New Missouri CWD regulations... You know where we stand... What are your thoughts?
Pope and Young Club shared a .
Among the preventative procedures list suggested by the Missouri Department of Conservation are:
closing Missouri’s borders to importing deer;
new fencing standards;
mandatory enrollment of all captive herds in the CWD monitoring program;
and testing all captive deer that die from six months of age and older.
Deer breeders have been increasingly targeted as culprits of CWD spreading, despite the fact that their herds are typically kept behind fences and separated from wild deer.
Opponents to the new restrictions are working to get legislation passed that would classify whitetail deer as livestock, which would be under the Missouri Department of Agriculture’s jurisdiction. Elk, for example, have been classified as livestock in the state since 1995.
What are your thoughts?
well, since you ask, my opinions are as follows.
This should have never happened. but the lobbyist and the politicians won out again over sound cwd tse prion science. the state could pay for that, unless the Honorable Governor Nixon vetoes these recent bills that passed, and any and all future bills like this, and others, that would piggyback any and all future bills on the game farming being turned over to the USDA, it’s all about money now folks $$$
> closing Missouri’s borders to importing deer; ...
TWO THUMBS UP! YES, A MUST, but you must stop exporting as well...tss
> new fencing standards;...
depends on how it is enforced, what the height is, must be double fenced, must be mandatory, any breaches in the fencing must be reported immediately, and repaired immediately, with record keeping that should be held and accounted for, with annual reports to the state. camera’s should be used to monitor fence lines.
> mandatory enrollment of all captive herds in the CWD monitoring program; ...
YES! and for those that do not enroll, then their license to farm the cervids should be revoked immediately...tss
> and testing all captive deer that die from six months of age and older....
NO, this is set up to fail from the start. all cervids, OF ALL AGES, must be tested for cwd, not just six months and older, and not just the ones that die, but the ones that are killed, and the ones that are marketed for any type by-product of the cervid, they too must be tested. there are live test that can be used, these live test must be used as well. all at the cost to the farmer.
as well, these captive game farmers must have insurance, not only for themselves and their products, but for the state and it’s tax payers as well, for any CWD that might be detected, so the state does not have to bare the burden of the cost of any CWD outbreak on another game farm, and the cleanup and quarantine for years there after.
Also, there should be NO grandfathered facilities. NONE...tss
ALL ANIMAL PROTEIN AND ESPECIALLY PROTEIN FROM FEED MADE UP OF ANY ANIMALS AND ESPECIALLY CERVID, THIS IS A MUST !!! it has been documented that this feed has been used, and is still used today, this must stop if you want to stop CWD...tss
below, these are the scientific facts for above. however, these bills that were passed recently to turn the game farming over to the USDA, were based not on scientific facts. they were based on greed alone. it’s all about money now folks $$$
*** > new fencing standards;...
Physical Capabilities When attempting to exclude or contain an animal, its size, intelligence, and physical ability must be considered (Fitzwater 1972). In most cases, a 2.4-m fence design will exclude nonstressed deer on level ground (Fitzwater 1972, Falk et al. 1978, Duffy et al. 1988); however, running, stressed deer are capable of making this jump (Arnold and Verme 1963, Sauer 1984). This suggests that a 3.0-m wire-mesh fence may be more appropriate in rough terrain where slope may decrease the overall effective height of a fence or complete exclusion is required (Kaneene et al. 2002).
Deer are not only adept at jumping barriers but are likely to maneuver through or under poorly constructed fences (Feldhamer et al. 1986). Openings in fences that appear small enough to impede deer may actually be large enough for a motivated deer. A 25-cm gap at the bottom of a fence provides adequate passage for an adult white-tailed deer (Falk et al. 1978, Palmer et al. 1985, Feldhamer et al. 1986). Ward (1982) reported that a 15-cm gap under a fence was enough to allow passage of mule deer and Feldhamer et al. (1986) documented deer in Pennsylvania passing through openings as narrow as 19 cm.
Deer Feeding Behavior Behavior that deer exhibit while feeding include tolerating bad taste or smells, colored strobe lights, sirens and loud noises. A motivated deer can jump up to 12 feet vertically or 30 feet horizontally, but not high and far at the same time. Deer are more likely to jump fences in woodland than in grasslands. They learn to pull off bud caps. They can crawl through holes as small as 7.5 inches in diameter.
SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;
Thursday, October 03, 2013
TAHC ADOPTS CWD RULE THAT the amendments remove the requirement for a specific fence height for captives
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
5. On July 16, 2012, DNR received a notice from the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab ("Texas Vet Lab”) that a sample from an adult male deer killed at Pine Ridge tested presumptively positive for CWD. (DNR has an agreement with the Texas Vet Lab to run these preliminary tests.) Because the Texas Vet Lab found this presumptive positive result, protocols required the sample to be sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory ("National Lab”) in Ames, Iowa for final confirmation. On July 18, 2012, the National Lab confirmed the positive CWD result in the deer.
6. On July 19, 2012, DNR notified the Brakkes of the positive test by phone. Mr. Brakke was out of state.
12. The Brakkes depopulated the Hunting Preserve, as specified in the Agreement, from September 10, 2012 to January 31, 2013. As part of this effort, the Brakkes, the staff and their customers killed 199 captive deer and nine captive elk. The DNR obtained 170 CWD samples. (Samples were not taken from fawns and one adult female who was killed in a manner that made sampling impossible.) Of these 199 deer, two additional adult male deer tested positive for CWD. Information provided by the Brakkes confirmed that these two additional deer originated from the Brakke Breeding Facility.
13. DNR installed, with the Brakke's permission, an interior electric fence on October 1 and 2, 2012.
14. The Brakkes cleaned and disinfected, under DNR supervision, the feeders and ground surrounding the feeders on April 5, 2013.
*** 15. On April 26, 2013, the Brakkes hand-delivered a notice to the DNR’s Chief of Law Enforcement Bureau, notifying the DNR that they would no longer operate a hunting preserve on the Quarantined Premises. The Brakkes did not reveal any plans to remove the fence around the Quarantined Premises or to remove the gates to and from the Quarantined Premises in this April 26, 2013 letter.
