the CWD Program. The President’s FY 2012 budget proposes to reduce program funding for CWD by $13.9 million, leaving the program with a request of $1.925 million to provide some level of Federal coordination for the national herd certification program (HCP).
Consequently, APHIS is planning to amend its role in the program to one of Federal coordination. Based on the projected FY 2012 budget, funding for CWD cooperative agreements and indemnity funding for States and Tribes will be eliminated. Under this scenario, the States or cervid industry producers will likely be responsible for the costs of surveillance testing and indemnity for appraisal, depopulation, and disposal of CWD-positive animals.
Commodity Health Line Structure: In the FY 2012 budget, livestock commodities regulated by USDA have been organized into ‘Commodity Health Line’ structures or groupings. APHIS’ Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant (ECSR) Health line supports efforts to protect the health and thereby improve the quality and productivity of the equine, cervid and small ruminant industries. Activities supported by the ECSR Health line range from monitoring and surveillance to investigation and response actions undertaken when health issues relevant to the industry are identified. APHIS also maintains regulations and program standards which guide ECSR activities at both the Federal and State/Tribal level.
The ECSR Health line funds essential activities necessary to maintain current ECSR surveillance and program operations while providing the flexibility to respond to new and emerging industry-specific health concerns. APHIS’ current activities include Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Slaughter Horse Transport, and Brucellosis/Tuberculosis in cervids. Overall, APHIS will use funding from the ECSR Health Line Item to support Agency efforts in the following mission areas: prevention, preparedness and communication; monitoring, surveillance and detection; response and containment; and continuity of business, mitigation and recovery
Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.
The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:
Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids
Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement
Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids
how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??
? game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.
RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM
SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update
FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING
TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.
Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions
Marcelo A. Barria1, Glenn C. Telling2, Pierluigi Gambetti3, James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1,* 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer’s disease and related Brain disorders, Dept of Neurology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA 3Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA 4Dept of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Running Title: Conversion of human PrPC by cervid PrPSc Keywords: Prion / transmissible spongiform encephalopathy / infectivity / misfolded prion protein / prion strains * To whom correspondence should be addressed. University of Texas Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030. Tel 713-5007086; Fax 713-5000667; E-mail Claudio.Soto@uth.tmc.edu The latest version is at http://www.jbc.org/cgi/doi/10.1074/jbc.M110.198465 JBC Papers in Press.
Published on January 4, 2011 as Manuscript M110.198465 Copyright 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. 5, Downloaded from www.jbc.org by guest, on November 11, 2012 2
Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. Determining the risk of transmission of CWD to humans is of utmost importance, considering that people can be infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the misfolded form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc. Our results also have profound implications for understanding the mechanisms of prion species barrier and indicate that the transmission barrier is a dynamic process that depend on the strain and moreover the degree of adaptation of the strain. If our findings are corroborated by infectivity assays, they will imply that CWD prions have the potential to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation.
Various studies aimed to analyze the transmission of CWD to transgenic mice expressing human PrP have consistently given negative results (9-11), indicating a strong species barrier. This conclusion is consistent with our many failed experiments to attempt converting human PrPC with natural CWD, even after pushing the PMCA conditions (see figure 1). We found successful conversion only after adaptation of the CWD prion strain by successive passages in vitro or in cervid transgenic mice. We are not aware that in any of the transgenic mice studies the inoculum used was a previously stabilized CWD strain. Although, it has been shown that strain stabilization in vitro by PMCA (17;26) and in vivo using experimental rodents (36) has similarities with the strain adaptation process occurring in natural hosts, we cannot rule out that the type of CWD strain adaptation that is required to produce strains transmissible to humans may take much longer time in cervids or not occur at all. An important experiment will be to study transmissibility to humanized transgenic mice of CWD passed experimentally in deer several times. Besides the importance of our results for public health in relation to the putative transmissibility of CWD to humans, our data also illustrate a very important and novel scientific concept related to the mechanism of prion transmission across species barriers. Today the view is that species barrier is mostly controlled by the degree of similarity on the sequence of the prion protein between the host and the infectious material (4). In our study we show that the strain and moreover the stabilization of the strain plays a major role in the inter-species transmission. In our system there is no change on the protein sequence, but yet strain adaptation results in a complete change on prion transmissibility with potentially dramatic consequences. Therefore, our findings lead to a new view of the species barrier that should not be seen as a static process, but rather a dynamic biological phenomenon that can change over time when prion strains mature and evolve. It remains to be investigated if other species barriers also change upon progressive strain adaptation of other prion forms (e.g. the sheep/human barrier).
Our results have far-reaching implications for human health, since they indicate that cervid PrPSc can trigger the conversion of human PrPC into PrPSc, suggesting that CWD might be infectious to humans. Interestingly our findings suggest that unstable strains from CWD affected animals might not be a problem for humans, but upon strain stabilization by successive passages in the wild, this disease might become progressively more transmissible to man.