*** 16. On June 3, 2013, DNR became aware that sections of the exterior fence surrounding the Quarantined Premises had been removed and that some, if not all, of the exterior gates to and from the Quarantined Premises were open.
*** 17. On June 4, 2013, DNR received reports from the public in the area that four wild deer were observed inside the Quarantined Premises.
*** 18. On June 5, 2013, DNR conducted a fence inspection, after gaining approval from surrounding landowners, and confirmed that the fenced had been cut or removed in at least four separate locations; that the fence had degraded and was failing to maintain the enclosure around the Quarantined Premises in at least one area; that at least three gates had been opened; and that deer tracks were visible in and around one of the open areas in the sand on both sides of the fence, evidencing movement of deer into the Quarantined Premises.
IV. CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd. RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
*** > and testing all captive deer that die from six months of age and older....
USA fda mad cow, deer, elk, dog, cat, cow, sheep, feed ban is still terribly flawed ;
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
April 9, 2001 WARNING LETTER
01-PHI-12 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED
Brian J. Raymond, Owner Sandy Lake Mills 26 Mill Street P.O. Box 117 Sandy Lake, PA 16145 PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT
Dear Mr. Raymond:
Food and Drug Administration Investigator Gregory E. Beichner conducted an inspection of your animal feed manufacturing operation, located in Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania, on March 23, 2001, and determined that your firm manufactures animal feeds including feeds containing prohibited materials. The inspection found significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, code of Federal Regulations, part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. The regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) . Such deviations cause products being manufactured at this facility to be misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(f), of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).
Our investigation found failure to label your swine feed with the required cautionary statement "Do Not Feed to cattle or other Ruminants" The FDA suggests that the statement be distinguished by different type-size or color or other means of highlighting the statement so that it is easily noticed by a purchaser.
In addition, we note that you are using approximately 140 pounds of cracked corn to flush your mixer used in the manufacture of animal feeds containing prohibited material. This flushed material is fed to wild game including deer, a ruminant animal. Feed material which may potentially contain prohibited material should not be fed to ruminant animals which may become part of the food chain.
The above is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deviations from the regulations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law. We have enclosed a copy of FDA's Small Entity Compliance Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation... blah, blah, blah...
Product is __custom made deer feed__ packaged in 100 lb. poly bags. The product has no labeling. Recall # V-003-5.
The product has no lot code. All custom made feed purchased between June 24, 2004 and September 8, 2004.
Farmers Elevator Co, Houston, OH, by telephone and letter dated September 27, 2004. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
Feed may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues which is prohibited in ruminant feed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
Approximately 6 tons.
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR October 20, 2004
################# BSE-Lfirstname.lastname@example.org #################
DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability
Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 –0500
EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1
Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus )
*** These results indicate that CWD PrP res can be detected in lymphoid tissues draining the alimentary tract within a few weeks after oral exposure to infectious prions and may reflect the initial pathway of CWD infection in deer. The rapid infection of deer fawns following exposure by the most plausible natural route is consistent with the efficient horizontal transmission of CWD in nature and enables accelerated studies of transmission and pathogenesis in the native species.
*** These findings support oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies of CWD.
PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT SUBMISSION ;
Sunday, December 15, 2013
*** FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED VIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OIA UPDATE DECEMBER 2013 UPDATE
Saturday, March 15, 2014
Potential role of soil properties in the spread of CWD in western Canada
The routes of CWD transmission remain unclear. CWD is a contagious prion diease, the infectious agent is released in various body fluids including saliva, feces, blood and urine.4 Although the majority of studies suggest an oral route of exposure to be responsible for environmental transmission,5 there is also evidence for intranasal and aerosol transmission6,7 as contributing factors. In all transmission routes, soils can serve as a stable reservoir of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs). Prions bound to soil particles Can remain infectious in the soils for many years.8,9 Therefore, soil properties are an important factor for PrPTSE preservation and transmission in the environment.10-13 Analysis of soil-prion interactions and the impact on infectivity is a complicated task because soils are multicomponent systems consisting of mineral particles (clay. silt, sand); soil organic matter (humic, fulvic acids and humin); humus or/and Fe-Mn film and cutans interacting with mineral particles. The enormous complexity of soils indicates a need to examine a variety of soils and their separated compounds (mineral and organic) to identify the ability of prions to bind the soil, what the effect of binding is on infectivity and what components of soil bind prions. ...
Friday, February 08, 2013
*** Behavior of Prions in the Environment: Implications for Prion Biology
Monday, January 05, 2009
CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS
Elk and Deer Use of Mineral Licks: Implications for Disease Transmission
Results from the mineral analyses combined with camera data revealed that visitation was highest at sodium-rich mineral licks. Mineral licks may play a role in disease transmission by acting as sites of increased interaction as well as reservoirs for deposition, accumulation, and ingestion of disease agents.
Friday, October 26, 2012
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PENNSYLVANIA GAME FARMS, URINE ATTRACTANT PRODUCTS, BAITING, AND MINERAL LICKS
Sunday, September 01, 2013 hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production
Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area
A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing
Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals
Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial
Monday, May 05, 2014
Member Country details for listing OIE CWD 2013 against the criteria of Article 1.2.2., the Code Commission recommends consideration for listing
Program Standards: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose
DOCUMENT ID: APHIS-2006-0118-0411
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. ***These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection) increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of having CWD in free-ranging herds: ***We’ve got this infectious agent out there that we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic livestock.”
*** ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD
Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5
The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.
*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).
Tuesday, May 20, 2014
“Atypical” Chronic Wasting Disease in PRNP Genotype 225FF Mule Deer
Monday, May 05, 2014
*** cwd tse prion testing PMCA , IHC, tonsil, rectal, biopsy ??
Sunday, May 18, 2014
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE PRION DISEASE and the transmission to other species (see updated human risk factors)
Monday, May 05, 2014
*** Member Country details for listing OIE CWD 2013 against the criteria of Article 1.2.2., the Code Commission recommends consideration for listing
Monday, May 19, 2014
Variant CJD: 18 years of research and surveillance
CWD, EXPOSURE, SUBCLINICAL CWD TO HUMANS, TO MEDICAL, SURGICAL, TISSUE, BLOOD, DENTAL, FRIENDLY FIRE, IATROGENIC, WHAT IF ?
1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8
*** Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery.
Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC.
Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, MD 20892.
*** Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.
PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
*** our results raise the possibility that CJD cases classified as VV1 may include cases caused by iatrogenic transmission of sCJD-MM1 prions or food-borne infection by type 1 prions from animals, e.g., chronic wasting disease prions in cervid. In fact, two CJD-VV1 patients who hunted deer or consumed venison have been reported (40, 41). The results of the present study emphasize the need for traceback studies and careful re-examination of the biochemical properties of sCJD-VV1 prions. ***
Thursday, January 2, 2014
*** CWD TSE Prion in cervids to hTGmice, Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease MM1 genotype, and iatrogenic CJD ?? ***
Friday, May 23, 2014
Rare disease that in one form is mad cow disease found at Lancaster General Hospital
GAME FARMS AND ESCAPEES THERE FROM
Wednesday, February 12, 2014
Louisiana business, 3 men accused of smuggling deer into Mississippi
Thursday, May 08, 2014
TEXAS Game Wardens Investigate Deer Breeding Facility, Seize Animals, for disease and criminal investigation
see the rest of the shooting pens escapees, some from CWD index herds. ...tss
see about breaches of fences and shooting pens here ;
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
Saturday, June 29, 2013
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
Monday, June 11, 2012
OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting
> The owner was charged for failing to report the escape of the deer. he just got caught.
how many more are out there in Ohio, and other states, that have not been caught, and are doing the same thing ??
Friday, November 04, 2011
Elk escape from captive cervid facility in Pennsylvania near West Virginia border West Virginia Division of Natural Resources
High-Fence 226-Inch Whitetail Escapes, Shot in Louisiana
by Dylan Polk•December 1, 2011
Trading her bow for a 7mm Mag, Broussard shot this 226-inch monster whitetail over Thanksgiving weekend on her father’s property near Moss Bluff in Calcasieu Parish, La.
It’s a kill that almost didn’t happen. Broussard later found out that the buck — which weighed just 160 pounds — was an escapee from a fenced-in deer enclosure over a mile-and-a-half away. Escape is probably one decision the deer regretted.
And therein lies the problem. The 31-point beast isn’t going in the record books, according to a report from KPLC-TV. Because the deer was tagged and owned by the RiverRoad Whitetails ranch, the deer cannot qualify as a state record.
Broussard said she had tracked the buck for nearly a month on her father-in-law’s 480-acre property near Moss Bluff. She first spotted the buck while training her horse on the property, and said she couldn’t believe her eyes when she saw it.
SNIP...read the full story here ;
Nobleboro deer farm owner disputes claims about escaped animals
By Tom Groening, BDN Staff Posted Sept. 14, 2012, at 6:06 p.m. NOBLEBORO, Maine — The owner of a small farm that raises fallow deer disputes the claims that as many as 10 of his animals have escaped and are running wild in the area.
George Smith, former executive director of the Sportsman’s Alliance of Maine, wrote on his blog Thursday, Sept. 13, that the deer that have been seen are likely those that escaped from the farm in town that raises them. He did not name the farm.
The town’s code enforcement officer, who has heard about the escaped deer though he has not seen them himself, identified the farmer as James Maxmin.
“I know there are some that are loose,” Stan Waltz said. “I don’t know how many.”
When deer escape, “Usually, they have someone come in and take care of it,” he said, meaning that hunters authorized by the state hunt for and shoot the animals.
State biologists and others are concerned about the potential consequences of different species of farm deer intermingling with wild, white-tailed deer. Fear of disease, particularly the deadly chronic wasting disease, is chief among their concerns.
Contacted Friday, Sept. 14, Maxmin said he is confident that none of the animals local folks have been seeing and identifying as his actually escaped from his pens.
“None of ours are loose,” he said. Maxmin’s operation now has 28 mature animals and 11 fawns.
“As far as I know, we’ve accounted for all of our deer,” he said. And given the number of does that have been in heat over the past year, he doesn’t believe his animals are capable of producing 10 offspring.
Maxmin keeps the deer in three penned areas on 9 acres, and works with state deer biologist Gerry LaVigne on licensing his operation and addressing any problems.
“We sell six a year and we eat three a year,” he said. The deer are sold as live animals to individuals, not dealers. Fallow deer are prized because their meat is low in fat and cholesterol and high in protein. “They’re much tastier than red deer,” another kind that is raised for food, he said.
When his deer have escaped, he said, they tend to stand by the fence, because as herd animals, they want to stay with their peers.
There was a breach in one of his fences, Maxmin said, which he believes was made by someone trying to get some of his deer’s shed antlers.
If there are fallow deer in the area, “We believe someone dropped them off,” he said, or an illegal deer farm was shut down by the state and the owner couldn’t bear to kill the fawns and instead turned them loose.
“That’s the conclusion that we’ve come to,” he said.
Maxmin said his farm carries liability insurance, disputing Smith’s claim that he was denying ownership out of fear of a lawsuit if one of the animals caused a car crash. If any deer had escaped, “I would’ve claimed it on my insurance,” he said.
Deer, elk continue to escape from state farms
Article by: DOUG SMITH , Star Tribune Updated: March 14, 2011 - 12:08 PM
Curbing chronic wasting disease remains a concern; officials are increasing enforcement.
Almost 500 captive deer and elk have escaped from Minnesota farms over the past five years, and 134 were never recaptured or killed.
So far this year, 17 deer have escaped, and officials are still searching for many of those.