Generation of a New Form of Human PrPScin Vitro by Interspecies Transmission from Cervid Prions*
Marcelo A. Barria‡, Glenn C. Telling§, Pierluigi Gambetti¶, James A. Mastrianni‖ and Claudio Soto‡,1 + Author Affiliations
From the ‡Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, the §Departments of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, the ¶Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, and the ‖Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed: University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin St., Houston, TX 77030. Tel.: 713-500-7086; Fax: 713-500-0667; E-mail: email@example.com.
Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. Determining the risk of transmission of CWD to humans is of utmost importance, considering that people can be infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the misfolded form by CWD PrPSc, we performed experiments using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique, which mimics in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the conversion of human PrPC but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from that of any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc. Our results also have profound implications for understanding the mechanisms of the prion species barrier and indicate that the transmission barrier is a dynamic process that depends on the strain and moreover the degree of adaptation of the strain. If our findings are corroborated by infectivity assays, they will imply that CWD prions have the potential to infect humans and that this ability progressively increases with CWD spreading.
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN
Wednesday, September 08, 2010 CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010
Tuesday, June 05, 2012
Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session
Friday, August 31, 2012
COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review
Friday, August 24, 2012
Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America
2010 WISCONSIN CAPTIVE DEER ESCAPES
There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. ...
Deer, elk continue to escape from state farms
Article by: DOUG SMITH , Star Tribune Updated: March 14, 2011 - 12:08 PM
Curbing chronic wasting disease remains a concern; officials are increasing enforcement.
Almost 500 captive deer and elk have escaped from Minnesota farms over the past five years, and 134 were never recaptured or killed.
So far this year, 17 deer have escaped, and officials are still searching for many of those.
Thursday, October 11, 2012
Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD
Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought
Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free
Wednesday, November 07, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA Second Adams County Deer Tests Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease
Friday, September 28, 2012
Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota
Monday, June 11, 2012
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting
INDIANA 20 DEER ESCAPE TROPHY BUCK GAME FARM STATE OFFICIALS FEAR CWD RISK TO WILD
Friday, July 20, 2012
CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve
Wednesday, September 05, 2012
Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive
Friday, September 21, 2012
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD raises concerns about deer farms in Iowa
MORE CERVIDS ESCAPE GAME FARMS AND POTENTIALLY EXPOSE THE WILD HERD TO CWD AND OTHER DANGEROUS PATHOGENS
Two ‘elk’ slain near Antoich were European red deer that escaped from farm
BY DALE BOWMAN For Sun-Times Media November 8, 2012 10:28PM
Updated: November 9, 2012 2:31AM
It’s mistaken identity gone wild. Ron Mulholland thought he arrowed two wild elk last Friday from his deer stand on a farm outside of Antioch.
When James Minogue saw the story in Wednesday’s Sun-Times, he recognized the pair of breeding European red deer from the herd he helps manage for Avery Brabender on a farm in unincorporated Antioch. They, along with four others, escaped some time after Oct. 31 when a gate was opened or left open.
“It amazed me that they think they are elk and wild,’’ Minogue said.
However, elk and red deer are close enough to interbreed.
“I will talk to him,’’ Mulholland said. “I assumed they were wild and killed them. To me, they were elk. I don’t know. ... I feel bad for the guy that he would lose them. I reacted because I assumed it was an elk and I shot him.’’
“You don’t see elk in the wild in Illinois,’’ said Kevin Bettis, the duty officer in Springfield Thursday for the Illinois Conservation Police.
That’s tricky. A decade ago, Illinois didn’t have wolves or cougars, either. Both species now make regular appearances.
“These animals were hand-fed: We feed them bread, apples, corn,,’’ Minogue said. Another tricky part is neither elk nor European red deer are protected or regulated under Illinois’ wildlife code. But these European red deer are considered domesticated animals. The herd is registered with the Illinois Department of Agriculture.
“It is no different than shooting a cow,’’ Bettis said.
However, Capt. Neal Serdar of Region II (northeast Illinois) checked with CPOs in southern Illinois, where escaped animals of such sort are more a more frequent issue.
Then he said, “The individual who shot the two red deer did not break any laws.’’
The Illinois Conservation Police consider the case closed. Whether there is any civil case would seem tricky at best, since the animals were loose.
Minogue said they recaptured two of the red deer already. He said the reason there were no ear tags is because they are a “contained, monitored herd.’’
It sounds like both parties can work it out.
“If it gets down to that, I would give him the antlers,’’ Mulholland said. “But I kind of feel it is his responsibility.’’