The escapes fuel concern that a captive animal infected with a disease such as chronic wasting disease (CWD) could spread it to the state's wild deer herd. There are 583 deer and elk farms in Minnesota, holding about 15,000 animals. Since 2002, CWD has been confirmed on four farms, and herds there were killed. This year, the first confirmed case of the fatal brain disease in a Minnesota wild deer was found near Pine Island – where a captive elk farm was found in 2009 to be infected with CWD.
State officials with the Board of Animal Health, which oversees the deer and elk farms, and the Department of Natural Resources say there is no firm evidence the elk herd, since destroyed, is responsible for infecting that deer.
But given the proximity of the cases, suspicion remains high. And others say the continued escape of captive animals is problematic.
"It's a loose cannon, and unfortunately it has the potential of threatening our entire wild deer herd," said Mark Johnson, executive director of the Minnesota Deer Hunters Association. He only recently learned that 109 deer and elk escaped in 32 incidents in 2010, and 24 of those animals never were recovered.
"The escapes themselves are startling and worrisome, but the two dozen not accounted for are a real concern," he said.
Dr. Paul Anderson, an assistant director at the Board of Animal Health, said the escapes are unacceptable.
"We've talked to the industry people and we all agree those numbers are too high," Anderson said. "We and the producers need to do a better job. We're going to increase our enforcement in 2011."
But he said the risk to the wild deer herd is minimal. Deer and elk generally die within three years of exposure to CWD, and 551 of the 583 Minnesota farms have had CWD surveillance for three or more years.
"We're very confident those farms don't have CWD," he said. As for the other 32 farms, "we don't think they have CWD either, but our confidence levels are not as good. We're pushing them."
The law requires farmers to maintain 8-foot fences, but most of the escapes are caused by human error, Anderson said. "They didn't close a gate or didn't get it shut right," he said.
Captive deer and elk brought into the state must come from herds that have been CWD-monitored for at least three years. Anderson said 184 animals were shipped here in the past year, and farmers exported 1,200 outstate.
The DNR is hoping the lone wild deer that tested positive for CWD is an aberration. Officials have long said CWD is potentially devastating to the state's wild deer herd. The DNR is killing 900 deer near Pine Island to determine if other deer might have the disease. So far, all have tested negative. Since 2002, the agency has tested more than 32,000 hunter-harvested deer, elk and moose.
While the Board of Animal Health licenses and oversees the deer and elk farms, the DNR is responsible for animals that have escaped for more than 24 hours. Escaped deer and elk can keep both DNR conservation officers and wildlife managers busy.
Tim Marion, an assistant area wildlife manager in Cambridge, has 38 deer and elk farms in his four-county work area, which includes Isanti, Chisago, Mille Lacs and Kanabec counties. Since last August, he's had 21 animals escape from four farms. Dogs broke into two pens, a tree fell on a fence in a third and another owner said someone opened a gate while he was away.
Four of those deer were shot and seven recaptured. Ten remain unaccounted for. Finding them can be difficult. Of nine deer that escaped from a farm near Mora, officials shot one two miles away, another four miles away and a third 8.5 miles from the farm. All were reported by people who spotted the animals at recreational deer feeders because they had tags in one ear, as required by law.
"There's no way we would have gotten any of these deer without the landowners helping us," Marion said.
But he has another problem.
"Three of those deer out there have no tags in the ear," he said. Will he find them?
"All I can say is we're trying," he said.
DNR conservation officer Jim Guida of Nisswa knows firsthand about escaped deer. He was bow hunting last fall near home when he shot a 10-point buck. Later, he was stunned to find a tag in its left ear.
"I thought it might be a [wild] research deer tagged at Camp Ripley," Guida said.
Wrong. It had escaped from a farm a year earlier.
Wisconsin : 436 Deer Have Escaped From Farms to Wild
Date: March 18, 2003 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Contacts: LEE BERGQUIST email@example.com
State finds violations, lax record keeping at many sites, report says A state inspection of private deer farms, prompted by the discovery of chronic wasting disease, found that 436 white-tailed deer escaped into the wild, officials said Tuesday
The Department of Natural Resources found that captive deer have escaped from one-third of the state's 550 deer farms over the lifetime of the operations. The agency also uncovered hundreds of violations and has sought a total of 60 citations or charges against deer farm operators.
Hundreds of deer escape
The DNR found a total of 671 deer that escaped farms - 436 of which were never found - because of storm-damaged fences, gates being left open or the animals jumping over or through fences.
In one example in Kewaunee County, a deer farmer's fence was knocked down in a summer storm. Ten deer escaped, and the farmer told the DNR he had no intention of trying to reclaim them. The DNR found five of the deer, killed them and cited the farmer for violation of a regulation related to fencing.
Another deer farmer near Mishicot, in Manitowoc County, released all nine of his whitetails last summer after he believed the discovery of chronic wasting disease was going to drive down the market for captive deer.
The DNR found 24 instances of unlicensed deer farms and issued 19 citations.
Game Farms Inspected
A summary of the findings of the Department of Natural Resources' inspection of 550 private white-tailed deer farms in the state: The deer farms contained at least 16,070 deer, but the DNR believes there are more deer in captivity than that because large deer farms are unable to accurately count their deer. 671 deer had escaped from game farms, including 436 that were never found.
24 farmers were unlicensed. One had been operating illegally since 1999 after he was denied a license because his deer fence did not meet minimum specifications.
Records maintained by operators ranged from "meticulous documentation to relying on memory." At least 227 farms conducted various portions of their deer farm business with cash. Over the last three years, 1,222 deer died on farms for various reasons. Disease testing was not performed nor required on the majority of deer. Farmers reported doing business with people in 22 other states and one Canadian province. ..
however, escapes are still happening in 2010 if you look far enough into the www. see ;
> There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed.
Wisconsin Conservation Congress CWD Committee Notes recorded by Secretary- Tony Grabski, Iowa County Delegate From the meeting at Mead Wildlife Area Visitor Center Milladore, WI Saturday, August 7, 2010, 9:30 AM
C. & D. Captive Cervid and Law Enforcement Update (11:10 AM)- Warden Pete Dunn gave the captive cervid farm update. There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. Approximately 30% of these escapes were caused by gates being left open and the other 70% resulted from bad fencing or fence related issues. The 20 actual confirmed escape incidents amounted to 77 total animals. 50 of the escaped animals were recovered or killed and 27 were not recovered and remain unaccounted for. Last year the CWD Committee passed a resolution to require double gates, but this has not gone into effect yet. Questions were raised by the committee about double fencing requirements? Pete responded that double fencing has not been practical or accepted by the industry. The DNR has the authority to do fence inspections. ?If a fence fails to pass the inspection the fencing certificate can be revoked and the farmer can be issued a citation. This year three citations and one warning have been issued for escapes.
and just for the record, the above 2010 report and statement there from i.e. ;
> Tami Ryan agreed and added that the risk of transmission through water was low because prions bind to soils preferentially.
this needs to be addressed, because risk factor for water from cwd endemic areas is a serious risk factor in my opinion. please see ;
Detection of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Water from a CWD-Endemic Area
These data suggest prolonged persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission.
The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.
snip...end...full text at ;
Two ‘elk’ slain near Antoich were European red deer that escaped from farm
BY DALE BOWMAN For Sun-Times Media November 8, 2012 10:28PM
Updated: November 9, 2012 2:31AM
It’s mistaken identity gone wild. Ron Mulholland thought he arrowed two wild elk last Friday from his deer stand on a farm outside of Antioch.
When James Minogue saw the story in Wednesday’s Sun-Times, he recognized the pair of breeding European red deer from the herd he helps manage for Avery Brabender on a farm in unincorporated Antioch. They, along with four others, escaped some time after Oct. 31 when a gate was opened or left open.
“It amazed me that they think they are elk and wild,’’ Minogue said.
However, elk and red deer are close enough to interbreed.
“I will talk to him,’’ Mulholland said. “I assumed they were wild and killed them. To me, they were elk. I don’t know. ... I feel bad for the guy that he would lose them. I reacted because I assumed it was an elk and I shot him.’’
“You don’t see elk in the wild in Illinois,’’ said Kevin Bettis, the duty officer in Springfield Thursday for the Illinois Conservation Police.
That’s tricky. A decade ago, Illinois didn’t have wolves or cougars, either. Both species now make regular appearances.
“These animals were hand-fed: We feed them bread, apples, corn,,’’ Minogue said.
Another tricky part is neither elk nor European red deer are protected or regulated under Illinois’ wildlife code. But these European red deer are considered domesticated animals. The herd is registered with the Illinois Department of Agriculture.
“It is no different than shooting a cow,’’ Bettis said.
However, Capt. Neal Serdar of Region II (northeast Illinois) checked with CPOs in southern Illinois, where escaped animals of such sort are more a more frequent issue.
Then he said, “The individual who shot the two red deer did not break any laws.’’
The Illinois Conservation Police consider the case closed. Whether there is any civil case would seem tricky at best, since the animals were loose.
Minogue said they recaptured two of the red deer already. He said the reason there were no ear tags is because they are a “contained, monitored herd.’’
It sounds like both parties can work it out.
“If it gets down to that, I would give him the antlers,’’ Mulholland said. “But I kind of feel it is his responsibility.’’
Friday, September 28, 2012
Stray elk renews concerns about deer farm security Minnesota
INDIANA 20 DEER ESCAPE TROPHY BUCK GAME FARM STATE OFFICIALS FEAR CWD RISK TO WILD
Escaped deer pose risk of spreading disease in Indiana
Twenty deer escaped this spring from a Jackson County farm where trophy bucks with huge antlers are bred and sold to fenced-in, private hunting preserves. Department of Natural Resources officials, may be infected with chronic wasting disease. / (Charlie Nye/The Star)
State wildlife officials fear the missing animals could have been exposed to fatal ailment
9:30 PM, Oct 19, 2012
Deer hunters in four southeastern Indiana counties have been given an unusual directive by state wildlife officials: If you see a deer with a yellow tag in its ear, kill it.
And call a biologist.
The deer, say Department of Natural Resources officials, may be infected with chronic wasting disease.
The edict comes after 20 deer escaped this spring from a Jackson County farm where trophy bucks with huge antlers are bred and sold to fenced-in, private hunting preserves. Seven of the deer remain unaccounted for.
Wildlife officials worry about chronic wasting disease spreading here, devastating what is currently a thriving deer population of 500,000 to 1 million animals.
The disease, which is causing havoc in several states, including Wisconsin, hasn't yet made its way to Indiana. Officials don't think it poses a risk to humans or other livestock.
DNR spokesman Phil Bloom said the escape highlights a larger issue.
"This case," he said, "underscores the concern many have about how the commercialization of wildlife and interstate trafficking in wildlife presents a Pandora's box, with the potential spread of a deadly disease that does have some wide-ranging consequences."
In this case, Bloom said, biologists are hoping those consequences can be minimized with some help from hunters -- and motorists unlucky enough to hit and kill one of the tagged deer.
The alert not only includes Jackson County, where the release occurred, but also neighboring Bartholomew, Jennings and Scott counties. Licensed hunters and motorists who kill tagged deer are urged to immediately call (812) 837-9536.
The DNR and the Indiana Board of Animal Health will retrieve the carcass so it can be tested for the disease.
Bloom said of particular interest are any deer with a yellow ear tag and two numbers on it, or any deer with a tag bearing the prefix "IN 764" followed by another four numbers.
Hunters who shoot one of the deer will be issued a new license free of charge.
DNR officials are concerned because a Pennsylvania farm -- where chronic wasting disease was detected -- sold 10 animals to farms in Indiana over the past three years. Bloom said two does were sold to farms in Noble and Whitley counties; the rest went to a farm in Jackson County.
Some of the Jackson County deer were moved to a fourth facility in Jackson County, where the escape happened.
Shawn Hanley, president of the Indiana Deer and Elk Farmers' Association, said a storm caused a tree to fall on the farm's fence. A Pennsylvania buck remains on the loose.
"We have been in contact with the DNR and with the (Indiana Board of Animal Health), and will cooperate fully with attempts to recover the lost animal," Hanley said in an email.