Thursday, February 09, 2012
50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
Friday, February 03, 2012
Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al
CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS
Friday, February 03, 2012
Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al
Thursday, February 09, 2012
Colorado Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al
Tuesday, February 14, 2012
Oppose Indiana House Bill 1265 game farming cervids
Monday, February 13, 2012
Stop White-tailed Deer Farming from Destroying Tennessee’s Priceless Wild Deer Herd oppose HB3164
Wednesday, February 15, 2012
West Virginia Deer Farming Bill backed by deer farmers advances, why ? BE WARNED CWD
Wednesday, February 29, 2012
Sen. Tommy Gollott Mississippi proposes another bill to allow CWD in Mississippi via Game Farms
Wednesday, March 21, 2012
MICHIGAN SENATE BILL 27 TURNS OVER GAME FARMS and CWD RISK FACTORS THERE FROM, TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE $
Friday, March 16, 2012
OHIO TURNS OVER CERVID GAME FARMS (and CWD risk) TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, GOD HELP THEM
As Passed by the Senate
129th General Assembly Regular Session 2011-2012 Am. H. B. No. 389
Ohio ranks #3 in Deer and Elk Farms 2010
Deer farms in 82 of 88 counties in Ohio
Ohio’s Fatal Attractions
An overview of captive wildlife issues in Ohio
April 4, 2011
Updated March 20, 2012
Monday, June 11, 2012
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting
Monday, November 12, 2012
NJ S2024 - Establishes licensing program in Department of Agriculture for farmed deer and other cervids in New Jersey
Monday, November 12, 2012
Tennessee The White-tailed Deer Breeding and Farming Act pushes to legalize deer farming 2012
Saturday, February 04, 2012
Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised
Wednesday, January 07, 2009
CWD to tighten taxidermy rules Hunters need to understand regulations
Friday, June 01, 2012
TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS
Friday, October 12, 2012
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD RISK FACTORS FOR TRANSMISSION TO HUMANS
Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates
Emmanuel Comoy,1,† Valérie Durand,1 Evelyne Correia,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Jürgen Richt,3 Vincent Beringue,4 Juan-Maria Torres,5 Paul Brown,1 Bob Hills6 and Jean-Philippe Deslys1
1Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa, ON Canada; 3Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS USA; 4INRA; Jouy-en-Josas, France; 5INIA; Madrid, Spain; 6Health Canada; Ottawa, ON Canada
†Presenting author; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The constant increase of chronic wasting disease (CWD) incidence in North America raises a question about their zoonotic potential. A recent publication showed their transmissibility to new-world monkeys, but no transmission to old-world monkeys, which are phylogenetically closer to humans, has so far been reported. Moreover, several studies have failed to transmit CWD to transgenic mice overexpressing human PrP. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease for which a zoonotic potential has been proven. We described the transmission of the atypical BSE-L strain of BSE to cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting a weak cattle-to-primate species barrier. We observed the same phenomenon with a cattleadapted strain of TME (Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy). Since cattle experimentally exposed to CWD strains have also developed spongiform encephalopathies, we inoculated brain tissue from CWD-infected cattle to three cynomolgus macaques as well as to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine or human PrP. Since CWD prion strains are highly lymphotropic, suggesting an adaptation of these agents after peripheral exposure, a parallel set of four monkeys was inoculated with CWD-infected cervid brains using the oral route. Nearly four years post-exposure, monkeys exposed to CWD-related prion strains remain asymptomatic. In contrast, bovinized and humanized transgenic mice showed signs of infection, suggesting that CWD-related prion strains may be capable of crossing the cattle-to-primate species barrier. Comparisons with transmission results and incubation periods obtained after exposure to other cattle prion strains (c-BSE, BSE-L, BSE-H and cattle-adapted TME) will also be presented, in order to evaluate the respective risks of each strain.
Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of Farmed and Free Ranging White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease
Martin L. Daus,1,† Johanna Breyer,2 Katjs Wagenfuehr,1 Wiebke Wemheuer,2 Achim Thomzig,1 Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2 and Michael Beekes1 1Robert Koch Institut; P24 TSE; Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neuropathology, Prion and Dementia Research Unit, University Medical Center Göttingen; Göttingen, Germany
†Presenting author; Email: email@example.com
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in cervids in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrPTSE and of PrPTSE-associated seeding activity in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids. The presence of PrPTSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrPTSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of PrPTSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was estimated to be approximately 2000- to 10000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrPTSE was located in muscle- associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrPTSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.
Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012
Samuel E. Saunders1, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, and Jason C. Bartz
Author affiliations: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, Nebraska, USA (S.E. Saunders, S.L. Bartelt-Hunt); Creighton University, Omaha (J.C. Bartz)
Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease
Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential. However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern...
Reasons for Caution There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions (3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2 strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human) genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies transmission potentials of CWD.
Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut degradation.
Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research, epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently identified,...
Friday, November 09, 2012
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
Sunday, November 11, 2012
Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012
Saturday, October 6, 2012
TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2011 Annual Report
for you files. ...
some old history on game farms and cwd ;
States sorry they ever allowed game farms
State-by-state update on CWD: 27 Jan 99
Montana to ban new game farms July 13, 2000 PRESS RELEASE SPORTSMEN FOR I-143: Game farm reform initiative qualifies for ballot Contact: Stan Frasier, 406-439-2705
Montana game farm ballot initiative
see old archive on the battle that has been going on for some time against game farms ;
with kindest regards, terry
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 firstname.lastname@example.org