Citing the ongoing investigation, Bloom declined to release the name of the farms. So did Douglas Metcalf, chief of staff for the Board of Animal Health.
Meanwhile, Metcalf said, each of the four farms is under quarantine, and the animals are being tested for the disease.
Of the 20 deer that got loose, Bloom said, 11 were immediately recaptured, one was hit by a car and a bow hunter shot another this fall.
Rick D. Miller, the owner of the 2.5 Karat Game Ranch in nearby Bartholomew County, says he's outraged by what happened. The farm where the deer escaped, he said, isn't one of the 385 Indiana deer farms that voluntarily allow officials to test their herds for the disease.
"We don't want these crazy things to happen," said Miller, a former president of the Indiana Deer and Elk Farmers' Association.
Miller said Indiana's $50 million-a-year game-farming industry has a lot to lose if the disease spreads. And so does he.
At any given time, Miller says, he keeps between two dozen and 60 elk and white-tail deer on his farm. He collects deer urine to sell. Some hunters buy bottles of the urine as a deer attractant. Big "shooter" bucks can be sold to captive hunt facilities for $1,500 to $2,500.
Breeding stock can sell for $1,000 to $250,000, depending on the size and genetics of the buck.
In Indiana, at least, the future of farmers who sell to local game clubs remains unclear. In 2006, the DNR passed rules banning high-fence hunting because the facilities were deemed unsporting and a potential disease risk. The clubs sued in response.
A judge issued an injunction prohibiting a ban, leaving the facilities in business for the time being.
Bloom of the DNR said the legal challenges are pending. Follow Star reporter Ryan Sabalow at twitter.com/RyanSabalow. Call him at (317) 444-6179.
Friday, October 21, 2011
Chronic Wasting Disease Found in Captive Deer Missouri
The Missouri Department of Agriculture discovers the state's first case of CWD in a captive white-tailed deer.
Thursday, May 15, 2014
Missouri Stripping MDC regulatory authority of deer farms SB 506 HOW THEY VOTED Singeltary letter to Governor Nixon
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...
Saturday, February 04, 2012
*** Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised
Approximately 4,200 fawns, defined as deer under 1 year of age, were sampled from the eradication zone over the last year. The majority of fawns sampled were between the ages of 5 to 9 months, though some were as young as 1 month.
*** Two of the six fawns with CWD detected were 5 to 6 months old.
All six of the positive fawns were taken from the core area of the CWD eradication zone where the highest numbers of positive deer have been identified.
LIKE I said before, in my opinion, the only reason that the shooting pen owners want the USDA et al as stewards of that industry, it’s the lack of oversight by the USDA to regulate them properly, thus, CWD will spread further. this is just another fine example of just that $$$
also, see where even decades back, the USDA had the same thought as they do today with CWD, not their problem...see page 27 below as well, where USDA stated back then, the same thing they stated in the state of Pennsylvania, not their damn business, once they escape, and they said the same thing about CWD in general back then ;
”The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite it’s subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province!” ...page 26.
Sunday, January 06, 2013
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE
*** "it‘s no longer its business.”
Monday, June 24, 2013
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
Thursday, August 08, 2013
Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America
Tuesday, July 02, 2013
National Rifle Association and the Unified Sportsman of Florida support a Florida ban on the importation of captive deer and cervids into Florida
Friday, March 07, 2014
*** 37th Annual Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Athens, Georgia (CWD TSE Prion abstracts)
boone and crockett club position statement
REGULATION OF GAME FARMS First Adopted December 7, 2013 - Updated December 7, 2013
The captive cervid industry, also referred to as game farming, uses artificial means to breed captive deer, elk, and other cervids for sale in shooting preserve operations. These game farms commonly transport captive deer and elk to other shooting preserves in a state or in other states.
Transportation of captive, game farm animals has been shown to increase the risk of spreading parasites and infectious, diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD) and bovine tuberculosis, to other captive and wild cervids in new locations. There is currently no way of testing live animals for CWD, and infected animals show no signs for at least 16-18 months post-infection. There is no vaccine, and despite fenced enclosures, captive animals often come in contact with wild populations thereby spreading diseases. Once CWD is present, the area cannot be decontaminated even if infected animals are removed. As a result, many states have banned or are attempting to ban the importation of captive cervids (as well as intact carcasses of hunter-killed, wild cervids) to lower the risk of spreading CWD and other infectious diseases.
The Boone and Crockett Club supports state bans on importing or exporting captive deer and elk by game farming operations in order to protect the health of native populations. The Club opposes any legislation aimed at relaxing regulations governing captive cervid breeding operations or removing management authority over such operations from state wildlife agencies. The Club does not oppose the transportation of wild cervids by state agencies and non-governmental organizations for the purpose of re-establishing wild game animals to their historic, open ranges.
The breeding of captive deer, elk, and other cervids for profit to create abnormally large “trophy” animals for fenced shoots under non-fair chase conditions are addressed in the Boone and Crockett Club’s positions on “Genetic Manipulation of Game” and “Canned Shoots.”
Saturday, March 29, 2014
Game Farm, CWD Concerns Rise at Boone and Crockett Club
Sunday, April 06, 2014
The Conservation Federation of Missouri is Opposed to the Transfer of Captive White-tailed Deer Management
Story Posted 04-19-2014
Pope & Young Club Issues Position Statement on Fair Chase and Canned Hunting
By: The Pope & Young Club
CHATFIELD, Minn. -- The Pope & Young Club is proud of the "Fair Chase" ethics they have implemented, fought for and defended since 1961. The Club and its membership steadfastly support and promote the North American Wildlife Conservation Model. This model faces a serious threat from today's captive cervid industry. The practices of "canned" hunting, transporting and selling "farm raised" cervids threaten the very existence of North American Big Game and hunting as we know it.
The Pope & Young Club official position statement:
"The Pope and Young Club and its membership strongly condemn the killing of big game animals in artificial situations. An "artificial situation" is defined as a situation where animals are held in captivity, game-proof fenced enclosures or released from captivity. These unethical practices are often referred to as "canned hunts." This shall be considered an unethical practice devoid of fair chase hunting ethics as the animals are not free-ranging.
These canned shoot situations present further concerns that impact the future of bowhunting. They weaken the public acceptance of legitimate fair chase bowhunting, provide possibilities for transmitting diseases, and corrupt the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation. Animals held, or bred and raised for the purpose of trophy harvest, in these facilities are not considered wildlife. The killing of these animals is not managed by the authority of a wildlife management agency and the killing, itself, is devoid of any values embodied by legitimate hunting.
The Pope and Young Club does not accept into its Records Program any animal taken under any captive scenarios and considers these practices extreme examples of unethical hunting. The Pope & Young Club also considers this practice unethical treatment of North American big game animals."
The Rules of Fair Chase
The term “Fair Chase” shall not include the taking of animals under the following conditions:
Helpless in a trap, deep snow or water, or on ice.
From any power vehicle or power boat.
By “jacklighting” or shining at night.
By the use of any tranquilizers or poisons.
While inside escape-proof fenced enclosures.
By the use of any power vehicle or power boats for herding or driving animals, including use of aircraft to land alongside or to communicate with or direct a hunter on the ground.
By the use of electronic devices for attracting, locating or pursuing game or guiding the hunter to such game, or by the use of a bow or arrow to which any electronic device is attached.
Any other condition considered by the Board of Directors as unacceptable.
The fair chase concept does, however, extend beyond the hunt itself; it is an attitude and a way of life based in a deep-seated respect for wildlife, for the environment, and for other individuals who share the bounty of this vast continent’s natural resources.
Fair Chase Affadavit: Download Here
QDMA’s Stance on Captive Deer Breeding
On February 23, 2012 the Quality Deer Management Association (QDMA) issued a national press release urging its members and other concerned sportsmen in several states to contact their elected officials and urge them to oppose legislation initiated by the deer breeding industry that would enable introduction of captive deer breeding operations or expansion of these practices within those states.
QDMA supports the legal, ethical pursuit and taking of wild deer living in adequate native/naturalized habitat in a manner that does not give the hunter an unfair advantage and provides the hunted animals with a reasonable opportunity to escape the hunter. QDMA is not opposing high-fence operations that meet the above conditions.
snip...see full statement;
DISEASE DANGERS OF CAPTIVE DEER
Between 1996 and 2002, chronic wasting disease was diagnosed in 39 herds of farmed elk in Saskatchewan in a single epidemic. All of these herds were depopulated as part of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s (CFIA) disease eradication program. Animals, primarily over 12 mo of age, were tested for the presence CWD prions following euthanasia. Twenty-one of the herds were linked through movements of live animals with latent CWD from a single infected source herd in Saskatchewan, 17 through movements of animals from 7 of the secondarily infected herds.
***The source herd is believed to have become infected via importation of animals from a game farm in South Dakota where CWD was subsequently diagnosed (7,4). A wide range in herd prevalence of CWD at the time of herd depopulation of these herds was observed. Within-herd transmission was observed on some farms, while the disease remained confined to the introduced animals on other farms.
Friday, May 13, 2011
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea
Hyun-Joo Sohn, Yoon-Hee Lee, Min-jeong Kim, Eun-Im Yun, Hyo-Jin Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Dong-Seob Tark, In- Soo Cho, Foreign Animal Disease Research Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Republic of Korea
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been recognized as an important prion disease in native North America deer and Rocky mountain elks. The disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which naturally affects only a few species. CWD had been limited to USA and Canada until 2000.
On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea. These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called “source farm” in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the “source farm”.
Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001. All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify.
CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises. In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented.
Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002. Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005.
Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program.
Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).
In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive.
Consequently, all cervid – 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer – were culled and one elk was found to be positive.
Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services.
Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis.
Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2.
All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 – 15 elks and 47 elks – were culled and confirmed as negative.
Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences.
In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5. Consequently, all cervid – 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer – were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive.
This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer.
Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5.
In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo.
All cervid – 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer – of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative.
: Corresponding author: Dr. Hyun-Joo Sohn (+82-31-467-1867, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
2011 Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5
Friday, May 13, 2011
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea
Monday, June 18, 2012
natural cases of CWD in eight Sika deer (Cervus nippon) and five Sika/red deer crossbreeds captive Korea and Experimental oral transmission to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)
Monday, March 03, 2014
*** APHIS to Offer Indemnity for CWD Positive Herds as Part of Its Cervid Health Activities ??
Friday, November 22, 2013
Wasting disease is threat to the entire UK deer population CWD TSE PRION disease in cervids
The Scottish Parliament’s Rural Affairs, Climate Change and Environment Committee has been looking into deer management, as you can see from the following press release,
***and your email has been forwarded to the committee for information:
Friday, November 22, 2013
Wasting disease is threat to the entire UK deer population
Sunday, July 21, 2013
Welsh Government and Food Standards Agency Wales Joint Public Consultation on the Proposed Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Wales) Regulations 2013
*** Singeltary Submission WG18417
Sunday, June 23, 2013
National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper (Document ID APHIS-2012-0105-0001)
***Terry S. Singeltary Sr. submission
Singeltary submission ;
Program Standards: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose
DOCUMENT ID: APHIS-2006-0118-0411
OLD HISTORY ON CWD AND GAME FARMS IN USA 1998 - 2000
Elk CWD spreading on game farms
Elk & game farming in other states
Utah Fish and Game Dept
The state of Utah has little experience with big game farming. In an effort to understand elk and game farming, the Division has contacted other states that allow elk farming. The following are some of the problems other states associate with elk farming reported to the Division:
Karen Zachiem with Montana Parks and Wildlife reported that Montana allows game farming. Initial regulations were inadequate to protect the state's wildlife resources. The state has tried to tighten up regulations related to game farming, resulting in a series of lawsuits against the state from elk ranchers. Zachiem reported that the tightening of regulations was in response to the discovery of TB in wildlife (elk, deer, and coyotes) surrounding a TB infected game farm. TB has been found on several game farms in Montana. Also, they have had problems with wildlife entering game farms as well as game farm animals escaping the farms. Finally, there has been a growth in shooting ranches in Montana. Game farmers allow hunters to come into enclosures to kill trophy game farm animals, raising the issues of fair chase and hunting ethics.
Rolph Johnson with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, reported that Washington allows game farming, but it is strictly regulated to safeguard wildlife. Washington opposed the law when first proposed for the following reasons: introduction of disease and parasites; hybridization of wildlife species; habitat loss; health risks to humans, wildlife, and livestock; and state responsibility to recover or destroy escaped elk. Game farming is not cost effective due to the restrictions needed to prevent these problems.
Jerry Macacchini, with New Mexico Game and Fish, reported that New Mexico has problems with game farming and a moratorium on elk and game farming has been imposed by the state at the request of its citizens. Problems identified in the moratorium were: escaped game farm animals; theft of native elk herds; and disease.
Dan Edwards, with Oregon Fish and Wildlife, reported that Oregon has very little elk farming and is now prohibited by regulation. The elk farms that are in operation existed prior to the adoption of game farm regulations. Individuals who want to elk farm, must buy out an existing elk farm owner. Elk farms are no longer permitted due to, "...current and imminent threats to Oregon's native deer and elk herds and social and economic values.'' Oregon has documented numerous game farm animals that have escapeed from private game farms. Concerns about elk farming arose during public elk management meetings. The impacts of privately held cervids on publicly owned wildlife were a recurring issue throughout the elk management process. Key issues included: disease and parasites; escape and interbreeding of domestic animals with native wildlife; illegal kills for meat; and theft of public wildlife.
Harry Harju, assistant wildlife chief with Wyoming Fish and Game, reported that elk or game farming is now prohibited in Wyoming. Only one game ranch exists in Wyoming, which was operating before the passage of the law. The state of Wyoming was sued by several game breeders associations for not allowing elk farming. The game breeders lost their suit in the United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit. The court maintained that the state had authority to regulate commerce and protect wildlife. Wyoming has had problems with big game farming originating in surrounding states. Wyoming has documented the harvest of red deer and their hybrids during elk hunts on the Snowy Mountain range that borders Colorado. Wyoming speculates that the red deer were escapees from Colorado game farms. Hybridization is viewed as threat to the genetic integrity of Wyoming's wild elk population.
In a public hearing, the public voted against game farms in the state of Wyoming. Wyoming's Cattlemen's Association and Department of Agriculture opposed elk and big game farms, as well, particularly due to disease risks. Brucellosis is a major problem for wildlife and livestock in the Yellowstone Basin.
Nevada reports that big game farms are allowed in Nevada. Nevada has not had any problems as a result of big game farms. However, Nevada has only one big game farm in the entire state and it is a reindeer farm.
Wildlife Chief Tom Rienecker reported that Idaho Fish and Game once regulated elk farming in their state, but lost jurisdiction of elk farming to the Department of Agriculture as a result of pressure from elk farmers. Idaho has 20-30 big game ranches. Idaho has had problems with escapes and several law enforcement cases have been filed against suspects who have taken calves out of the wild for elk farming purposes. Disease has not been a problem for Idaho.
John Seidel, with Colorado Division of Wildlife, reported that the Division used to regulate big game farming until the big game breeders association petitioned for the Department of Agriculture to assume authority over big game farming because too many citations were issued to elk farms for violations. Colorado experienced numerous poaching incidents with elk calves from the wild and theft of whole herds of wild elk captured in private farms. Seidel reported that some of the larger "elk shooting ranches" have been investigated and charged with capturing wild herds of elk within the shooting preserve fences. Seidel reported that there have been documented problems with disease (TB); escaped hybrids and exotics; intrusion of rutting wild elk into game farms; massive recapture efforts for escapees and intruders; and loss of huge tracts of land fenced for shooting preserves/ranches. Based on their experiences, the Colorado Division of Wildlife wishes they did not have big game farms in Colorado. Seidel believes that CEBA would fight hard to open Utah to elk farming to provide a market for breeding stock in Utah ($3,000 & up for a bull and $8,000 & up for a breeding cow).
The Arizona Game and Fish Department reports that elk farming is legal in Arizona but the agency would not allow it if they had to do it all over again. Arizona reported the loss of huge blocks of land to fencing and some disease problems.
Alberta has allowed elk farming for a number of years. To date, Alberta has spent $10,000,000 and destroyed 2,000 elk in an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of tuberculosis. Based upon the game farming experiences of these states, their recommendation to Utah was not to allow elk farming.
The Division has contacted several state and federal veterinarians. The opinions of some agricultural veterinarians differed from wildlife veterinarians. Some veterinarians endorsed elk farming with the right regulatory safeguards. Other veterinarians opposed elk farming due to the risks to wildlife and livestock. This issue needs a more comprehensive review. The Division also contacted a Special Agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who conducted a covert investigation in Colorado to gather intelligence on elk farming and detect poaching activity of wild elk. Although poaching was not detected, the agent described his experience with pyramid schemes in elk sales; lack of a meat market; falsification of veterinarian records for farmed elk; escapes and intrusions between wild and captive elk; inadequate inspections by brand inspectors; transportation of TB infected elk; and the temperament of the elk themselves. The Colorado Elk Breeders Association (CEBA) told the Division that CEBA did not approve of elk poaching and has turned in fellow elk farmers for poaching live elk calves from the wild.
CEBA told Utah legislators that the Colorado Division of Wildlife did not like elk ranching at first, but has come to see that elk farming is not as bad as they originally thought it would be. The Colorado Division of Wildlife disagreed with CEBA's perception of their relationship.
snip...see more ;
CWD game meat from USA and Canada: lack of import controls
1,500 elk destroyed in hopes of eradicating CWD infection
Hunt farms voted out of Montana
Game farm rules argued pro and con in Montana
Big game, big business
Montana hunters blast game farms
Sunday, May 18, 2014
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE PRION DISEASE and the transmission to other species ***